Frantz Fanon known as Ibrahim Frantz Fanon, was a French West Indian psychiatrist and political philosopher from the French colony of Martinique, whose works are influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory and Marxism. As well as being an intellectual, Fanon was a political radical, Pan-Africanist, Marxist humanist concerned with the psychopathology of colonization and the human and cultural consequences of decolonization. In the course of his work as a physician and psychiatrist, Fanon supported the Algerian War of Independence from France and was a member of the Algerian National Liberation Front. For more than five decades, the life and works of Frantz Fanon have inspired national liberation movements and other radical political organizations in Palestine, Sri Lanka, South Africa, the United States, he formulated a model for community psychology, believing that many mental health patients would do better if they were integrated into their family and community instead of being treated with institutionalized care.
He helped found the field of institutional psychotherapy while working at Saint-Alban under Francois Tosquelles and Jean Oury. In What Fanon Said: A Philosophical Introduction To His Life And Thought, Lewis R. Gordon remarked that Fanon's contributions to the history of ideas are manifold, he is influential not only because of the originality of his thought but because of the astuteness of his criticisms. He developed a profound social existential analysis of antiblack racism, which led him to identify conditions of skewed rationality and reason in contemporary discourses on the human being. Fanon published numerous books, including The Wretched of the Earth; this influential work focuses on what he believes is the necessary role of violence by activists in conducting decolonization struggles. Frantz Fanon was born on the Caribbean island of Martinique, a French colony and is now a French single territorial collectivity, his father, Félix Casimir Fanon, was a descendant of African slaves and indentured Indians, worked as a customs agent.
His mother, Eléanore Médélice, was of Afro-Martinician and white Alsatian descent, worked as a shopkeeper. Frantz was the third of four sons in a family of eight children. Two of them died young, including his sister Gabrielle with whom Frantz was close, his family was socio-economically middle-class. They could afford the fees for the Lycée Schoelcher, at the time the most prestigious high school in Martinique, where Fanon came to admire one of the school's teachers and writer Aimé Césaire. Fanon left Martinique in 1943. After France fell to the Nazis in 1940, Vichy French naval troops were blockaded on Martinique. Forced to remain on the island, French sailors took over the government from the Martiniquan people and established a collaborationist Vichy regime. In the face of economic distress and isolation under the blockade, they instituted an oppressive regime. Residents made many complaints of harassment and sexual misconduct by the sailors; the abuse of the Martiniquan people by the French Navy influenced Fanon, reinforcing his feelings of alienation and his disgust with colonial racism.
At the age of seventeen, Fanon fled the island as a "dissident", traveling to British-controlled Dominica to join the Free French Forces. He joined an Allied convoy that reached Casablanca, he was transferred to an army base at Béjaïa on the Kabylie coast of Algeria. Fanon served in France, notably in the battles of Alsace. In 1944 he received the Croix de guerre; when the Nazis were defeated and Allied forces crossed the Rhine into Germany along with photo journalists, Fanon's regiment was "bleached" of all non-white soldiers. Fanon and his fellow Afro-Caribbean soldiers were sent to Toulon, they were transferred to Normandy to await repatriation. During the war, Fanon was exposed to more white European racism. For example, European women liberated by black soldiers preferred to dance with fascist Italian prisoners, rather than fraternize with their liberators. In 1945, Fanon returned to Martinique, he lasted a short time there. He worked for the parliamentary campaign of his friend and mentor Aimé Césaire, who would be a major influence in his life.
Césaire ran on the communist ticket as a parliamentary delegate from Martinique to the first National Assembly of the Fourth Republic. Fanon stayed long enough to complete his baccalaureate and went to France, where he studied medicine and psychiatry. Fanon was educated in Lyon, where he studied literature and philosophy, sometimes attending Merleau-Ponty's lectures. During this period, he wrote three plays. After qualifying as a psychiatrist in 1951, Fanon did a residency in psychiatry at Saint-Alban-sur-Limagnole under the radical Catalan psychiatrist François Tosquelles, who invigorated Fanon's thinking by emphasizing the role of culture in psychopathology. After his residency, Fanon practised psychiatry at Pontorson, near Mont Saint-Michel, for another year and in Algeria, he was chef de service at the Blida–Joinville Psychiatric Hospital in Algeria. He worked there until being deported in January 1957. In France while completing his residency, Fanon wrote and published his first book, Black Skin, White Masks, an analysis of the negative psychological effects of colonial subjugation upon black people.
The manuscript was the d
Beiqi Foton Motor Co. Ltd. is a Chinese company which designs and manufactures trucks, sport utility vehicles and agricultural machinery. It is headquartered in Changping, is a subsidiary of the BAIC Group. Founded on August 28, 1996, Foton manufactures light and heavy-duty trucks, agricultural tractors, various other machinery. In addition to the heavier trucks, Foton builds a copy of the Toyota HiAce H100, called the "Foton View" or "Foton Alpha". In August 2002, the company started producing Foton Auman truck. In March 2006 Foton and Cummins Inc. announced the creation of a 50:50 joint venture company, Beijing Foton Cummins Engine Company, to produce light-duty diesel engines, of 2.8 and 3.8 liter displacement. In October 2009 Foton agreed to form a joint venture to develop and produce vehicle batteries with Pulead Technology Industry Co. In July 2010 Foton announced the establishment of a European headquarters in Russia. Foton established a sales company in India in April 2011. In February 2012, Beiqi Foton Motors Co. Ltd. and Daimler AG established a 50-50 joint venture, Beijing Foton Daimler Automotive Cventure, at an investment of RMB6.35 billion.
The joint venture would take over Foton's existing Auman medium- and heavy-duty truck business, including production sites and service network. Foton will build an assembly plant in Colombia, in order to participate in the growing Latin American market for light commercial vehicles; the company plans to build a plant in Western Maharashtra, India. Foton has announced a bus factory in Brazil in the state of Bahia, as part of their globalization plan. Foton has held a press conference in 2015, previewing the Sauvana while announcing news to bring the brand to the United States. In September 2017 Foton and Piaggio agreed to form a joint venture to develop and produce light commercial vehicle. Based on Foton chassis the new vehicle was sold by Piaggio Commercial Vehicle division in Europe and in all market around the world but not in China; the vehicle was intended as a successor of the Piaggio Porter and production was planned to starts in the mid 2019 in Pontedera with all components produced by Foton in China.
In August 2018, Foton Motor announced they would set up a plant in Bangladesh by next year to assemble commercial vehicles in a joint venture with ACI Motors Foton is headquartered in Changping District, Beijing. Foton's business units are seen in cities and provinces such as Beijing, Shandong, Hunan, Hubei and Guangdong, its R&D branches are distributed in Japan, Germany and The Philippines. It has assets exceeding 300,000 employees. Foton, whose brand value exceeds 61.932 billion Yuan in 2005, ranked No.1 in auto industry and No. 11 in the “Top 500 Most Valuable Brands”. Foton business marquee consists of a branch in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Och motors LLC, one of the biggest conglomerate in Mongolia, is the official distributor of Foton in Mongolian market. Foton AUV Foton AUV New Directions Foton AUV panoramic Unlimited Foton AUV Pioneer Europe Brand name Foton Green Earth Foton Auman Foton Auman Jones Foton Auman Lion Foton Auman Kunlun Mountains Foton Auman Shenzhou Foton Auman H4 Foton Aumark Foton Aumark Foton Forland Foton Forland Foton Forland King Kong Foton Forland Ruiwo Foton Ollin Foton Ollin Beyond Foton Ollin MRI Gratour MPVs Gratour im6 Gratour im8 Gratour ix5 Gratour ix7 Foton Sauvana SUV Foton Tunland pickup Foton Tunland E3 Foton Tunland E5 Foton Tunland SFoton Saga Foton SUP SUVs sold under the Borgward Group brand.
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Paramjeet Kaur is an international athlete settled in Rajasthan, India. She won a gold medal in the women's 4X400m relay in the 2000 Asian Athletics Championships held in Jakarta, Indonesia, she represented India in the Sydney Olympics 2000 in the women's 4X400 relay event. She is the first woman athlete from Rajasthan to represent India in Olympics until 2000, she is the first woman Olympian from the Indian Revenue Service. Her moment of glory and pride came when she along with K. M. Beenamol, Jincy Philips, Manjula Kuriakose broke a 13-year-old national record in the women's 4x400 relay event in the Inter State Senior Athletics Championships held in Chennai, they clocked the world's sixth fastest time in the long relay in 2000. These quarter milers recorded a time of 3:28.11 sec, smashing the previous national record of 3:31.55 sec set in Rome in 1987 by one of Indian athletics' best relay squads, P. T. Usha, Shiny Abraham, Vandana Shanbagh, Vandana Rao, their time was better than the Asian Games record of 3:29.11 sec created by China in Hiroshima.
She was awarded "Best Athlete of the Meet" for various championships during her career including three consecutive years in Inter-University meet. Maharana Pratap Award from Government of Rajasthan Aravali Award from Maharaja of Udaipur Nahar Sanman Puruskar from Rajasthani Welfare Association Paramjeet Kaur is married to Vijay Kumar Chaudhary, a sports enthusiast, they have two children and Mansi. List of Rajasthan Olympians