The Pliocene Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP. It is the youngest epoch of the Neogene Period in the Cenozoic Era; the Pliocene is followed by the Pleistocene Epoch. Prior to the 2009 revision of the geologic time scale, which placed the four most recent major glaciations within the Pleistocene, the Pliocene included the Gelasian stage, which lasted from 2.588 to 1.806 million years ago, is now included in the Pleistocene. As with other older geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are uncertain; the boundaries defining the Pliocene are not set at an identified worldwide event but rather at regional boundaries between the warmer Miocene and the cooler Pliocene. The upper boundary was set at the start of the Pleistocene glaciations. Charles Lyell gave the Pliocene its name in Principles of Geology; the word pliocene comes from the Greek words πλεῖον and καινός and means "continuation of the recent", referring to the modern marine mollusc fauna.
H. W. Fowler called the term Pliocene a "regrettable barbarism" and an indication that "a good classical scholar" such as Lyell should have requested a philologist's help when coining words. To summarize the usage of these "regrettable barbarisms" in the labelling of the Cenozoic era: with the understanding that these are all new relative to the Mesozoic and Paleozoic eras. In the official timescale of the ICS, the Pliocene is subdivided into two stages. From youngest to oldest they are: Piacenzian Zanclean The Piacenzian is sometimes referred to as the Late Pliocene, whereas the Zanclean is referred to as the Early Pliocene. In the system of North American Land Mammal Ages include Hemphillian, Blancan; the Blancan extends forward into the Pleistocene. South American Land Mammal Ages include Montehermosan and Uquian. In the Paratethys area the Pliocene contains the Romanian stages; as usual in stratigraphy, there are many other local subdivisions in use. In Britain the Pliocene is divided into the following stages: Gedgravian, Pre-Ludhamian, Thurnian, Bramertonian or Antian, Pre-Pastonian or Baventian and Beestonian.
In the Netherlands the Pliocene is divided into these stages: Brunssumian C, Reuverian A, Reuverian B, Reuverian C, Tiglian A, Tiglian B, Tiglian C1-4b, Tiglian C4c, Tiglian C5, Tiglian C6 and Eburonian. The exact correlations between these local stages and the ICS stages is still a matter of detail; the global average temperature in the mid-Pliocene was 2–3 °C higher than today, carbon dioxide levels were the same as today, global sea level was 25 m higher. The northern hemisphere ice sheet was ephemeral before the onset of extensive glaciation over Greenland that occurred in the late Pliocene around 3 Ma; the formation of an Arctic ice cap is signaled by an abrupt shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic and North Pacific ocean beds. Mid-latitude glaciation was underway before the end of the epoch; the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas. Continents continued to drift, moving from positions as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current locations.
South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama during the Pliocene, making possible the Great American Interchange and bringing a nearly complete end to South America's distinctive large marsupial predator and native ungulate faunas. The formation of the Isthmus had major consequences on global temperatures, since warm equatorial ocean currents were cut off and an Atlantic cooling cycle began, with cold Arctic and Antarctic waters dropping temperatures in the now-isolated Atlantic Ocean. Africa's collision with Europe formed the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean; the border between the Miocene and the Pliocene is the time of the Messinian salinity crisis. Sea level changes exposed the land bridge between Asia. Pliocene marine rocks are well exposed in the Mediterranean and China. Elsewhere, they are exposed near shores. During the Pliocene parts of southern Norway and southern Sweden, near sea level rose. In Norway this rise elevated the Hardangervidda plateau to 1200 m in the Early Pliocene.
In Southern Sweden similar movements elevated the South Swedish highlands leading to a deflection of the ancient Eridanos river from its original path across south-central Sweden into a course south of Sweden. The change to a cooler, seasonal climate had considerable impacts on Pliocene vegetation, reducing tropical species worldwide. Deciduous forests proliferated, coniferous forests and tundra covered much of the north, grasslands spread on all continents. Tropical forests were limited to a tight band around the equator, in addition to dry savannahs, deserts appeared in Asia and Africa. Both marine and co
Canadian Northern Railway
The Canadian Northern Railway is a historic Canadian transcontinental railway. At its demise in 1923, when it was merged into the Canadian National Railway, the CNoR owned a main line between Quebec City and Vancouver via Ottawa and Edmonton. CNoR had its start in the independent branchlines that were being constructed in Manitoba in the 1880s and 1890s as a response to the monopoly exercised by Canadian Pacific Railway. Many of these branchlines were built with the sponsorship of the provincial government, which sought to subsidize local competition to the federally subsidized CPR. Two of these branchline contractors, Sir William Mackenzie and Sir Donald Mann, took control of the bankrupt Lake Manitoba Railway and Canal Company in January, 1896. Mackenzie and Mann expanded their enterprise, in 1897, by building further north into Manitoba's Interlake district as well as east and west of Winnipeg, they began building and buying lines south to connect the U. S. border at Pembina, North Dakota, east to Ontario.
The Canadian Northern Railway was established, in 1899, all railway companies owned by Mackenzie and Mann were consolidated into the new entity. CNoR's first step toward competing directly with CPR came at the start of the 20th century with the decision to build a line linking the Prairie Provinces with Lake Superior at the harbour in Port Arthur-Fort William which would permit the shipping of western grain to European markets as well as the transport of eastern Canadian goods to the West; this line incorporated an existing CNoR line to Lake of the Woods and two local Ontario railways, the Port Arthur and Western Railway and the Ontario and Rainy River Railway whose charters Mackenzie and Mann had acquired in 1897. To reach Port Arthur which became the lake terminus of the CNoR, the line extended south of Lake of the Woods into northern Minnesota before heading northeast through Rainy River District to the head of navigation on the Great Lakes; the Winnipeg-Port Arthur line was completed on December 30, 1901 with the last spike being driven just east of Atikokan station by Ontario's Commissioner of Crown Lands, Elihu Davis.
Throughout this time and Mann had been busy expanding their prairie branch line network to feed the connection to Port Arthur. This network expanded in subsequent years to cover most parts of the prairies. In 1903, the federal government and Grand Trunk Railway were seeking a 2nd transcontinental railway for Canada and approached Mackenzie and Mann to seek their co-operation; this effort was spurned and GTR and the federal government would go on to form a system composed of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway and the National Transcontinental Railway. Mackenzie and Mann began their first significant expansion outside of the prairies with the purchase of Great Lakes steamships, the fr:Quebec and Lake St-John Railway into northern Quebec's Saguenay region and the acquisition of branchlines in southwestern Nova Scotia and western Cape Breton Island. Other acquisitions were in southern Ontario and a connecting line was built from Toronto to Parry Sound. In 1905, CNoR reached Edmonton, which had just been named capital of the newly formed province of Alberta.
In Eastern Canada, in 1908, a line was built east from a connection at Capreol, Ontario, on the Toronto – Parry Sound line to Ottawa and on to Montreal. In 1910 a direct Toronto–Montreal line was built. In 1911, federal funding was made available for construction of the line Montreal – Ottawa – Capreol – Port Arthur. In 1912, with GTR and CPR holding the ideal southern routes around Mount Royal to downtown Montreal, CNoR started building a double-tracked mainline north by building the Mount Royal Tunnel under the mountain. In western Canada, in 1910 construction was started on the line west of Edmonton through Yellowhead Pass to Vancouver, thanks to subsidies provided by the government of British Columbia. In 1911, work was started on a new townsite named Port Mann on the Fraser River that would accommodate the new car shops and from where lines would extend to Vancouver and to the delta of the Fraser River CNoR's initial expansion in the 1890s and 1900s had been frugal by acquiring bankrupt companies or finishing failed construction projects.
By the 1910s, significant expenses were adding up from the construction north of Lake Superior and the Mount Royal Tunnel, but the largest costs were from building on "the wrong side" of the Thompson and Fraser rivers in the mountains of British Columbia. CPR had trackage on the desirable eastern side, leading to the port of Vancouver, forcing CNoR to blast tunnels and ledges out of these canyons; the most infamous construction folly on the CNoR in British Columbia happened in 1913, when blasting for a passage for the railway at Hells Gate triggered an enormous landslide which blocked the narrow swift-flowing Fraser River. The resulting damage to Pacific salmon runs took decades to reverse by the governmental construction of fishways. In addition to difficult construction between Jasper and Vancouver, CNoR started construction west of Edmonton in 1910 two years than GTPR, which had started construction east from Prince Rupert in the Skeena River, leading to Yellowhead Pass. In 1910 the company entered the trans-Atlantic liner business with the founding of the Canadian Northern Steamship Company.
The subsidiary acquired two liners from the Egyptian Mail Steamship Company and operated them under its Royal Line brand. The pair of ships were renamed upon purchase—Cairo became Royal Edward and Heliopolis became Royal
Boston Bar, British Columbia
Boston Bar is an unincorporated town in the Fraser Canyon of the Canadian province of British Columbia. The name dates from the time of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. A "bar" is a gold-bearing sandbar or sandy riverbank, the one down river and opposite today's town was populated by Americans, who were known in the parlance of the Chinook Jargon as "Boston men" or "Bostons". A settlement developed on the east bank of the river to the north of the confluence with Anderson River; this was moved to the present site with the construction of Canadian Northern Pacific Railway. The original Nlaka'pamux name of Boston Bar was rendered in English-style spelling as Quayome, which appears on frontier-era maps and in diaries and newspapers of the day; the name referred to the other side of the river from today's town, but came into use for the present site after the original was renamed North Bend by the Canadian Pacific Railway. In June 2011, Boston Bar unofficially changed its name to "Vancouver Bar", in an effort to support the nearby Vancouver Canucks hockey team of the NHL in the Stanley Cup Finals as they took on the Boston Bruins.
This follows major retailers such as Boston Pizza unofficially changing their name to "Vancouver Pizza" during the same round of the playoffs. Across the Fraser River is the small town of North Bend, which could only be accessed by rail or by aerial ferry until January 1986 when the two lane bridge was built; the Canadian Pacific Railway has a small terminal here, the half way point between Vancouver and Kamloops. The building of the railway played an important role in this region, first with the construction of the CPR line later the Canadian Northern Railway line on the Boston Bar side of the river. Boston Bar is a Canadian National Railway divisional point, where the Ashcroft Subdivision from Kamloops to Boston Bar joins the Yale Subdivision from Boston Bar to Vancouver. North Bend is at the doorstep of the Nahatlatch Valley, a chain of three lakes and the Nahatlatch River. Boston Bar sits in a pocket climate created by the confines of the canyon, though on the edge of the coastal temperate zone just to the south, its climate is subject to the seasonal extremes of temperature common in the interior of the province.
It enjoys 4 distinct seasons with temperatures reaching up to 35-40°C in the summer and down to -5 to -10°C in the winter. It is notably the first place inland up the Fraser Canyon where rainfall levels are markedly lower than the rainier stretches from Yale and Spuzzum north to Hell's Gate; the climate is transitional between marine west coast and continental. The heaviest precipitation occurs in winter, which has the strongest marine influence in most years; the continental influence is most pronounced in summer, hot. The vegetation has a mixture of rain forest and dry interior plant species with bigleaf maple and western red cedar prominent among the rain forest species and ponderosa pine standing tall as one of the Interior species. Douglas-fir is the most common tree. Boston Bar is in wet warm subzone. One consequence of the climate is that Boston Bar is in the range of the northern Pacific rattlesnake, common in areas farther upstream along the Fraser and Thompson Rivers. Boston Bar has a warm-summer mediterranean climate..
Boston Bar railway station List of Chinook Jargon placenames
The Thompson River is the largest tributary of the Fraser River, flowing through the south-central portion of British Columbia, Canada. The Thompson River has the South Thompson River and the North Thompson River; the river is home to several varieties of Pacific salmon and trout. The area's geological history was influenced by glaciation, the several large glacial lakes have filled the river valley over the last 12,000 years. Archaeological evidence shows human habitation in the watershed dating back at least 8,300 years; the Thompson was named by Fraser River explorer, Simon Fraser, in honour of his friend, Columbia Basin explorer David Thompson. Recreational use of the river includes whitewater angling; the South Thompson originates at the outlet of Little Shuswap Lake at the town of Chase and flows 55 kilometres southwest through a wide valley to Kamloops where it joins the North Thompson. Highway 1, the Trans-Canada Highway and the mainline of the Canadian Pacific Railway parallel the river.
Little Shuswap Lake is fed by the Little River, which drains Shuswap Lake, fed by several rivers and creeks. The North Thompson originates at the toe of the Thompson Glacier in the Cariboo Mountains west of the community of Valemount and flows south towards Kamloops and the confluence with the South Thompson. For most of its length, the river is paralleled by Highway 5, the Canadian National Railway; the North Thompson passes by several small communities, the most notable being Blue River, Clearwater & Barriere. The North Thompson picks up the Clearwater River at the town of Clearwater; the Clearwater, the North Thompson's largest tributary, drains much of Wells Gray Provincial Park. A notable feature along the North Thompson is Little Hells Gate, a mini-replica of the much larger rapid on the Fraser downstream from the mouth of the Thompson. About 17.4 kilometres upstream from the small town of Avola, the river is forced through a narrow chute only about 30 feet wide creating a rapid that resembles the Fraser's famous rapid.
At Kamloops, the combined Thompson River river flows 15 kilometres from the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers before reaching Kamloops Lake, 30 kilometres in length, ending at the town of Savona. From there it flows in a meandering course westwards through a broad valley area. At Ashcroft, the Thompson Canyon begins and the river turns southwestward to its confluence with the Fraser; the river is paralleled by the Trans-Canada Highway, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canadian National Railway. From Ashcroft to Lytton, the river is confined within Thompson Canyon, making for spectacular scenery; the Thompson River joins the Fraser River in Lytton. There is a striking stretch of dark black cliffside just downstream from Ashcroft and visible from the Logan Lake-Ashcroft highway is named the Black Canyon. Just below the town of Spences Bridge was the site of a major rail disaster in the early 20th Century. Communities along this section are Bighorn, Shaw Springs, Goldpan; the Thompson River valley has existed in some form for at least 50 million years.
Geologists believe water from the river flowed northward, through the Cariboo region entering what is the modern-day Peace River drainage basin and ending up in the Arctic Ocean. This flow direction is estimated to have ended 2 million years ago, as the Pleistocene era of heavy glaciation began. During the era of massive glaciers in the Thompson River valley, water from the area drained eastward, through the Shuswap Lake area into what is now the Columbia River drainage; this flow direction was influenced by large ice buildups in the Thompson valley, which created extensive glacial lakes. Two large glacial lakes, Glacial Lake Thompson and Glacial Lake Deadman, occupied much of the modern river's course from 13,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE; these deep, ribbon-shaped lakes held large volumes of water. The lake stretched from Spences Bridge in the west to the eastern reaches of Shuswap Lake, as well as far up the northern reaches of the North Thompson river valley; the last large glacial lake, Lake Deadman, was drained by a catastrophic ice dam failure, called a jökulhlaup, in about 10,000 BCE.
This event released as much as 20 cubic kilometres of water southwest into the Fraser River system depositing sediments as far away as the Salish Sea, more than 250 kilometres away. From this point, the Thompson waters stopped flowing eastward into the Columbia River system, the river became a tributary of the Fraser; because of large deposits of glacial silt and gravel in the lower Thompson River valley, large landslides are common. The area downstream from the town of Ashcroft is prone to landslide events. Several of them have obstructed the river, caused large, temporary lakes. An 1880 slide caused the formation of a short-lived lake over 14 kilometers long with a maximum depth of 18 meters; these slides have caused major damage to the rail lines and farming operations in the river valley. Heavy irrigation has been blamed for some of the events; the Interior region of British Columbia was first populated after the retreat of the continental ice sheets of the last ice age. The ice moved out of the Thompson River region 11,000 BCE, migration by the ancestors of the Nlaka'pamux and Secwepemc people is thought to have occurred soon after.
Some of th
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta
Tête Jaune Cache, British Columbia
Tête Jaune Cache is an unincorporated rural area and the site of an important abandoned historic town in British Columbia, Canada. Its population is 500, it is located on the Fraser River in the Robson Valley at the intersection of Yellowhead Highways 5 and 16. Tête Jaune Cache is located 18 km north of Valemount, B. C. 101 km west of Jasper, Alberta, 241 km east of Prince George, B. C. and 332 km north of Kamloops, B. C. by road. Tête Jaune Cache was named after a Métis fur trader and trapper named Pierre Bostonais who guided for the Hudson's Bay Company in the 1800s. Bostonais was nicknamed Tête Jaune by the French voyageurs because of his blonde hair; the Secwepemc First Nations people had an established village of tents and pit houses on the banks of the Fraser in this area rich in salmon and wild berries when discovered by Bostonais, but the townsite land of Tête Jaune Cache was located in 1901 and crown-granted in 1902. During the construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Tête Jaune Cache was a prosperous community and was the head of navigation for the paddle steamers of Foley and Stewart and the BC Express Company.
The town was a booming collection of lumber shacks and log houses which brought thousands of pioneers, prospectors and entrepreneurs to the Robson Valley. Major industries in historic Tête Jaune were timber, steamship trade, mining for the locally abundant mica; some of the largest and cleanest sheets of mica extracted in the era of its highest demand came from this region, the remains of one such mine can still be found on the popular Mica Mountain hiking trail. The pool halls, restaurants, lady barbers and trading posts are no more, with only a few stone chimneys remaining as evidence of this bustling town's existence, but the Valley Museum and Archives in McBride, as well as the Valemount Historical Society maintains an excellent collection of photographs from the heyday of this boom town, c. 1910-1918. The area under the aegis of Tête Jaune Cache is home to Hauer Brothers' Sawmill, as well as a few small businesses specializing in custom timber milling, guided flyfishing, whitewater rafting, snowcat skiing, bed and breakfast accommodation.
In August 1916, the Simpcw people of the Tête Jaune Cache were forcibly relocated out of the area to Chu Chua and other places. The people were made to travel the 300 kilometres by foot. In August 2016 events were held to mark the 100th anniversary of that event; the people of the Simpcw First Nation have made applications to the government to have lands at Tête Jaune Cache formally recognized. Tête Jaune Cache is an ecologically rich forest habitat for trees including Lodgepole pine, Trembling Aspen, Western red cedar, Paper birch and Douglas fir; the shoals found where the McLennan River and Tête Creek join the Fraser River are some of the most important spawning grounds for Chinook Salmon at the end of their annual 1,200 km run from the Pacific Ocean. These creeks, as well as Kiwa Creek to the north, are fed directly by meltwater from the glaciers and icefields of the Premier Range of the Cariboo Mountains. Tête Jaune Cache lies on the Canadian National Railway transcontinental main line at the point where the line from and to the east junctions in a wye with the main line branches heading to and coming from Prince Rupert at the west and Vancouver at the southwest.
Via Rail's Jasper – Prince Rupert train calls at the nearby Harvey railway station on the Prince Rupert main line, the community is passed but not served by Via transcontinental Canadian trains on the Vancouver main line. New Rivers of the North by Hulbert Footner