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Fraser Canyon Gold Rush

The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, began in 1858 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton. The rush overtook the region around the discovery, was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet. Though the rush was over by 1927, miners from the rush spread out and found a sequence of other gold fields throughout the British Columbia Interior and North, most famously that in the Cariboo; the rush is credited with instigating European-Canadian settlement on the mainland of British Columbia. It was the catalyst for the founding of the Colony of British Columbia, the building of early road infrastructure, the founding of many towns. Although the area had been mined for a few years, news of the strike spread to San Francisco when the governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island, James Douglas, sent a shipment of ore to that city's mint.

People in San Francisco and the California gold fields greeted the news with excitement. Within a month 30,000 men had descended upon Victoria. 4000 of these Gold Rush pioneers settlers were Chinese. Until that time, the village had had a population of only about 500; this was a record for mass movement of mining populations on the North American frontier though more men in total were involved in the California and Colorado By the fall, tens of thousands of men who had failed to stake claims, or were unable to because of the summer's high water on the river, pronounced the Fraser to be "humbug". Many returned to San Francisco. A continuing influx of newcomers replaced the disenchanted, with more men storming the route of the Douglas Road to the upper part of Fraser Canyon around Lillooet. All these routes were technically illegal since the Governor required that entry to the colony to be made via Victoria, but thousands came overland anyway. Accurate numbers of miners on the upper Fraser, are therefore difficult to reckon.

During the gold rush tens of thousands of prospectors from California flooded into the newly declared Colony of British Columbia and disrupted the established balance between the Hudson's Bay Company's fur traders and indigenous peoples. The influx of prospectors included numerous European Americans and African Americans, Germans, English Canadians, French Canadians, Italians and French, other European ethnicities, Chinese, West Indians, others. Many of those first-arrived of European and British origin were Californian by culture, this included Maritimers such as Amor De Cosmos and others; the numbers of "Americans" associated with the gold rush must be understood to be inherently European-ethnic to start with. Anglo-American Southerners and New Englanders were well represented. Alfred Waddington, an entrepreneur and pamphleteer of the gold rush infamous for the disastrous road-building expedition which led to the Chilcotin War of 1864, estimated there were 10,500 miners on the Fraser at the peak of the gold rush.

This estimate did not include the non-mining "hangers-on" population. When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Richard Clement Moody was hand-picked by the Colonial Office, under Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to establish British order and to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west" and "found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody arrived in British Columbia in December 1858, commanding the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment. Moody had hoped to begin the foundation of a capital city, but upon his arrival at Fort Langley he learned of an outbreak of violence at the settlement of Hill's Bar; this led to an incident popularly known as "Ned McGowan's War", where Moody quashed a group of rebellious American miners. Governor Douglas placed restrictions on immigration to the new British colony, including the proviso that entry to the territory must be made via Victoria and not overland, but thousands of men still arrived via the Okanagan and Whatcom Trails.

Douglas sought to limit the importation of weapons, one of the reasons for the Victoria-disembarkation requirement, but his lack of resources for oversight meant that overland routes to the goldfields could not be controlled. During the fall of 1858, tensions increased between miners and the Nlaka'pamux, the First Nations people of the Canyon; this led to the Fraser Canyon War. Miners wary of venturing upriver beyond Yale began to use the Lakes Route to Lillooet instead, prompting Douglas to contract for the building of the Douglas Road, the Mainland Colony's first public works project; the governor arrived in Yale to accept the apologies of the Americans who had waged war on the natives. Wanting to make the British military and governmental presence more visible, Douglas appointed justices of the peace and revised the slapdash mining rules which had emerged along the river. Troops to maintain order, were still in short supply. Competition and interracial tensions between European Americans and non-white miners erupted on Christmas Eve 1858, with the beating of Isaac Dixon, a freed American black.

He was the town barber and in years was a popular journalist in the Cariboo. Dixon was beaten by two men from Hill's Bar, the other main town in the southern part of the goldfields; the complicated series of events that ensued is known as McGowan's War. Its potential to provoke United State

Entropia Universe

Entropia Universe is a massively multiplayer online virtual universe designed by the Swedish software company MindArk, based in Gothenburg. Entropia uses a micropayment business model, in which players may buy in-game currency with real money that can be redeemed back into U. S. dollars at a fixed exchange rate of 10:1. This means that virtual items acquired within Entropia Universe have a real cash value, a participant may, at any time, initiate a withdrawal of their accumulated PED back into U. S. dollars according to the fixed exchange rate, minus transaction fees. The Entropia Universe is a direct continuation of Project Entropia. Entropia Universe entered the Guinness World Records Book in both 2004 and 2008 for the most expensive virtual world objects sold. In 2009, a virtual space station, a popular destination, sold for $330,000; this was eclipsed in November 2010 when Jon Jacobs sold a club named "Club Neverdie" for $635,000. In 2014, Planet Arkadia started selling 200,000 Arkadia Underground Deeds valued at $5.00 USD each, making the Arkadia Underground valued at $1 million.

The game can be played for free, but spending money on the in-game currency allows significant additional options like purchasing items, deeds/shares, services from other players. Nearly all of the main in-game activities, require expendable resources, which must be purchased from vending machines; these items are either expended during each try, or they decay with use and will require repairing eventually. Many items are now - meaning they are limited and cannot be repaired causing the player to have to buy another when it is decayed to the extent it can no longer be used; this decay and expending of consumables encourages people to craft the items other players may need, promoting a thriving market in the items and ingredients needed to craft. However it is difficult to craft items; the three main activities have loot returns which appear random, but have been confirmed to be influenced by the equipment and activity, of the avatar. The better matched the skills and area of the activity, the more the player will have a'success' - determined as either a hit, an evade or dodge, a successful craft or the finding of an ore or enmatter.

Skills are gained from either hitting, being hit, crafting or mining. These skills can be sold to other players. There is no account connection charge; the in-game activities that do not require PED are: sweating creatures, walking around looking for fruit/stones/dung on the ground, socializing. Event organizing. Trading, or reselling requires some PED to start up and much of your time will be spent advertising and building a contact network of sellers and buyers. Players have the option of depositing large amounts of cash for investment in trading, as there are player controlled shops and market stalls they can purchase outright, in various towns in the game, or starting small buying small amounts of ore, sweat, fruit etc. from players and either manufacturing other items from them or consolidating the small amounts into larger piles and placing them on the auction house for sale. It has been reported that long term returns from hunting, mining or crafting are in the region of 95% of the costs of the activity.

Short term and successes can swing wildly. Before beginning the game, a player has to choose a name for his or her avatar, which must be a first name, a last name, a nickname; the name can not have any profanities in it and can never be changed, unless MindArk thinks the name is inappropriate. Next, the new player will need to customize their avatar. During the process of creating an avatar, the player is asked for some personal information; this does not show up in-game, is only used by MindArk to verify a player's identity when they want to withdraw money from the game. After initial creation, further physical modifications can only be achieved through services offered by other users. Unlike most other MMOs, each person is only allowed one avatar, having more than one could cause a player to be banned from the game, losing any funds they have invested in the game; this measure is implemented to disallow players from having the opportunity to cheat or farm, which could negatively influence the game and its players due to the real money, involved.

Entropia Universe was released in 2003 with only one planet, named Calypso. A second planet was opened on April 2010, called ROCKtropia, it is developed by Neverdie Studios. The theme of this planet is "music" and "pop culture", seen throughout the planet; the third planet to be released was Next Island on December 8, 2010. The theme of this planet is "paradise", with landscapes; the fourth planet launched was Arkadia, on May 25, 2011, with a theme of "treasure hunting", which takes place both in-game and outside the game. The fifth planet to be launched was Cyrene, opened May 1, 2012, by Di

Dermot Weld

Dermot K. Weld is one of Ireland's most successful racehorse trainers, he holds the record for the most winners trained in Ireland. Educated at Newbridge College, a qualified veterinarian and former jockey, Weld maintains his stable, Rosewell House, in Curragh, Ireland, he is married, with two sons. Irish bookmakers, Paddy Power, tried to launch a campaign to change the name of the Galway Races to the Dermot Weld Retirement Fund Races, he was played by Brendan Gleeson in the feature film The Cup. Ireland Irish 1000 Guineas - - Prince's Polly, Trusted Partner, Bethrah Irish 2000 Guineas - - Flash of Steel Irish Derby - - Zagreb, Grey Swallow, Harzand Irish Oaks - - Blue Wind, Dance Design Irish St Leger - - Vintage Crop, Vinnie Roe, Voleuse de Coeurs, Search For A Song Matron Stakes - - Valley Forge, Dress to Thrill, Emulous Moyglare Stud Stakes - - Flutter Away National Stakes - - Diamonds Are Trumps, Day Is Done, Definite Article, Mus-If, Refuse to Bend Phoenix Stakes - - Kilijaro, Smokey Lady Pretty Polly Stakes - - Market Booster, Dance Design, Chinese White Tattersalls Gold Cup - - Cockney Lass, Definite Article, Dance Design, Grey Swallow, Casual Conquest, Fascinating Rock Alanna Homes Champion Novice Hurdle - - Treble Bob Arkle Novice Chase - - General Idea Champion Four Year Old Hurdle - - Allen’s Mistake, Hisaabaat Champion INH Flat Race - - Hidden Universe Chanelle Pharma Novice Hurdle - - Midsummer Gamble, General Idea December Festival Hurdle - - Fortune and Fame, Unaccompanied Herald Champion Novice Hurdle - - Fortune and Fame Irish Champion Hurdle - - Fortune and Fame Ryanair Gold Cup - - General Idea Savills Chase - - General Idea Spring Juvenile Hurdle - - Iron County Xmas, Hisaabaat Australia Melbourne Cup - - Vintage Crop, Media Puzzle France Prix de l'Abbaye de Longchamp - - Committed Prix Royal-Oak - - Vinnie Roe Germany Bayerisches Zuchtrennen - - Market Booster Great Britain 2000 Guineas - - Refuse to Bend Ascot Gold Cup - - Rite of Passage Champion Stakes - - Fascinating Rock Cheveley Park Stakes - - Sookera Coronation Stakes - - Sutton Place Golden Jubilee Stakes - - Committed, Big Shuffle Middle Park Stakes - - Steel Heart Nunthorpe Stakes - - Committed Epsom Derby - - Harzand Epsom Oaks - - Blue Wind Prince of Wales's Stakes - - Free Eagle St. James's Palace Stakes - - Brief Truce Sun Chariot Stakes - - Dress to Thrill Anniversary 4-Y-O Novices' Hurdle - - Dark Raven Baring Bingham Novices' Hurdle - - Windsor Park Champion Bumper - - Silver Concorde Triumph Hurdle - - Rare Holiday Hong Kong Hong Kong Mile - - Additional Risk Italy Derby Italiano - - In a Tiff United States American Derby - - Pine Dance, Evolving Tactics, Simple Exchange American Oaks - - Dimitrova Belmont Stakes - - Go and Go Flower Bowl Invitational Stakes - - Dimitrova Man o' War Stakes - - Zhukova Secretariat Stakes - - Winchester Go Racing Ireland: Dermot Weld Profile.

Access date 2007-11-25. Weld Seals Irish Success. BBC Sport, 5 November 2002. Access date 2007-11-26

Whisby

Whisby is a hamlet in the civil parish of Doddington and Whisby, in the North Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated 5 miles south-west from Lincoln city centre, 1.5 miles south from Doddington, 2 miles north from the A46 road. Between Whisby and Thorpe on the Hill, 3 miles to the south, is Whisby Moor, which includes a nature park run by the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust. Whisby has a garden centre. In 2011 the A46 road underwent reconstruction just outside Whisby; this included the building of a roundabout on the road. The Nottingham to Lincoln railway line passes 0.5 miles to the south of the village on Station Road, at a level crossing next to the Railway Inn. Media related to Whisby at Wikimedia Commons "Doddington and Whisby Parish Council", Lincolnshire.gov.uk. Retrieved 23 December 2011 "Doddington", Genuki.org.uk. Retrieved 23 December 2011

Wilbur Cush

Wilbur W. "Billy" Cush was a Northern Irish football striker. He was died in Lurgan, Northern Ireland. Cush represented Northern Ireland at the 1958 World Cup, scoring the winning goal in their first final stages World Cup match, a 1–0 win over Czechoslovakia in Sweden. In total he scored 5 goals for Northern Ireland, he started his career in his native Northern Ireland with Glenavon F. C.. In 1956/57, he was named as the Ulster Footballer of the Year, he moved to Leeds United in 1957 and took over the captaincy from departed Leeds legend John Charles. Cush was a versatile player who could play at centre-back and centre-forward, his performances at Elland Road earned him his call up to Northern Ireland for the 1958 World Cup. Overall at Leeds he scored 9 goals. In 1960 he moved to Portadown F. C. moving back to his first club, Glenavon F. C. as a player and a coach. With his football career over, Wilbur became a butcher in Lurgan, he died in 1981. Wilbur Cush was a platoon Sergeant in the Ulster Special Constabulary.

He served in The Birches station County Armagh. He received the USC Long Service Medal. Ulster Footballer of the Year Wilbur Cush at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database Profile`

Outline of Buddhism

Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions and practices based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama known as the Buddha, "the awakened one". The following outline is provided as an overview of, topical guide to, Buddhism. Gautama Buddha Tathāgata — meaning "Thus Come One" and "Thus Gone One" the epithet the Buddha uses most to refer to himself, it was founded in India. It is conservative, closer to early Buddhism, for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka and most of continental Southeast Asia. Bangladesh: Sangharaj Nikaya Mahasthabir Nikaya Burma: Thudhamma Nikaya Vipassana tradition of Mahasi Sayadaw Shwekyin Nikaya Dvaya Nikaya or Dvara Nikaya Cambodia Laos Sri Lanka: Siam Nikaya Amarapura Nikaya Ramañña Nikaya Thailand: Maha Nikaya Dhammakaya Movement Thammayut Nikaya Thai Forest Tradition Tradition of Ajahn Chah Mahayana — the "Great Vehicle", it is the largest school of Buddhism, originated in India; the term is used for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.

According to the teachings of Mahāyāna traditions, "Mahāyāna" refers to the path of seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings called "Bodhisattvayāna", or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle." Madhyamaka Prāsangika Svatantrika Sanlun Sanron Maha-Madhyamaka Yogācāra Cittamatra in Tibet Wei-Shi or Faxiang Beopsang Hossō Tathagatagarbha Daśabhūmikā Huayan Hwaeom Kegon Chán / Zen / Seon / Thien Caodong Sōtō Keizan line Jakuen line Giin line Linji Rinzai Ōbaku Fuke Won Buddhism: Korean Reformed Buddhism Pure Land Jodo Shu Jodo Shinshu Tiantai Cheontae Tendai Nichiren Nichiren Shū Nichiren Shōshū Nipponzan Myōhōji Soka Gakkai Vajrayana Tibetan Buddhism Nyingma New Bön Kadam Sakya Ngor-pa Tsar-pa Jonang Gelug Kagyu: Shangpa Kagyu Marpa Kagyu: Rechung Kagyu Dagpo Kagyu: Karma Kagyu Tsalpa Kagyu Baram Kagyu Pagtru Kagyu: Taglung Kagyu Trophu Kagyu Drukpa Kagyu Martsang Kagyu Yerpa Kagyu Yazang Kagyu Shugseb Kagyu Drikung Kagyu Rime movement Japanese Mikkyo Shingon Tendai Early Buddhist schools Mahāsaṃghika Ekavyahārikas Lokottaravāda Golulaka Bahuśrutīya Prajñaptivāda Caitika Apara Śaila Uttara Śaila Cetiyavāda Sthaviravāda Pudgalavāda Vatsīputrīya name: Saṃmitīya Dharmottarīya Bhadrayānīya Sannāgarika Vibhajjavāda Theravāda Mahīśāsaka Dharmaguptaka Sarvāstivāda Kāśyapīya Sautrāntika Mūlasarvāstivāda Vaibhashika Buddhist modernism Humanistic Buddhism Sōka Gakkai Vipassana movement New Kadampa Tradition Friends of the Western Buddhist Order Fo Guang Shan Buddhism by country Buddhism by country Buddhism in the East Buddhism in South Asia Tamil Buddhism Buddhism in Central Asia Buddhism in Southeast Asia East Asian Buddhism Buddhism in the Middle East Buddhism in the West Buddhism in the Americas Buddhism in Central America Buddhism in Australia Buddhism in Europe Buddhism in Africa Buddhist texts Pali literature Pāli Canon Vinaya Pitaka — Basket of Discipline Suttavibhanga Patimokkha — Buddhist Monastic Code Khandhaka Mahāvagga Cullavagga Parivara Sutta Pitaka — Basket of Discourses Digha Nikaya — the Long Discourses Brahmaja