The mellophone is a three-valved brass instrument pitched in the key of F or E♭. It has a conical bore, like that of the flugelhorn; the mellophone is used as the middle-voiced brass instrument in marching bands and drum and bugle corps in place of French horns, can be used to play French horn parts in concert bands and orchestras. These instruments are used instead of French horns for marching because their bells face forward instead of to the back, as dissipation of the sound becomes a concern in the open-air environment of marching. Tuning is done by adjusting the tuning slide, unlike the French horn where the pitch is affected by the hand position in the bell. Fingerings for the mellophone are the same as fingerings for the trumpet, alto horn, most valved brass instruments. Owing to its use outside concert music, there is little solo literature for the mellophone, other than that used within drum and bugle corps; the present-day mellophone has three valves, operated with the right hand. Mellophone fingering is the same as trumpet, depending on which key it is in.
It is pitched lower, in the key of F or E♭. The overtone series of the F mellophone is an octave above that of the F horn; the tubing length of a mellophone is the same as that of the F-alto single horn or the F-alto branch of a triple horn or double-descant horn. The direction of the bell as well as the much-reduced amount of tubing make the mellophone look like a large trumpet; the mellophone uses the same mouthpiece as the alto horn, in between the size of a trombone and trumpet mouthpiece. This mouthpiece has a deep cup, like that of the flugelhorn, has a wider inner diameter than a trumpet mouthpiece; these mouthpieces give the mellophone a round sound. Some trumpet players who double on mellophone use a trumpet-style parabolic mouthpiece on the instrument, resulting in a much brighter, more trumpet-like sound. Horn players doubling on mellophone use a smaller, conical mouthpiece, as used on French horns, with an adapter to allow them to fit in the larger-bore leadpipe of the mellophone; this style mouthpiece gives the instrument a warmer sound than using a trumpet mouthpiece, allows French horn players to play the mellophone without changing their embouchure between the two instruments.
Two instruments carry the name mellophone: Traditional mellophones with a rear or sideways facing bell similar to the french horn). The marching mellophone, with a forward-facing bell. In general, the mellophone has its origin in the horn design boom of the 19th century; the earliest version was the Koenig horn, based on a design by Herman Koenig, but manufactured by Antoine Courtois, who may have played a significant role in its design. Courtois had just won the right to manufacture the saxhorn, in a lawsuit against the inventor of the saxophone, Adolphe Sax; the Koenig horn had three piston valves — the kind used on a modern trumpet, which were a new technology at that time — and was otherwise shaped somewhat like a modern French horn, but smaller. This shape was influenced by the post horn. Köhler & Son began using the name "mellophone" for its line of horns based loosely on similar instruments by Distin; these were post horn-like instruments with valves, but the mouthpieces and bell angle were evolving to allow for more projection and control of sound with the technology of valves.
The traditional instrument is visually modeled on the horn, with a round shape and a rear-facing bell. Unlike French horns, it is played with the right hand, the bell points to the rear left of the player, it was used as an alto voice both outdoors and indoors by community and school bands in place of the French horn. The manufacture of these instruments declined in the mid-twentieth century, they are in use today. Mellophone bugles keyed in G were manufactured for American drum and bugle corps from the 1950s until around 2000 when Drum Corps International changed the rules to allow brass instruments in any key. Modern marching mellophones are more directly related to bugle-horns such as the flugelhorn and tuba, their tube profile is more conical than the trumpet or trombone. The marching mellophone is used in place of the horn for marching because it is a bell-front instrument allowing projection of the sound in the direction that the player is facing; this is important in drum corps and marching bands because the audience is on only one side of the band.
There are marching B♭ French horns with a bell-front configuration. Mellophones are constructed with a smaller bore for louder volume than marching French horns. Marching B♭ horns do use a horn mouthpiece and have a more French horn-like sound but are more difficult to play on the field. Another factor in the greater use of mellophones is its ease of use as compared to the difficulty of playing a French horn well. In a French horn, the length of tubing make the partials much closer together than other brass instruments in their normal range and, harder to play accurately; the F mellophone has tubing half the length of a French horn, which gives it an overtone series more similar to a trumpet and most other brass instruments. In summary, the mellophone is an instrument designed to bring the approximate sound of a horn in a package, conducive to playing while marching. Outside a marching setting, the traditional French horn is ubiquitous and the mellophone is used, though they can be used to play French horn
Randolph Denard Ornette Coleman was an American jazz saxophonist, violinist and composer. In the 1960s, he was one of the founders of free jazz, a term he invented for his album Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation, his "Broadway Blues" and "Lonely Woman" have become standards and are cited as important early works in free jazz. His album Sound Grammar received the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for music. Coleman was born on 1930 in Fort Worth, Texas where he was raised, he attended I. M. Terrell High School, where he participated in band until he was dismissed for improvising during "The Washington Post" march, he began performing R&B and bebop on tenor saxophone and started The Jam Jivers with Prince Lasha and Charles Moffett. Eager to leave town, he accepted a job in 1949 with a Silas Green from New Orleans traveling show and with touring rhythm and blues shows. After a show in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, he was assaulted and his saxophone was destroyed, he switched to alto saxophone, which remained his primary instrument, first playing it in New Orleans after the Baton Rouge incident.
He joined the band of Pee Wee Crayton and traveled with them to Los Angeles. He worked including as an elevator operator, while pursuing his music career. In California he found like-minded musicians such as Ed Blackwell, Bobby Bradford, Don Cherry, Charlie Haden, Billy Higgins, Charles Moffett, he recorded his debut album, Something Else!!!! with Cherry, Walter Norris, Don Payne. During the same year he belonged to a quintet led by Paul Bley that performed at a club in New York City. By the time Tomorrow Is the Question! was recorded soon after with Cherry and Haden, the jazz world had been shaken up by Coleman's alien music. Some jazz musicians called him a fraud. In 1959 Atlantic released The Shape of Jazz to Come According to music critic Steve Huey, the album "was a watershed event in the genesis of avant-garde jazz, profoundly steering its future course and throwing down a gauntlet that some still haven't come to grips with." Jazzwise listed it No. 3 on their list of the 100 best jazz albums of all time.
Coleman's quartet received a long – and sometimes controversial – engagement at Five Spot jazz club in New York City. Leonard Bernstein, Lionel Hampton, Modern Jazz Quartet were impressed and offered encouragement. Hampton asked to perform with the quartet, but trumpeter Miles Davis said Coleman was "all screwed up inside" although he recanted this comment and became a proponent of Coleman's innovations. Coleman's early sound was due in part to his use of a plastic saxophone, he bought a plastic horn in Los Angeles in 1954 because he was unable to afford a metal saxophone, though he didn't like the sound of the plastic instrument at first. On the Atlantic recordings, Coleman's sidemen in the quartet are Cherry on pocket trumpet; the complete recordings for the label were collected on the box set Beauty Is a Rare Thing. In 1960, Coleman recorded Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation, which featured a double quartet, including Don Cherry and Freddie Hubbard on trumpet, Eric Dolphy on bass clarinet, Haden and LaFaro on bass, both Higgins and Blackwell on drums.
The album was recorded in stereo with a reed/brass/bass/drums quartet isolated in each stereo channel. Free Jazz was, at nearly 40 minutes, the longest recorded continuous jazz performance to date and was one of Coleman's most controversial albums; the music features a regular but complex pulse, one drummer playing "straight" while the other played double-time. A series of solo features for each member of the band, but the other soloists are free to chime in as they wish. In the January 18, 1962 issue of Down Beat magazine, in a review titled "Double View of a Double Quartet," Pete Welding gave the album five stars while John A. Tynan rated it zero stars. Coleman intended "free jazz" as an album title, but his growing reputation placed him at the forefront of jazz innovation, free jazz was soon considered a new genre, though Coleman has expressed discomfort with the term. Among the reasons he may have disapproved of the term, his melodic material, although skeletal, recalls melodies that Charlie Parker wrote over standard harmonies.
The music is closer to the bebop. After the Atlantic period and into the early part of the 1970s, Coleman's music became more angular and engaged with the avant-garde jazz which had developed in part around his innovations. After his quartet disbanded, he formed a trio with David Izenzon on bass and Charles Moffett on drums, he extended the sound of his music, introducing string players and playing trumpet and violin, which he played left-handed. He had little conventional musical technique and used the instruments to make large, unrestrained gestures, his friendship with Albert Ayler influenced his development on violin. Charlie Haden sometimes joined this trio to form a two-bass quartet. Coleman recorded At the Golden Circle Stockholm. In 1966, he recorded The Empty Foxhole with his son, Denardo Coleman, ten years old. Freddie Hubbard and Shelly Manne regarded this as an ill-advised piece of publicity on Coleman's part. Despite his youth, Denardo Coleman had studied drumming for several years.
His technique was unrefined but enthusiastic, owing more to pulse-oriented free jazz drummers like Sunny Murray t
The cornet is a brass instrument similar to the trumpet but distinguished from it by its conical bore, more compact shape, mellower tone quality. The most common cornet is a transposing instrument in B♭, though there is a soprano cornet in E♭ and a cornet in C. All are unrelated to early baroque cornett; the cornet derived from the posthorn by applying rotary valves to it in the 1820s in France. But By the 1830s, Parisian makers were using piston valves. Cornets first appeared as separate instrumental parts in 19th century French compositions; this instrument could not have been developed without the improvement of piston valves by Silesian horn player Friedrich Blühmel and Heinrich Stölzel in the early 19th century. These two instrument makers simultaneously invented valves, though it is that Blühmel was the inventor, Stölzel who developed a practical instrument, they jointly were granted this for a period of ten years. And most François Périnet received a patent in 1838 for an improved valve, the basis of all modern brass instrument piston valves.
The first notable virtuoso player was Jean-Baptiste Arban, who studied the cornet extensively and published La grande méthode complète de cornet à piston et de saxhorn referred to as the Arban method, in 1864. Up until the early 20th century, the trumpet and cornet coexisted in musical ensembles. Symphonic repertoire involves separate parts for trumpet and cornet; as several instrument builders made improvements to both instruments, they started to look and sound more alike. The modern day cornet is used in brass bands, concert bands, in specific orchestral repertoire that requires a more mellow sound; the name cornet derives from corne, meaning itself from Latin cornu. While not musically related, instruments of the Zink family are named "cornetto" or "cornett" in modern English to distinguish them from the valved cornet described here; the 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica referred to serpents as "old wooden cornets". The Roman/Etruscan cornu is the lingual ancestor of these, it is a predecessor of the post horn from which the cornet evolved and was used like a bugle to signal orders on the battlefield.
The cornet was invented by adding valves to the post horn in circa 1828. The valves allowed for melodic playing throughout the register of the cornet. Trumpets were slower to adopt the new valve technology, so for the next 100 years or more, composers wrote separate parts for trumpet and cornet; the trumpet would play fanfare-like passages. The modern trumpet has valves that allow it to play the same fingerings as the cornet. Cornets and trumpets made in a given key play at the same pitch, the technique for playing the instruments is nearly identical; however and trumpets are not interchangeable, as they differ in timbre. Available, but seen only in the brass band, is an E♭ soprano model, pitched a fourth above the standard B♭. Unlike the trumpet, which has a cylindrical bore up to the bell section, the tubing of the cornet has a conical bore, starting narrow at the mouthpiece and widening towards the bell. Cornets following the 1913 patent of E. A. Couturier can have a continuously conical bore.
The conical bore of the cornet is responsible for its characteristic warm, mellow tone, which can be distinguished from the more penetrating sound of the trumpet. The conical bore of the cornet makes it more agile than the trumpet when playing fast passages, but correct pitching is less assured; the cornet is preferred for young beginners as it is easier to hold, with its centre of gravity much closer to the player. The cornet mouthpiece has a shorter and narrower shank than that of a trumpet so it can fit the cornet's smaller mouthpiece receiver; the cup size is deeper than that of a trumpet mouthpiece. One variety is the short model traditional cornet known as a "Shepherd's Crook" shaped model; these are most large–bore instruments with a rich mellow sound. There is a long-model or "American-wrap" cornet with a smaller bore and a brighter sound, produced in a variety of different tubing wraps and is closer to a trumpet in appearance; the Shepherd's Crook model is preferred by cornet traditionalists.
The long-model cornet is used in concert bands in the United States, but has found little following in British-style brass and concert bands. A third and rare variety—distinct from the long-model or "American-wrap" cornet—is the "long cornet", produced in the mid-20th Century by C. G. Conn and F. E. Olds and visually is nearly indistinguishable from a trumpet except that it has a receiver fashioned to accept cornet mouthpieces; the echo cornet has been called an obsolete variant. The echo cornet has a mute chamber mounted to the side acting as a second bell when the fourth valve is pressed; the second bell has a sound similar to that of a Harmon mute and is used to play echo phrases, whereupon the player imitates the sound from the primary bell using the echo chamber. Like the trumpet and all other modern brass wind instruments, the cornet makes a sound when the player vibrates the lips in the mouthpiece, creating a vibrating column of air in the tubing; the frequency of the air column's vibration can be modified by changing the lip tension and aperture or "embouchure", by altering the tongue position to change the shape of the oral cavity, thereby increasing or decreasing the speed of the airstream.
In addition, the column of air can be lengthened by engaging one or more valve
Quincy Delight Jones Jr. is an American record producer, musician and film producer. His career spans six decades in the entertainment industry with a record 80 Grammy Award nominations, 28 Grammys, a Grammy Legend Award in 1992. Jones came to prominence in the 1950s as a jazz arranger and conductor, before moving on to work in pop music and film scores. In 1969, Jones and his songwriting partner Bob Russell became the first African-Americans to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song, for "The Eyes of Love" from the film Banning. Jones was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Score for his work on the 1967 film In Cold Blood, making him the first African-American to be nominated twice in the same year. In 1971, he became the first African-American to be the musical director and conductor of the Academy Awards ceremony. In 1995, he was the first African-American to receive the Academy's Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award, he has tied with sound designer Willie D. Burton as the second most Oscar-nominated African-American, with seven nominations each.
Jones was the producer, with Michael Jackson, of Jackson's albums Off the Wall and Bad, as well as the producer and conductor of the 1985 charity song "We Are the World", which raised funds for victims of famine in Ethiopia. In 2013, Jones was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame as the winner, alongside Lou Adler, of the Ahmet Ertegun Award, he was named one of the most influential jazz musicians of the 20th century by Time magazine. Quincy Delight Jones Jr. was born on the South Side of Chicago on March 14, 1933, the son of Sarah Frances, a bank officer and apartment complex manager, Quincy Delight Jones Sr. a semi-professional baseball player and carpenter from Kentucky. Jones' paternal grandmother was an ex-slave in Louisville, Jones would discover that his paternal grandfather was Welsh. With the help of the author Alex Haley in 1972 and Mormon researchers in Salt Lake City, Jones discovered that his mother's ancestors included James Lanier, a relative of poet Sidney Lanier. Jones said, "He had a baby with my great-grandmother, my grandmother was born there.
We traced this all the way back to the Laniers, the same family as Tennessee Williams." Learning that the Lanier immigrant ancestors were French Huguenots who had court musicians among their ancestors, Jones attributed some of his musicianship to them. For the 2006 PBS television program African American Lives, Jones had his DNA tested, genealogists researched his family history again, his DNA revealed he is African but is 34% European in ancestry, on both sides of his family. Research showed that he has English, French and Welsh ancestry through his father, his mother's side is of West and Central African descent the Tikar people of Cameroon. His mother had European ancestry, such as Lanier male ancestors who fought for the Confederacy, making him eligible for Sons of Confederate Veterans. Among his ancestors is Betty Washington Lewis, a sister of president George Washington. Jones is a direct descendant of Edward I of England, whose ancestors included French, Polish and Swiss nobility. Jones' family moved to Chicago as part of the Great Migration.
Jones had a younger brother, who became an engineer for the Seattle television station KOMO-TV and died in 1998. Jones was introduced to music by his mother, who always sang religious songs, by his next-door neighbor, Lucy Jackson; when Jones was five or six, Jackson played stride piano next door, he would listen through the walls. Lucy recalled; when Jones was young, his mother suffered from a schizophrenic breakdown and was admitted to a mental institution. His father divorced his mother and married Elvera Jones, who had three children of her own named Waymond and Katherine. Elvera and Quincy Sr. had three children together: Jeanette and future U. S. District Judge Richard. In 1943, Jones and his family moved to Bremerton, where his father got a wartime job at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. After the war, the family moved to Seattle. In high school, he developed his skills as a arranger, his classmates included Charles Taylor, who played saxophone and whose mother, Evelyn Bundy, was one of Seattle's first society jazz band leaders.
Jones and Taylor began playing music together, at the age of 14 they played with a National Reserve band. Jones has said he got much more experience with music growing up in a smaller city because he otherwise would have faced too much competition. At age 14, Jones introduced himself to 16-year-old Ray Charles after watching him play at the Black Elks Club. Jones cites Charles as an early inspiration for his own music career, noting that Charles overcame a disability to achieve his musical goals, he has credited his father's sturdy work ethic with giving him the means to proceed and his loving strength with holding the family together. Jones has said his father had a rhyming motto: "Once a task is just begun, never leave until it's done. Be the labor great or small, do it well or not at all." In 1951, Jones earned a scholarship to Seattle University, where a young Clint Eastwood—also a music major—watched him play in the college band. After one semester, Jones transferred to what is now the Berklee College of Music in Boston on another scholarship.
While studying at Berklee, he played at Izzy Ort's Bar & Grille with Bunny Campbell and Preston Sandiford, whom he cited as important musical influences. He left his studies after receiving an offer to tour as a trumpeter, p
Philly Joe Jones
Joseph Rudolph "Philly Joe" Jones was an American jazz drummer, known as the drummer for the first "Great" Miles Davis Quintet. He should not be confused with another jazz drummer, Papa Jo Jones, who had a long tenure with Count Basie; the two men died only a few days apart. As a child, Jones appeared as a featured tap dancer on The Kiddie Show on the Philadelphia radio Station WIP, he was in the US Army during World War II. In 1947 he became the house drummer at Café Society in New York City, where he played with the leading bebop players of the day. Among them, the most important influence on Jones was Tadd Dameron. Jones toured and recorded with Miles Davis Quintet from 1955 to 1958—a band that became known as "The Quintet". Davis acknowledged that Jones was his favorite drummer, stated in his autobiography that he would always listen for Jones in other drummers. From 1958 Jones worked as a leader, but continued to work as a sideman with other musicians, including Bill Evans and Hank Mobley.
Evans, like Davis openly stated that Jones was his all-time favorite drummer. Between late 1967 and 1972 Jones lived in London and Paris and recording with musicians including Archie Shepp, Mal Waldron and Hank Mobley. For two years Jones taught at a specially organized school in Hampstead, but was prevented from otherwise working in the UK by the Musicians' Union, his 1968 album Mo' Joe was recorded in London with local musicians. After returning to Philadelphia, Jones led a fusion group called Le Grand Prix, toured with Bill Evans in 1976, recorded for Galaxy in 1977–79, worked with Red Garland. From 1981 he helped to found the group Dameronia, dedicated to the music of the composer Tadd Dameron, led it until his death. Jones died in 1985 of a heart attack at home in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at the age of 62. Jones' "combination of deep-toned tom-tom and bass drums with subtle swirls of cross-rhythm on cymbals was imitated". 1957: Westlake Bounce The Music Of John Graas – with Paul Chambers 1958: Blues for Dracula 1959: Drums Around the World 1959: Showcase 1960: Philly Joe's Beat 1961: Together! – with Elvin Jones 1968: Trailways Express released as Mo Joe and Gone, Gone 1969: Philly Joe Jones with the Jef Gilson Ensemble Disques Vogue 1969: Round Midnight released 1979 1969: Archie Shepp & Philly Joe Jones with Archie Shepp 1977: Mean What You Say 1977: Philly Mignon 1978: Drum Song 1979: Advance!
1981: Philly Joe Jones Octet - Filet de Sole 1982: Philly Joe Jones Dameronia – To Tadd with Love 1983: Philly Joe Jones Dameronia – Look Stop Listen With Chris Anderson Inverted Image With Chet Baker Chet Baker in New York Chet Baker Introduces Johnny Pace – with Johnny PaceWith Evans Bradshaw Look Out for Evans Bradshaw! With Clifford Brown Memorial Album With Kenny Burrell Ellington Is Forever Volume Two With Joe Castro Mood Jazz With Serge Chaloff Blue Serge With Sonny Clark Cool Struttin' With John Coltrane Blue Train With Miles Davis The Musings of Miles Miles: The New Miles Davis Quintet Cookin' with the Miles Davis Quintet Relaxin' with the Miles Davis Quintet Workin' with the Miles Davis Quintet Steamin' with the Miles Davis Quintet'Round About Midnight Porgy and Bess Milestones Someday My Prince Will Come With Kenny Drew Kenny Drew Trio Pal Joey With Bill Evans Everybody Digs Bill Evans On Green Dolphin Street California Here I Come Interplay Quintessence With Art Farmer Art Farmer Quintet featuring Gigi Gryce Brass Shout With Red Garland Red's Good Groove Keystones!
Crossings With Benny Golson The Other Side of Benny Golson Benny Golson and the Philadelphians With Dexter Gordon Dexter Calling... Landslide With Bennie Green Bennie Green with Art Farmer – with Art Farmer With Johnny Griffin Way Out! With Ernie Henry Seven Standards and a Blues Last Chorus With Elmo Hope The Elmo Hope Trio Here's Hope! High Hope! Homecoming! Sounds from Rikers Island The Final Sessions With Freddie Hubbard Goin' Up Hub Cap Here to Stay With Bobby Hutcherson Four Seasons Good Bait With Milt Jackson and Wes Montgomery Bags Meets Wes! With Clifford Jordan The Rotterdam Sessions With Duke Jordan Duke's Artistry The Great Session With Abbey Lincoln It's Magic Abbey Is Blue With Herbie Mann Salute to the Flute Herbie Mann's African Suite With Warne Marsh Warne Marsh With Howard McGhee The Return of Howard McGhee That Bop Thing With Blue Mitchel
The flugelhorn is a brass instrument, pitched in B♭ but found in C. It resembles a trumpet, the tube has the same length but a wider, conical bore. A type of valved bugle, the flugelhorn was developed in Germany from a traditional English valveless bugle, with the first version sold by Heinrich Stölzel in Berlin in 1828; the valved bugle provided Adolphe Sax with the inspiration for his B♭ soprano saxhorns, on which the modern-day flugelhorn is modeled. The German word Flügel translates into English as flank. In early 18th century Germany, a ducal hunt leader known as a Flügelmeister blew the Flügelhorn, a large semicircular brass or silver valveless forerunner of the modern-day flugelhorn to direct the wings of the hunt; the flugelhorn is built in the same B ♭ pitch as many cornets. It has three piston valves and employs the same fingering system as other brass instruments, but four-piston valve and rotary valve variants exist, it can thus be played without too much trouble by trumpet and cornet players, though some adaptation to their playing style may be needed.
It is played with a more conical mouthpiece than either trumpets or cornets. The shank of the flugelhorn mouthpiece is similar in size to a cornet mouthpiece shank, standard tapered flugelhorns are interchangeable with cornets; some modern flugelhorns feature a fourth valve. This adds a useful low range that, coupled with the flugelhorn's dark sound, extends the instrument's abilities. More however, players use the fourth valve in place of the first and third valve combination, somewhat sharp. A pair of bass flugelhorns in C, called fiscorns, are played in the Catalan cobla bands which provide music for sardana dancers; the tone is fatter and regarded as more mellow and dark than the trumpet or cornet. The sound of the flugelhorn has been described as halfway between a trumpet and a French horn, whereas the cornet's sound is halfway between a trumpet and a flugelhorn; the flugelhorn is as agile as the cornet but more difficult to control in the high register, where in general it slots or locks onto notes less easily.
It is not used for aggressive or bright displays as trumpets and cornets are, but tends more towards a softer and more reflective role. The flugelhorn is a standard member of the British-style brass band, it is used in jazz, it appears in orchestral and concert band music. Famous orchestral works with flugelhorn include Igor Stravinsky's Threni, Ralph Vaughan Williams's Ninth Symphony, Danzon no. 2 by Arturo Márquez, Michael Tippett's third symphony. The flugelhorn is sometimes substituted for the post horn in Mahler's Third Symphony, for the soprano Roman buccine in Ottorino Respighi's Pines of Rome. In HK Gruber's trumpet concerto Busking the soloist is directed to play a flugelhorn in the slow middle movement; the flugelhorn figured prominently in many of Burt Bacharach's 1960s pop song arrangements. It is featured in a solo role in Bert Kaempfert's 1962 recording of "That Happy Feeling". Flugelhorns have been used as the alto or low soprano voice in a drum and bugle corps. Another use of the flugelhorn is found in the Dutch and Belgian "Fanfareorkesten" or fanfare orchestras.
In these orchestras the flugelhorns between 10 and 20 in number, have a significant role, forming the base of the orchestra. They are pitched with sporadically an E ♭ soloist. Due to poor intonation these E♭ flugelhorns are replaced by the E♭ trumpet or cornet. Joe Bishop, as a member of the Woody Herman band in 1936, was one of the earliest jazz musicians to use the flugelhorn. Shorty Rogers and Kenny Baker began playing it in the early fifties, Clark Terry used it in Duke Ellington's orchestra in the mid-1950s. Chet Baker recorded several albums on the instrument in the 1960s. Miles Davis further popularized the instrument in jazz on the albums Miles Ahead and Sketches of Spain, though he did not use it much on projects. Other prominent flugelhorn players include Freddy Buzon, Freddie Hubbard, Tom Browne, Lee Morgan, Bill Dixon, Wilbur Harden, Art Farmer, Roy Hargrove, Hugh Masekela, Feya Faku, Tony Guerrero, Gary Lord, Jimmy Owens, Maynard Ferguson, Terumasa Hino, Woody Shaw, Guido Basso, Kenny Wheeler, Tom Harrell, Bill Coleman, Thad Jones, Arturo Sandoval, Lee Loughnane of the rock band Chicago, Mike Metheny, Harry Beckett, Ack van Rooyen.
Most jazz flugelhorn players use the instrument as an auxiliary to the trumpet, but in the 1970s Chuck Mangione gave up playing the trumpet and concentrated on the flugelhorn alone, notably on his jazz-pop hit song "Feels So Good". Mangione, in an interview on ABC during the 1980 Winter Olympics, for which he wrote the theme "Give It All You Got", referred to the flugelhorn as "the right baseball glove". Pop flugelhorn players include Probyn Gregory, Ronnie Wilson of the Gap Band, Rick Braun, Mic Gillette, Jeff Oster, Zach Condon of the band Beirut, Scott Spillane of the band Neutral Milk Hotel. Marvin Stamm played the flugelhorn solo on "Uncle Albert/Admiral Ha
Walter Theodore "Sonny" Rollins is an American jazz tenor saxophonist, recognized as one of the most important and influential jazz musicians. In a seven-decade career, he has recorded over sixty albums as a leader. A number of his compositions, including "St. Thomas", "Oleo", "Doxy", "Pent-Up House", "Airegin", have become jazz standards. Rollins has been called "the greatest living improviser" and the "Saxophone Colossus". Rollins was born in New York City to parents from the United States Virgin Islands; the youngest of three siblings, he grew up in central Harlem and on Sugar Hill, receiving his first alto saxophone at the age of seven or eight. He attended Edward W. Stitt Junior High School and graduated from Benjamin Franklin High School in East Harlem. Rollins started as a pianist, changed to alto saxophone, switched to tenor in 1946. During his high school years, he played in a band with other future jazz legends Jackie McLean, Kenny Drew, Art Taylor. After graduating from high school in 1947, Rollins began performing professionally.
Within the next few months, he began to make a name for himself, recording with Johnson and appearing under the leadership of pianist Bud Powell, alongside trumpeter Fats Navarro and drummer Roy Haynes, on a seminal "hard bop" session. In early 1950, Rollins was arrested for armed robbery and spent ten months in Rikers Island jail before being released on parole. Between 1951 and 1953, he recorded with Miles Davis, the Modern Jazz Quartet, Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk. A breakthrough arrived in 1954 when he recorded his famous compositions "Oleo", "Airegin", "Doxy" with a quintet led by Davis that featured pianist Horace Silver. In 1955, Rollins entered the Federal Medical Center, Lexington, at the time the only assistance in the U. S. for drug addicts. While there, he volunteered for then-experimental methadone therapy and was able to break his heroin habit, after which he lived for a time in Chicago rooming with the trumpeter Booker Little. Rollins feared sobriety would impair his musicianship, but went on to greater success.
Rollins joined the Miles Davis Quintet in the summer of 1955. That year, he joined the Clifford Brown–Max Roach quintet. After the deaths of Brown and the band's pianist, Richie Powell, in a June 1956 automobile accident, Rollins continued playing with Roach and began releasing albums under his own name on Prestige Records, Blue Note and the Los Angeles label Contemporary, his acclaimed album Saxophone Colossus was recorded on June 22, 1956, at Rudy Van Gelder's studio in New Jersey, with Tommy Flanagan on piano, former Jazz Messengers bassist Doug Watkins, his favorite drummer, Roach. This was Rollins's sixth recording as a leader and it included his best-known composition "St. Thomas", a Caribbean calypso based on a tune sung to him by his mother in his childhood, as well as the fast bebop number "Strode Rode", "Moritat". A long blues solo on Saxophone Colossus, "Blue 7", was analyzed in depth by the composer and critic Gunther Schuller in a 1958 article. In the solo for "St. Thomas", Rollins uses repetition of a rhythmic pattern, variations of that pattern, covering only a few tones in a tight range, employing staccato and semi-detached notes.
This is interrupted by a sudden flourish, utilizing a much wider range before returning to the former pattern. In his book The Jazz Style of Sonny Rollins, David N. Baker explains that Rollins "very uses rhythm for its own sake, he will sometimes improvise on a rhythmic pattern instead of on the melody or changes." Since recording "St. Thomas", Rollins's use of calypso rhythms has been one of his signature contributions to jazz. In 1956 he married model Dawn Finney. In 1956 he recorded Tenor Madness, using Davis's group – pianist Red Garland, bassist Paul Chambers, drummer Philly Joe Jones; the title track is the only recording of Rollins with John Coltrane, a member of Davis's group. At the end of the year Rollins appeared as a sideman on Thelonious Monk's album Brilliant Corners and recorded his own first album for Blue Note Records, entitled Sonny Rollins, Volume One, with Donald Byrd on trumpet, Wynton Kelly on piano, Gene Ramey on bass, Roach on drums. In 1957, Rollins pioneered the use of bass and drums, without piano, as accompaniment for his saxophone solos, a texture that came to be known as "strolling."
Two early tenor/bass/drums trio recordings are A Night at the Village Vanguard. Way Out West was so named because it was recorded for California-based Contemporary Records, because it included country and western songs such as "Wagon Wheels" and "I'm an Old Cowhand"; the Village Vanguard album consists of two sets, a matinee with bassist Donald Bailey and drummer Pete LaRoca and an evening set with bassist Wilbur Ware and drummer Elvin Jones. Rollins used the trio format intermittently throughout his career, sometimes taking the unusual step of using his sax as a rhythm section instrument during bass and drum solos. Lew Tabackin cited Ro