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Frederick H. Billings

Frederick H. Billings was financier. From 1879 to 1881 he was President of the Northern Pacific Railway, he was born in Windsor County, Vermont. He attended Kimball Union Academy and graduated from the University of Vermont in 1844. A Whig and a Republican, from 1846 to 1848 he served as Secretary of Civil and Military Affairs to Governor Horace Eaton, he studied law with Oliver P. Chandler and attained admission to the bar in 1848. In 1848, during the California Gold Rush, he moved to San Francisco, becoming the city's first land claims lawyer, he partnered with Henry Halleck, Trenor W. Park and others in the law firm of Halleck, Peachy & Billings, which became a leading law firm in San Francisco. While in California, he was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named for George Berkeley. In 1864, he returned to Woodstock, in 1869 purchased George Perkins Marsh's former estate. Billings had read Marsh's pioneering volume on ecology called Man and Nature, set about to put into practice his theories on conservation.

Billings and his heirs set about purchasing many failing farms and reforesting much of the surrounding hillsides with Norway Spruce, Scots Pine, European Larch, many native species. Today, the Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park in Woodstock manages and interprets what is the oldest managed forest in the United States; the Billings Farm & Museum is museum, located just across the street. It is the gateway to learning about Vermont's agricultural history. In 1872 Billings was a candidate for the Republican nomination for Governor of Vermont; the Republican nomination was tantamount to election, Billings, Chairman of the convention, had a large group of delegates pledged to him. However, a large number opposed Billings on the grounds that he had been away from Vermont for so long. In addition, delegates opposed the renomination of Governor John W. Stewart, arguing that it would violate the party's "Mountain Rule." The nomination went to Julius Converse though he was not an active candidate.

Billings purchased one of the original twelfth interests in the Northern Pacific Railway and, from 1879 to 1881, served as its president. In 1880 he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention, made the nominating speech for George F. Edmunds. Billings died in Woodstock on September 30, 1890, he is buried at River Street Cemetery in Woodstock. Billings was married to daughter of Dr. Eleazer Parmly. Together, they were the parents of seven children: Parmly Billings Laura Billings Frederick Billings Mary Montagu Billings Elizabeth Billings Ehrick Billings Richard Billings He was the grandfather of Mary French Rockefeller, wife of Laurance Rockefeller, he was the uncle of Governor Franklin S. Billings and great-uncle of Judge Franklin S. Billings, Jr, he constructed a chapel for the Congregational Church of Woodstock. Although he never owned a home in Billings, Montana, a railroad town established in 1882 and named after him, he provided the money to build the First Congregational Church.

His son and daughter provided the financial support to build the Parmly Billings Memorial Library in Billings, Montana. Frederick Billings endowed Billings Library, completed in 1885 for the University of Vermont, purchased the George Perkins Marsh collection of 12,000 volumes for it. Billings, Montana Billings, Missouri Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park Billings Library, University of Vermont, Vermont Billings Farm & Museum, Vermont Camp Billings, Vermont Billings County, North Dakota In World War II, the United States liberty ship SS Frederick Billings was named in his honor. Notes SourcesYellowstone Genealogy Forum: Frederick Billings Biography UVM Gift Societies and Clubs: Frederick Billings Society Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historic Park Biographical Sketch Billings Farm and Museum of Woodstock, Vermont Descendants of Thomas Hastings website Descendants of Thomas Hastings on Facebook

SM U-161

SM U-161 was one of the 329 submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy in World War I. U-161 took part in the First Battle of the Atlantic. Just after the end of the war, U-161 surrendered to the United Kingdom on 20 November 1918, she ran aground on the east coast of England in 1921 while under way to be scrapped. German Type U 93 submarines were preceded by the shorter Type U 87 submarines. U-161 had a displacement of 821 tonnes when at 1,002 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 71.55 metres, a pressure hull length of 56.05 m, a beam of 6.30 m, a height of 8.25 m, a draught of 3.88 m. The submarine was powered by two 2,400 metric horsepower engines for use while surfaced, two 1,230 metric horsepower engines for use while submerged, she had two 1.70 m propellers. She was capable of operating at depths of up to 50 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 8.2 knots. When submerged, she could operate for 50 nautical miles at 5 knots. U-161 was fitted with six 50 centimetres torpedo tubes, twelve to sixteen torpedoes, one 10.5 cm SK L/45 deck gun.

She had a complement of thirty-six. Gröner, Erich. U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4

List of ships of World War II (M)

The List of ships of the Second World War contains major military vessels of the war, arranged alphabetically and by type. The list includes armed vessels that served during the war and in the immediate aftermath, inclusive of localized ongoing combat operations, garrison surrenders, post-surrender occupation, colony re-occupation and prisoner repatriation, to the end of 1945. For smaller vessels, see list of World War II ships of less than 1000 tons; some uncompleted. Ships are designated to the country under which they operated for the longest period of the Second World War, regardless of where they were built or previous service history. Submarines show submerged displacement. Click on headers to sort column alphabetically. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Navy.mil: List of homeports and their ships NavSource Naval History Whitley, M J. Destroyers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia.

London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 1-85409-521-8. Whitley, M J. Cruisers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 1-85409-225-1. "Allied warships". Uboat.net. Guðmundur Helgason. 1995–2007. "Battleships-Cruisers.co.uk". Cranston Fine Arts. 2001–2007

Bolgrad Glacier

Bolgrad Glacier is the 7.4 km long and 5.7 km wide glacier on the west side of Owen Ridge in southern Sentinel Range in Ellsworth Mountains, situated south of Brook Glacier and north of Sirma Glacier. It drains west-southwestwards from Mount Allen, Mount Liptak and Mount Southwick, flows south of Krusha Peak to leave the range and join Bender Glacier east of Gilbert Spur; the glacier is named after the Bulgarian High School of Bolgrad, a major Bulgarian education centre in Ukraine established in 1858. Bolgrad Glacier is centred at 78°44′00″S 85°08′00″W. US mapping in 1961, updated in 1988. List of glaciers in the Antarctic Glaciology Vinson Massif. Scale 1:250 000 topographic map. Reston, Virginia: US Geological Survey, 1988. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 updated. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Bolgrad Glacier. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica Bolgrad Glacier. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission

The Cork Museum

The Cork Museum of Palafrugell, Spain, is a museum about the cork industry in Catalonia. Founded in 1972, the Cork Museum is part of the Costa Brava Museum Network and the Network of Local Museums of Catalonia in Girona; the Cork Museum is located in a modernist factory around a small cork forest. The exhibition consists of an audiovisual space, a journey from the forest to work at the factory to obtain plugs, discs and agglomerate, a space to experiment and a space for participation; the Cork Museum is divided into three spaces. Two of them are heritage buildings: the industrial buildings and Cal Ganxó; the third space, newly constructed, is installation space and warehouse. Permanent exhibition -located in the ground floor and first floor. Manufactures space. - exhibition space. Reception hall - welcome location for visitors and gift shop Geminus" space - workshops. Miquel Auditorium In 1972, archaeologist Miquel Oliva and local researchers Joan Badia and Albert Recasens founded the Palafrugell Museum.

At the beginning of the 1980s, the museum was divided to create the current Palafrugell archive, including a new monographic specialization on the cork industry. In 1986, the first conservative square was created. In 1989, the Palafrugell Cork Museum became part of the National Museum of Science and Technology of Catalonia. In 1991, the first permanent exhibition spaces were opened at the Tarongeta street building. On June 29, 2012 the Palafrugell Cork Museum opened a new headquarters in the modernist cork factory of Can Mario, it was now the largest cork museum in the world. The Cork Museum manages the Centre d'Interpretació del Dipòsit Modernista de Can Mario and the Conjunt Monumental de Sant Sebastià de la Guardia; the Centre d'Interpretació del Dipòsit Modernista de Can Mario shows how that facility regulated the water supply and water pressure in the Can Mario cork factory. It is a Bé Cultural d'Interès Nacional - BCIN in Spain; the Conjunt Monumental de Sant Sebastià de la Guarda is an historic site with a watchtower, an 18th-century hermitage and a 19th-century lighthouse.

The Cork Museum offers guided tours, educational visits to both facilities. The Cork Museum has a collection of 6,200 object, it is an important cork documentation center, that has received more than 2.000 inquires. Fernàndez, M. i alt. El Museu del Suro de Palafrugell. Quaderns de Didàctica i Difusió-7. Publicacions del Museu de la Ciència i de la Tècnica de Catalunya. ESPADALÉ, Pep: «El Museu del Suro de Palafrugell: un passat amb feina feta i un futur ambiciós». Revista del Baix Empordà, núm. 29, juny-set. 2010. Lloc web oficial del Museu del Suro Museu de la Ciència i de la Tècnica de Catalunya Sistema del mNACTEC Turisme Baix Empordà - Museus

Shtundists

The Shtundists are the predecessors of several Evangelical Protestant groups in Ukraine and across the former Soviet Union. The movement refers to evangelical groups that emerged among Ukrainian peasants in the southwestern region of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century; the Shtundists were influenced by German Baptists and Mennonites that settled in the southern parts of the Russian Empire, somewhat by indigenous Spiritual Christians. Their origin is associated with access to Bibles from the "British and Foreign Bible Society."The word Shtundist is derived from the German word Stunde, in reference to the practice of setting aside an hour for daily bible study. The term was used in a derogatory sense, but has been adopted by many adherents to this tradition. An article in 1896 describes their "Creed": Since 1864 they have published the New Testament in a pocket edition, these are found in everyone's possession, they refuse to regard usury as sin. They are noted for their cleanliness and temperance, having banished intoxicating liquors.

The Shtundists have no common confession of faith. They acknowledge only the Bible, on the interpretation of which they do not agree, they have presbyters and elders at the head of their congregations, who are older and experienced men. They no typical church buildings, but worship in some hall or in the largest room of someone's private house. At one end there is a chair for the elder; when the members enter they salute each other with the kiss of fraternal love. Women and men sit apart, their hymnal singing is good. Some of the hymns have been translated into English. After the hymn the elder reads a chapter out of the Bible and explains it, each one present is privileged to make remarks; the women, in compliance with St. Paul's injunction, are required to be silent auditors, their prayers are always done in a kneeling posture. The services are closed with the Lord's Prayer. Regarding marriage; the parents of the bride and bridegroom present the couple to the elder. The bride is first asked if she wishes to enter the state of holy matrimony with this young man, if she loves him.

And if she is taking this step of her own free will and under no compulsion, not that of her parents. When the bridegroom has answered similar questions a hymn is sung and a prayer is spoken; the elder tells the couple to embrace each other and to grasp the right hands. This ends the ceremony.... this ceremony is not recognized by the law of Russia, as only the Russian Church can perform this ceremony. The Ukrainian anarchist revolutionary and writer Sergey Stepniak described in 1905 his impressions of their "religious doctrine" that he witnessed while growing up in Ukraine: Much like the Baptists or the Anabaptists of Reformation times, they baptize only grownups, re-baptizing those to whom this sacrament was administered in babyhood. Instead of the sacrament of communion they have what is called "the breaking of bread," accompanied with singing of hymns. Both communion and baptism are viewed by the Shtundists, not as sacraments, but as "rites performed in commemoration of Christ, for a closer union with Him."

They consider iconss as no better than pictures, do not keep them in their houses. They formally recognize only the Lord's Prayer. Prayers are left to the personal inspiration of the believers. At their meetings they sing hymns of their own composition, as well as psalms, it is prohibited among them to mistreat dumb creatures. There is no conscious leaning towards collective ownership of land. All earthly goods are lent by God to men, who will be held responsible before Him for the use they have made of their worldly possessions. To prove faithful these men are bound to come to the assistance of their neighbours when they are in need, sickness, or affliction. Perfect absence of national and religious intolerance; the Stundist catechism is a translation of the catechism of the Tiflis Baptists. In the 1890s, supervisor of the Russian Orthodox Church, ordered all heretics and sectarians, non-Orthodox faiths of ethnic Russians, to be reformed or punished. During this time many were persecuted, arrested and thousands were exiled to Siberia and the Caucasus.

Another revival that led to the formation of a denomination known as the Evangelical Christians which first appeared in 1909 when a British missionary, Granville Radstock, started preaching among the imperial Russian aristocracy. Led by the engineer Ivan Prokhanov and rooted in the Pietist tradition, they formed a nationwide association in St Petersburg, the All-Russian Evangelical Christian Union. Prokhanov's parents had left the Spiritual Christian Molokan faith, many Molokane transformed to his similar but more organized faith form; these evangelical groups came under pressure in Soviet times, with many adherents being incarcerated or deported. Conditions changed somewhat during the late 1940s, when most evangelical and Pentecostal groups were led, with some pressure from the Soviet state, to form the All-Soviet Association of Evangelical Baptist Christians, also joined by Mennonites. Prior to its independence in 1991, Ukraine was home to the second largest Baptist community in the world, after the United States, was called the “Bible Belt” of the Soviet Union.

Despite mass emigration of formerl