Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick III was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death. He was the first emperor of the House of Habsburg, the fourth member of the House of Habsburg to be elected King of Germany after Rudolf I of Germany, Albert I in the 13th century and his predecessor Albert II of Germany, he was the penultimate emperor to be crowned by the Pope, the last to be crowned in Rome. Prior to his imperial coronation, he was duke of the Inner Austrian lands of Styria and Carniola from 1424, acted as regent over the Duchy of Austria from 1439, he was elected and crowned King of Germany in 1440. He was the longest-reigning German monarch when in 1493, after ruling his domains for more than 53 years, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I. During his reign, Frederick concentrated on re-uniting the Habsburg "hereditary lands" of Austria and took a lesser interest in Imperial affairs. By his dynastic entitlement to Hungary as well as by the Burgundian inheritance, he laid the foundations for the Habsburg Empire.

Mocked as "Arch-Sleepyhead of the Holy Roman Empire" during his lifetime, he is today seen as an effective ruler. Born at the Tyrolean residence of Innsbruck in 1415, Frederick was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Leopoldian line of the Habsburg dynasty, his second wife Cymburgis of Masovia. According to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, the Leopoldinian branch ruled over the duchies of Styria and Carniola, or what was referred to as Inner Austria. Only three of Frederick's eight siblings survived childhood: his younger brother Albert, his sisters Margaret and Catherine. In 1424, nine-year-old Frederick's father died, making Frederick the duke of Inner Austria, as Frederick V, with his uncle, Duke Frederick IV of Tyrol, acting as regent. From 1431, Frederick tried for several years was denied by his relatives. In 1435, Albert V, duke of Austria, awarded him the rule over his Inner Austrian heritage. From the beginning, Frederick's younger brother Albert asserted his rights as a co-ruler, as the beginning of a long rivalry.

In these years, Frederick had begun to use the symbolic A. E. I. O. U. Signature as a kind of motto with various meanings. In 1436 he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, accompanied by numerous nobles knighted by the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, which earned him great reputation. Upon the death of his uncle Duke Frederick IV in 1439, Frederick took over the regency of Tyrol and Further Austria for the duke's heir Sigismund. Again he had to ward off the claims raised by his brother Albert VI, he acted as regent for his nephew Ladislaus the Posthumous, son of late King Albert II and his consort Elizabeth of Luxembourg, in the duchy of Austria.. Frederick was now the undisputed head of the Habsburg dynasty, though his regency in the lands of the Albertinian Line was still viewed with suspicion; as a cousin of late King Albert II, Frederick became a candidate for the imperial election. On 2 February 1440, the prince-electors convened at Frankfurt and unanimously elected him King of the Romans as Frederick IV.

In 1442, Frederick allied himself with Rudolf Stüssi, burgomaster of Zurich, against the Old Swiss Confederacy in the Old Zurich War but lost. In 1448, he entered into the Concordat of Vienna with the Holy See, which remained in force until 1806 and regulated the relationship between the Habsburgs and the Holy See. In 1452, at the age of 37, Frederick III travelled to Italy to receive his bride and to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor, his fiancée, the 18-year-old infanta Eleanor, daughter of King Edward of Portugal, landed at Livorno after a 104-day trip. Her dowry would help Frederick cement his power; the couple proceeded together to Rome. As per tradition, they spent a night outside the walls of Rome before entering the city on 9 March, where Frederick and Pope Nicholas V exchanged friendly greetings; because the emperor had been unable to retrieve the Iron Crown of Lombardy from the cathedral of Monza where it was kept, nor be crowned King of Italy by the archbishop of Milan, he convinced the pope to crown him as such with the German crown, brought for the purpose.

This coronation took place on the morning of 16 March, in spite of the protests of the Milanese ambassadors, in the afternoon Frederick and Eleanor were married by the pope. On 19 March and Eleanor were anointed in St Peter's Basilica by the Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Francesco Condulmer, Frederick was crowned with the Imperial Crown by the pope. Frederick was the last Emperor to be crowned in Rome. Frederick's style of rulership was marked by a sluggish pace of decision making; the Italian humanist Enea Silvio Piccolomini Pope Pius II, who at one time worked at Frederick's court, described the Emperor as a person who wanted to conquer the world while remaining seated. Although this was regarded as a character flaw in older academic research, his delaying tactics are now viewed as a means of coping with politica

Our Fathers (film)

Our Fathers is a 2005 American made-for-television drama film directed by Dan Curtis and starring Ted Danson, Christopher Plummer, Brian Dennehy and Ellen Burstyn. The screenplay was written by Thomas Michael Donnelly, based on the book Our Fathers: The Secret Life of the Catholic Church in an Age of Scandal by David France, it was the last film directed by Dan Curtis. Ted Danson as Mitchell Garabedian Christopher Plummer as Cardinal Bernard Law Brian Dennehy as Father Dominic Spagnolia Daniel Baldwin as Angelo DeFranco Ellen Burstyn as Mary Ryan Kenneth Welsh as Bishop William Murphy Will Lyman as Wilson Rogers, Jr. Jan Rubeš as Pope John Paul II Aidan Devine as Bernie McDaid Steven Shaw as John J. Geoghan James Oliver as Patrick McSorley James Kall as Geoghan's Lawyer Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or Movie Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or Movie Satellite Awards Best Television Film Best Actor in a Miniseries or Television Film Best Supporting Actor in a Series, Miniseries, or Television Film Screen Actors Guild Award Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie Writers Guild of America Award Best Writing, Long Form – Adapted Catholic sex abuse cases Our Fathers on IMDb


The queenfish is a species of fish in the family Sciaenidae, the drums and croakers. It is native to the eastern Pacific Ocean, where it occurs along the North American coastline from Oregon to Baja California, its centre of distribution is the Southern California Bight. It is known as the queen croaker; this is the only species in the monotypic genus Seriphus. This species is up to 30 centimetres long, it has an compressed body. It is blue-grey to tan in colour with a shiny silver belly and a dark horizontal line running the length of the body; the pectoral fin is dark and the other fins are yellowish. The mouth contains two rows of pointed teeth; this marine fish occurs in coastal waters, such as bays and sloughs, moving to deeper waters at night. It feeds on small fish, it eats planktonic crustaceans such as copepods. Adults feed on Californian anchovy; this species forms schools. It is prey for many kinds of larger fish, such as kelp bass. Little population information is available for this species, but it is not considered to be threatened.

This is a common sport fishing catch on Southern California fishing piers