Edward C. Marshall
Edward Colston Marshall was an American politician who served as congressman from California's at-large district and as California attorney general from 1883 to 1887. He was a member of the Democratic Party. United States Congress. "Edward C. Marshall". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
William Westwood Lockyer is a veteran California politician, who held elective office from 1973 to 2015, as State Treasurer of California, California Attorney General, President Pro Tempore of the California State Senate. Described by journalistic observers as one of the state's most "colorful" and "shrewdest" public officials, he has long been known to speak his mind with an uncommon frankness that caused him political embarrassment. Lockyer attended the University of California, graduating with a B. A. in Political Science in 1965. The following year, he received a Teaching Credential from CSU in Hayward worked for his father's roofing company and as a fork-lift driver at Ward's before getting his first job with the Legislature on the staff of Assemblyman Robert W. Crown. In 1986, Lockyer graduated with a J. D. from University of the Pacific McGeorge School of Law. With his early legislative experience, Lockyer began his own political career as a School Board member of the San Leandro Unified School District, as chair of the Alameda County Democratic Central Committee, California coordinator of Senator George McGovern's 1972 campaign for the Presidency.
Lockyer, who lives in Hayward and Long Beach, was married in April 2003 to public service attorney Nadia Lockyer, a former Alameda County Supervisor, with whom he has three children, a twelve-year-old son, two twin sons, born in December 2015. By an earlier marriage, he has an adult daughter, an attorney at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Lockyer first won a State Assembly seat in a Special Election of September 4, 1973, following the accidental death of his political mentor, Bay Area Assemblyman Robert W. Crown, he served in the legislature for the next twenty-five years, more than half that time in the state senate, where, in 1994, he was chosen by his peers to be President Pro Tem, the most powerful position of the upper legislative house. In his spare time, Lockyer attended law school classes in Sacramento and received a law degree from the McGeorge School of Law, University of the Pacific; as legislator, Lockyer won close friends on both sides of the partisan aisle, including Jim Brulte, Republican Minority Leader of the state senate, who would long remember Lockyer's skill at compromise and consensus-building.
And Democratic Speaker of the Assembly Willie Brown, who recalled that, by the time Lockyer left the legislature in 1998, "Capitol insiders took his prolific effectiveness for granted." As a freshman legislator in 1974, Lockyer wrote the first legislation to provide state funding for emergency oil spill decontamination. During his legislative career, as a close ally of environmental pressure groups like the Sierra Club and the Planning and Conservation League, he wrote other environmental laws, including the first state regulation of trucks hauling toxic substances on California roads and highways, which preceded federal policies adopted by the EPA. Lockyer considered his greatest environmental achievement to be his 1987 bill to create a Bay Trail, which he envisioned as an eventual 500-mile-long hiking and cycling path, a continuous recreational corridor, with adjacent bayshore parks and protected natural habitats, that would encircle San Francisco and San Pablo Bays. Requiring city and regional cooperation, the Bay Trail marked its 20th year in 2009 with 293 miles so far open to hikers, bicyclists and walkers.
As nominal "father" of the Bay Trail, a segment of the shoreline had been named in Lockyer's honor. In 1984, Lockyer sponsored the State's first "hate crimes" legislation which, as amended, provided that "no person...shall by force or threat of force, willfully injure, interfere with, oppress, or threaten any other person in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him or her by the Constitution or laws of this state or by the Constitution or laws of the United States because of the other person's race, religion, national origin, gender, or sexual orientation, or because he or she perceives that the other person has one or more of those characteristics." As Attorney General, Lockyer was responsible for coordinating enforcement of this statute by local law enforcement. On September 10, 1987, while Lockyer chaired the State Senate Judiciary Committee, he and Speaker of the Assembly Willie Brown met at Frank Fat's Restaurant in Sacramento with representatives of bitterly competing special interests - insurance companies, trial lawyers and manufacturers - to formalize their agreement to "the most sweeping changes in California's civil liability laws in decades".
After many days of painstaking negotiations, these warring interests had accepted a compromise bill that included "a drastic restriction in product liability laws offset by fee increases for lawyers prosecuting medical malpractice cases. Doctors got promises that protections in place against lawsuits would not be touched. Insurance companies won a reprieve from threatened regulations gaining momentum in the Legislature." This compromise had been worked out. Lockyer, who had acted as mediator during the earlier negotiations, scribbled the terms of the "pact" on a restaurant cloth napkin, so ended a political war; the compromise bill was ramrodded through the assembly and state senate on the last night of that year's legislative session, was signed into law by Republican governor George Deuk
Serranus Clinton Hastings
Serranus Clinton Hastings was a 19th-century politician, rancher and a prominent lawyer in the United States. He moved to the Iowa District in 1837 to open a law office. Iowa became a territory a year and he was elected a member of the House of Representatives of the Iowa Territorial General Assembly; when the territory became the state of Iowa in 1846, he won an election to represent the state in the United States House of Representatives. After his term ended, he became Chief Justice of the Iowa Supreme Court, he moved to California. He was appointed to the California Supreme Court as Chief Justice a few months later, he won an election to be Attorney General of California, assumed office shortly after his term as Chief Justice ended. He began practicing law again as Attorney General, he earned a small fortune with his law practice and used that fortune to finance his successful real estate venture. In 1878, he founded the Hastings College of the Law with a donation of US$100,000. Hastings was born in Watertown, Jefferson County, New York, on November 22, 1814 to Robert Collins Hastings and Patience Brayton.
Robert Collins Hastings was a good friend and supporter of DeWitt Clinton, whom Serranus gets his middle name from. When Robert died in 1824, the family moved to New York, he completed a six-year course at Gouverneur Academy, in 1834, he became taught and became the principal at Norwich Academy, located in Chenango County, New York. He introduced the Hamiltonian system of instruction and the Angletean system of mathematics to the academy. In 1835, he resigned from his position at the academy to study law. Hastings began to study law with Esq. of Norwich. After a few months of study, he decided to move to Indiana, he completed his legal studies there with Esq.. He did not enter the practice of law and instead became an editor of the Indiana Signal, where he supported Martin Van Buren in his presidential campaign, he moved to Terre Haute, Indiana, in December 1836 and underwent a legal examination by Judge Porters of the Circuit Court. In January 1837, Hastings moved to the Iowa District, part of the Wisconsin Territory.
He settled in Burlington for a short time and moved to Bloomington, which would become Muscatine, Iowa. He was examined by Judge Irwin, was admitted to the bar, opened a law office. Shortly after this, he was commissioned Justice of the Peace by Wisconsin Territorial Governor Henry Dodge, he had jurisdiction over the 90 miles between Burlington and Davenport, the western boundary was undefined. He only had one case to deal with: a man accused of stealing US$30 from a citizen and $3 from the court, he found the man guilty and sentenced him to be tied to an oak tree, receive 33 lashes across his back, be transported across the Mississippi River to Illinois, be banished from the territory forever. When Iowa Territory was organized in 1838, he won an election to represent Muscatine County, Louisa County, Slaughter County in the House of Representatives of the Iowa Territorial General Assembly, he served from November 12, 1838, to January 25, 1839. He was reelected to that position in 1839, this time representing Muscatine County and Johnson County from November 4, 1839, to January 14, 1840.
In 1840, a border conflict with Missouri called. He helped capture a sheriff. No battle took place, the two states compromised on the border issue. Hastings married Azalea Brodt on June 10, 1840, in Iowa, they had two children while living in Muscatine and Clara L. He was elected to the Legislative Council that year, representing Muscatine County and Johnson County again, served from November 3, 1840 to January 15, 1841, he was re-elected the following year, served from December 6, 1841 to February 18, 1842. He was not elected to the Sixth General Assemblies, he was elected President of the Legislative Council for the Seventh General Assembly, represented Muscatine County and Johnson County on the council. He served from May 5, 1845 to June 11, 1845, he was elected to the council for the Eight General Assembly, the final one since Iowa was to become a state on December 28, 1846. He represented the same counties he had and served from December 1, 1845 to January 19, 1846. During his time on the Legislative Council he helped compile the "Blue Book" of Iowa laws.
It became known as the "Old Blue Book" and was the first legal code for the Iowa, Nebraska and Montana Territories. In 1846, Hastings was nominated to represent Iowa at large in the United States House of Representatives as a Democrat. On December 29, 1846, he was elected over the Whig candidate G. C. R. Mitchell, he was the second youngest member serving in Congress at that time. He served during the second session of the 29th United States Congress, which ended on March 3, 1847. Close to a year after his term ended as a member of the House of Representatives, Governor Ansel Briggs appointed him as the third Chief Justice of the Iowa Supreme Court, he started his term on January 26, 1848, resigned on January 14, 1849 to move to California, his family deciding to stay in Iowa. Hastings settled in California. In September 1849, he served as Prosecuting Attorney for the newly established court in Alameda County. A few months California legislature selected him to be the first Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court.
He started his term on December 20, 1849, but the court did not assemble until March 4, 1850. In 1851, his family moved from Iowa to live with him in California. During his term as Chief Justice he
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Frank M. Pixley
Frank Morrison Pixley was an American journalist and politician. Pixley was born in Oneida County, New York; as a youth, he worked on the family farm and was first educated in the village academy at the Quaker school in Skaneateles, New York. He graduated from Hamilton College and studied law in Rochester, New York, he worked in the law office of Smith and Smith. In 1847, he went to Michigan where he was admitted to practice law and qualified to appear before the state supreme court. Two years he travelled to California during the Gold Rush, spent two winters working mines on the Yuba River, he met and, in 1853, married Amelia Van Reynegom, daughter of Captain John and Margaret Van Reynegom, who had arrived to San Francisco in 1849 aboard her parents’ ship the Linda. The Pixleys lived in the North Beach area of San Francisco. On April 30, 1851, he became the city attorney of San Francisco. In 1858, although California was a Democratic state, Pixley was elected as a Republican to represent San Francisco in the State Assembly.
In 1861, he was elected the 8th Attorney General of California. His term ended in 1863, he traveled to Washington D. C. as a Civil War correspondent. However, he could not obtain a pass from Edwin Stanton, the Secretary of War. At that he persuaded the United States Senator from California, John Conness, to let him use his congressional pass. With that he was able to spend three months in Civil War combat areas, at one time riding his horse to the front line with the Second Connecticut Regiment, he visited Ulysses S. Grant in his headquarters; the General commented. In 1868 he was the Republican candidate for Congress in California's First District, losing to incumbent Samuel Beach Axtell by more than 3500 votes, he served as the United States Attorney for the District of California in 1869. Pixley joined with Frederic Somers to found The Argonaut in April 1877; the Argonaut was considered one of the most important publications in California and it had a great deal of political influence. He was friends with former Governor of California John G. Downey, after the death of Downey's wife, introduced him to Yda Hillis Addis, a young woman who wrote for The Argonaut.
Their relationship ended. When Downey's sisters discovered the betrothal, they shanghaied the older gentleman to his native Ireland. In 1882 Governor George Clement Perkins appointed Pixley founder and editor of The Argonaut to the board of commissioners of San Francisco's Golden Gate Park. In 1888, Governor Robert Waterman appointed Pixley a trustee of the state Mining Bureau. In 1889 he was appointed to the board of the Yosemite Mariposa Grove Commission; the town of Pixley, in Tulare County, California, is named after Frank Pixley. The town began as a real estate speculation in 1884; the investors, Darwin C. Allen and William B. Bradbury, knew their project would succeed only if the town was connected to the mainline of the Southern Pacific, they contacted Frank Pixley, a man whom they knew was a friend of Leland Stanford, president of the Southern Pacific. In 1886, Pixley joined with the original investors as a partner in the Pixley Townsite Company; the company purchased additional land in the vicinity.
When The Southern Pacific extended its tracks to the Townsite, the town prospered. The terms of sale for the land was 25% down, the rest to be carried back for three years by the owners at 8 percent interest; the partners made a handsome profit. Special railroad fares were offered to people in other areas of California and as far away as Boston in order to bring potential customers to see the new lands and the investment possibilities near Pixley; the first house built in Pixley was for the widow of Frank Pixley's brother William. Her three sons and daughter lived in the home. Emma bought a quarter section of an adjoining piece of land where she farmed until they moved back to San Francisco. Frank Pixley advertised the town named after him in his biweekly journal The Argonaut. Brief biography with picture Obituary
Kamala Devi Harris is an American attorney and politician who has served as the junior United States Senator from California since 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, she served as the 32nd Attorney General of California from 2011 to 2017, as the 27th District Attorney of San Francisco from 2004 to 2011. On January 21, 2019, she announced her campaign to run for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2020 United States presidential election. Harris was born in Oakland, is a graduate of Howard University and University of California, Hastings College of the Law. In the 1990s, she worked in the San Francisco District Attorney's Office and the City Attorney of San Francisco's office. In 2004, she was elected District attorney of San Francisco. Harris was narrowly elected as California's Attorney General in 2010 and was reelected in 2014 by a wide margin. On November 8, 2016, she defeated Loretta Sanchez in the 2016 Senate election to succeed outgoing Senator Barbara Boxer, becoming California's third female U.
S. Senator, the first of Jamaican or Indian ancestry. Since becoming a Senator, Harris has supported Medicare-for-all, legalization of recreational marijuana, sanctuary cities, passing a DREAM Act, lowering taxes for the working and middle classes while raising taxes on corporations and the wealthiest top 1% of Americans. Harris launched her presidential campaign on January 27, 2019, where she vowed to fight for the "largest middle class tax cut in a generation." Kamala Harris was born on October 20, 1964, in Oakland, California, to a Tamil Indian mother and a Jamaican father. Her mother, Shyamala Gopalan Harris, was a breast cancer scientist who immigrated to the United States from Madras in 1960, her father, Donald Harris, is a Stanford University economics professor who emigrated from Jamaica in 1961 for graduate study in economics at University of California, Berkeley. Despite this, Kamala Harris is most referred to as African American rather than Caribbean American. CNN's April Ryan has suggested that due to the history of slavery in Jamaica, Harris may indeed be of African descent.
Recalling the lives of his grandmothers, Donald Harris wrote that one was related to a plantation owner while the other had unknown ancestry. Her name, comes from the Sanskrit word for the lotus flower, her family lived in Berkeley, where both of her parents attended graduate school. She was close to P. V. Gopalan, an Indian diplomat; as a child, she visited her extended family in the Besant Nagar neighborhood of Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Harris grew up going to both a Hindu temple, she has Maya Harris. They both sang in a Baptist choir. Harris's parents divorced when she was seven, her mother was granted custody of the children by court-ordered settlement. After the divorce, when Harris was 12, her mother moved with the children to Montreal, Québec, where Shyamala accepted a position doing research at Jewish General Hospital and teaching at McGill University. After graduating from Westmount High School in Westmount, Quebec in 1981, Harris attended Howard University in Washington, D. C. where she majored in political science and economics.
At Howard, Harris was elected to the liberal arts student council as freshman class representative, was a member of the debate team, joined the Alpha Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority. Harris returned to California, where she earned her Juris Doctor from the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, in 1989, she was admitted to the State Bar of California in 1990. Harris served as a deputy district attorney in Alameda County, from 1990 to 1998. Harris says she sought a career in law enforcement because she wanted to be "at the table where decisions are made". During this time she was appointed to several state boards. In 2000, San Francisco's elected City Attorney, Louise Renne, recruited Harris to join her office, where she was chief of the Community and Neighborhood Division, which oversees civil code enforcement matters. Harris defeated two-term incumbent Terence Hallinan in the 2003 election to become District Attorney of the City and County of San Francisco. In April 2004, San Francisco Police Department Officer Isaac Espinoza was shot and killed in the line of duty.
Three days Harris announced she would not seek the death penalty, infuriating the San Francisco Police Officers Association. During Officer Espinoza's funeral at St. Mary's Cathedral, U. S. Senator and former San Francisco mayor Dianne Feinstein rose to the pulpit and called on Harris, sitting in the front pew, to secure the death penalty, prompting a standing ovation from the 2,000 uniformed police officers in attendance. Harris still refused. Officer Espinoza's killer was sentenced to life in prison. Shortly thereafter, Harris demoted veteran career prosecutor Paul Cummins, the chief assistant to her predecessor from the 80-person felony prosecution unit to Harris' former position in the DA's office. In 2004, as District Attorney, Harris started a reentry program. Initiative participants plead guilty in exchange for a deferral of sentencing and regular appearances before a judge over a year-long period. Participants who succeed in obtaining a high-school-equivalency diploma, maintaining steady employment, taking parenting classes, passing drug tests have their records cleared.
Over eight years, the program produced fewer than 300 graduates, but achieved a low recidivism rate. In 2009, a state law (the Back on Track Reentry Ac
Morey Stanley Mosk was an Associate Justice of the California Supreme Court for 37 years, holds the record for the longest-serving justice on that court. Before sitting on the Supreme Court, he served as Attorney General of California and as a trial court judge, among other governmental positions. Mosk was the last Justice of the California Supreme Court to have served in non-judicial elected office before his appointment to the bench; the Los Angeles County Courthouse is named after him. Mosk was born in Texas, his parents moved when he was three years old, he grew up in Rockford, Illinois. His parents and Minna, were Reform Jews who did not believe in strict religious observances. Since Rockford sits next to the Wisconsin border, Mosk's parents followed Wisconsin politics and were strong supporters of Progressive Wisconsin Senator Robert M. La Follette Sr. Mosk graduated from the University of Chicago in 1933 with a bachelor's degree in philosophy. Mosk's life was affected by the Great Depression.
Because his father's business in Rockford was floundering, his parents and brother relocated to Los Angeles, Mosk followed them after graduating from college, as they could not afford to support him in further studies in Chicago. At the time, it was possible to use the last year of a bachelor's degree as the first year of a three-year law degree program, so while living with his parents, Mosk was able to obtain a law degree in two years, he earned a LL. B was admitted to the bar that same year. Thanks to the Depression, no major Los Angeles firms were hiring. Mosk opened his solo practice, shared an office with four other solos, each maintaining separate practices. During those difficult years, Mosk was a general practitioner. While practicing law, Mosk assisted the Democratic politician Culbert Olson with campaigning, in 1939 was given the job of executive secretary to Olson, the first Democrat elected Governor of California in the 20th-century. During Olson's last days in office, after his defeat for re-election by Republican Earl Warren, he appointed Mosk a Los Angeles County Superior Court judge at the age of 31, the youngest in the state.
Mosk prevailed. In March 1945, Mosk left the Superior Court to volunteer for service in the U. S. Army during World War II as a private, but spent most of the war in a transportation unit in New Orleans and never went abroad. After honorable discharge in September 1945, he returned to California and resumed his judicial career. On October 18, 1945, actress Ava Gardner married bandleader Artie Shaw at Mosk's house. In 1947, as a Superior Court judge, he declared the enforcement of racial restrictive covenants unconstitutional before the Supreme Court of the United States did so in Shelley v. Kraemer, he presided over many reported cases. In 1958, he was elected Attorney General of California by the largest margin of any contested election in the country that year, was the first person of Jewish descent to serve as a statewide executive branch officer in California. In 1962, he was re-elected by a large margin, he served as the California National Committeeman to the Democratic National Committee and was an early supporter of John F. Kennedy for President.
He remained close to the Kennedy family. As attorney general for nearly six years, he issued two thousand written opinions, handled a series of landmark cases, on January 8, 1962, appeared before the U. S. Supreme Court in Arizona v. California. Mosk established the Attorney General's Civil Rights Division and fought to force the Professional Golfers' Association of America to amend its bylaws denying access to minority golfers, he established Consumer Rights, Constitutional Rights, Antitrust divisions. As California's chief law enforcement officer, he sponsored legislation creating the California Commission on Peace Officers' Standards and Training. Mosk commissioned a study of the resurgence of right-wing extremism in California, which famously characterized the secretive John Birch Society as a "cadre" of "wealthy businessmen, retired military officers and little old ladies in tennis shoes." While an early favorite to be elected to the United States Senate after the death of incumbent Clair Engle, Mosk was appointed to the California Supreme Court in September 1964 by Governor Edmund G. "Pat" Brown to succeed the elevated Roger J. Traynor.
Mosk was retained by the electorate in 1964, to three full twelve-year terms from 1974. Although Mosk was a self-described liberal, he displayed an independent streak that sometimes surprised his admirers and critics alike. For example, in Bakke v. Regents of the University of California, Mosk ruled that the minority admissions program at the University of California, Davis violated the equal protection clause of the U. S. Constitution; this decision was affirmed by the U. S. Supreme Court in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U. S. 265, unlike Mosk's opinion, held that race could be factored in admissions to promote ethnic diversity. The U. S. Supreme Court agreed with Mosk in rejecting racial quotas, he voted to uphold the constitutionality of a parental consent for abortion law—a law struck down by a majority of the court. Although opposed to the death penalty, Mosk voted to uphold death penalty convictions on a number of occasions, he believed he was obligated to enforce laws properly enacted by the people of the state of California though he did not approve of such la