Frederick William IV, the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 7 June 1840 to his death. Referred to as the "romanticist on the throne", he is best remembered for the many buildings he had constructed in Berlin and Potsdam, as well as for the completion of the Gothic Cologne Cathedral. In politics, he was a conservative, who pursued a moderate policy of easing press censorship and reconciling with the Catholic population of the kingdom. During the German revolutions of 1848–1849, he at first accommodated the revolutionaries but rejected the title of Emperor of the Germans offered by the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849 as not the Parliament's to give and used military force to crush the revolutionaries throughout the German Confederation. From 1849 onward he converted Prussia into a constitutional monarchy and acquired the port of Wilhelmshaven in the Jade Treaty of 1853. From 1857 to 1861, he was left incapacitated until his death, his brother Wilhelm served as regent after 1858 and succeeded him as King.
Born to Frederick William III by his wife Queen Louise, he was her favourite son. Frederick William was educated by private tutors, many of whom were experienced civil servants, such as Friedrich Ancillon, he gained military experience by serving in the Prussian Army during the War of Liberation against Napoleon in 1814, although he was an indifferent soldier. He was a draftsman interested in both architecture and landscape gardening and was a patron of several great German artists, including architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and composer Felix Mendelssohn. In 1823 he married Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria. Since she was a Roman Catholic, the preparations for this marriage included difficult negotiations which ended with her conversion to Lutheranism. There were two wedding ceremonies—one in Munich, another in Berlin; the couple had a harmonious marriage, but it remained childless. Frederick William was a staunch Romanticist, his devotion to this movement, which in the German States featured nostalgia for the Middle Ages, was responsible for his developing into a conservative at an early age.
In 1815, when he was only twenty, the crown prince exerted his influence to structure the proposed new constitution of 1815, never enacted, in such a way that the landed aristocracy would hold the greatest power. He was against the liberalization of Germany and only aspired to unify its many states within what he viewed as a legitimate framework, inspired by the ancient laws and customs of the dissolved Holy Roman Empire. Frederick William opposed the idea of a unified German state, believing that Austria was divinely ordained to rule over Germany, contented himself with the title of "Grand General of the Realm". Frederick William became King of Prussia on the death of his father in 1840. Through a personal union, he became the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel, today part of Switzerland. In 1842, he gave his father's menagerie at Pfaueninsel to the new Berlin Zoo, which opened its gates in 1844 as the first of its kind in Germany. Other projects during his reign—often involving his close collaboration with the architects—included the Alte Nationalgalerie and the Neues Museum in Berlin, the Orangerieschloss at Potsdam as well as the reconstruction of Schloss Stolzenfels on the Rhine and Burg Hohenzollern, in the ancestral homelands of the dynasty which became part of Prussia in 1850.
He enlarged and redecorated his father's Erdmannsdorf manor house. Although a staunch conservative, Frederick William did not seek to be a despot, so he toned down the reactionary policies pursued by his father, easing press censorship and promising to enact a constitution at some point, but he refused to create an elected legislative assembly, preferring to work with the nobility through "united committees" of the provincial estates. Despite being a devout Lutheran, his Romantic leanings led him to settle the Cologne church conflict by releasing the imprisoned Clemens August von Droste-Vischering, the Archbishop of Cologne, he patronized further construction of Cologne Cathedral, Cologne having become part of Prussia in 1815. In 1844, he attended the celebrations marking the completion of the cathedral, becoming the first King of Prussia to enter a Roman Catholic house of worship; when he called a national assembly in 1847, it was not a representative body, but rather a United Diet comprising all the provincial estates, which had the right to levy taxes and take out loans, but no right to meet at regular intervals.
When revolution broke out in Prussia in March 1848, part of the larger series of Revolutions of 1848, the king moved to repress it with the army, but on 19 March he decided to recall the troops and place himself at the head of the movement. He committed himself to German unification, formed a liberal government, convened a national assembly, ordered that a constitution be drawn up. Once his position was more secure again, however, he had the army reoccupy Berlin and in December dissolved the assembly, he did, remain dedicated to unification for a time, leading the Frankfurt Parliament to offer him the crown of Germany on 3 April 1849, which he refused, purportedly saying that he would not accept "a crown from the gutter". The King's refusal was rooted in his Romantic aspiration to re-establish the medieval Holy Roman Empire, comprising smaller, semi-sovereign monarchies under the limited authority of a Habsburg emperor. Therefore, Frederick William would only accept the imperial crown after being elected by the Ger
Branigan is the debut studio album by American singer Laura Branigan. It was released in March 1982 by Atlantic Records; the album's lead single, "All Night with Me", reached number 69 on the US Billboard Hot 100, while the second single, an English version of Italian singer Umberto Tozzi's song "Gloria", was a commercial success, propelling Branigan to international prominence. The album was certified Gold in Canada, her Euro disco version of "Gloria" was nominated for a Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female in 1983. A remastered and expanded edition of the album was released on July 2014, by Gold Legion. Included is the extended 12″ version of "Gloria" and several hard to find tracks from the album sessions, all but one of which were released as singles or B-sides prior to the release of the final album. Credits adapted from the liner notes of Branigan. Jürgen Koppers – recording, mixing John Kovarek – recording Brian Gardner – mastering at Allen Zentz Mastering, California. Jack White – producer Greg Mathieson – co-producer Jim Houghton – photography Bob Defrin – art direction
Green Township is one of the sixteen townships of Scioto County, United States. The 2010 census counted 4,381 people in the township. Located in the far south of the county along the Ohio River, it borders the following townships: Porter Township - north Vernon Township - northeast Elizabeth Township, Lawrence County - east Hamilton Township, Lawrence County - southeastGreenup County, Kentucky lies across the Ohio River to the west. No municipalities are located in Green Township, although the census-designated place of Franklin Furnace lies in the northeastern part of the township, the unincorporated community of Haverhill lies in the south of the township. Both of these communities are Ohio River towns. Named after Griffin Green, a land agent, it is one of sixteen Green Townships statewide. Origins of Green Township date to between 1803 and 1811; the community of Haverhill was settled as early as 1797. The Powellsville community dates to July 31, 1846; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1.
Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. County website