Frederik George Pohl Jr. was an American science-fiction writer and fan, with a career spanning more than 75 years—from his first published work, the 1937 poem "Elegy to a Dead Satellite: Luna", to the 2011 novel All the Lives He Led and articles and essays published in 2012. From about 1959 until 1969, Pohl edited Galaxy and its sister magazine If, his 1977 novel Gateway won four "year's best novel" awards: the Hugo voted by convention participants, the Locus voted by magazine subscribers, the Nebula voted by American science-fiction writers, the juried academic John W. Campbell Memorial Award, he won the Campbell Memorial Award again for the 1984 collection of novellas Years of the City, one of two repeat winners during the first 40 years. For his 1979 novel Jem, Pohl won a U. S. National Book Award in the one-year category Science Fiction, it was a finalist for three other year's best novel awards. He won four Hugo and three Nebula Awards, including receiving both for the 1977 novel Gateway.
The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America named Pohl its 12th recipient of the Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award in 1993 and he was inducted by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame in 1998, its third class of two dead and two living writers. Pohl won the Hugo Award for Best Fan Writer in 2010, for his blog, "The Way the Future Blogs". Pohl was the son of Anna Jane Mason. Pohl Sr. held various jobs, the Pohls lived in such wide-flung locations as Texas, New Mexico, the Panama Canal Zone. The family settled in Brooklyn, he attended Brooklyn Technical High School, dropped out at 17. In 2009, he was awarded an honorary diploma from Brooklyn Tech. While a teenager, he co-founded the New York–based Futurians fan group, began lifelong friendships with Donald Wollheim, Isaac Asimov, others who would become important writers and editors. Pohl said that other "friends came and went and were gone, many of the ones I met through fandom were friends all their lives – Isaac, Damon Knight, Cyril Kornbluth, Dirk Wylie, Dick Wilson.
In fact, there are one or two – Jack Robins, Dave Kyle – whom I still count as friends, seventy-odd years later...." He published. During 1936, Pohl joined the Young Communist League because of its positions for unions and against racial prejudice, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, he became president of the local Flatbush III Branch of the YCL in Brooklyn. Pohl has said that after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 1939, the party line changed and he could no longer support it, at which point he left. Pohl served in the United States Army from April 1943 until November 1945, rising to sergeant as an air corps weatherman. After training in Illinois and Colorado, he was stationed in Italy with the 456th Bombardment Group. Pohl was married five times, his first wife, Leslie Perri, was another Futurian. He married Dorothy LesTina in Paris in August 1945 while both were serving in the military in Europe. During 1948, he married Judith Merril. Pohl and Merril divorced in 1952. In 1953, he married Carol M. Ulf Stanton, with whom he had three children and collaborated on several books.
From 1984 until his death, Pohl was married to science-fiction expert and academic Elizabeth Anne Hull. He fathered four children -- Frederik III, Frederik IV and Kathy. Grandchildren include chef Tobias Pohl-Weary. From 1984 on, he lived in a suburb of Chicago, he was a longtime resident of Middletown, New Jersey. Pohl began using pseudonyms for most of his early works, his first publication was the poem "Elegy to a Dead Satellite: Luna" under the name of Elton Andrews, in the October 1937 issue of Amazing Stories, edited by T. O'Conor Sloane, his first story, the collaboration with C. M. Kornbluth "Before the Universe", appeared in 1940 under the pseudonym S. D. Gottesman. Pohl started a career as a literary agent in 1937, but it was a sideline for him until after World War II, when he began doing it full-time, he ended up "representing more than half the successful writers in science fiction", but his agency did not succeed financially, he closed it down in the early 1950s. Pohl stopped being Asimov's agent—the only one the latter had—when he became editor from 1939 to 1943 of two pulp magazines, Astonishing Stories and Super Science Stories.
Stories by Pohl appeared in these science-fiction magazines, but never under his own name. Work written in collaboration with Cyril M. Kornbluth was credited to S. D. Gottesman or Scott Mariner. For Pohl's solo work, stories were credited to James MacCreigh Works by "Gottesman", "Lavond", "MacCreigh" continued to appear in various science-fiction pulp magazines throughout the 1940s. In his autobiography, Pohl said that he stopped editing the two magazines at the time of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. Pohl co-founded the Hydra Club, a loose collection of science-fiction professionals and fans who met during the late 1940s and 1950s. From the early 1960s until 1969, Pohl served as editor of G
Leopold Anthony Stokowski was an English conductor of Polish descent. One of the leading conductors of the early and mid-20th century, he is best known for his long association with the Philadelphia Orchestra and his appearance in the Disney film Fantasia, he was noted for his free-hand conducting style that spurned the traditional baton and for obtaining a characteristically sumptuous sound from the orchestras he directed. Stokowski was music director of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, New York Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra, the Houston Symphony Orchestra, the Symphony of the Air and many others, he was the founder of the All-American Youth Orchestra, the New York City Symphony, the Hollywood Bowl Symphony Orchestra and the American Symphony Orchestra. Stokowski conducted the music for and appeared in several Hollywood films, most notably Disney's Fantasia, was a lifelong champion of contemporary composers, giving many premieres of new music during his 60-year conducting career.
Stokowski, who made his official conducting debut in 1909, appeared in public for the last time in 1975 but continued making recordings until June 1977, a few months before his death at the age of 95. The son of an English-born cabinet-maker of Polish heritage, Kopernik Joseph Boleslaw Stokowski, his Northampton-born wife Annie-Marion, Stokowski was born Leopold Anthony Stokowski, although on occasion in life he altered his middle name to Antoni, per the Polish spelling. There is some mystery surrounding his early life. For example, he spoke with an non-British accent, though he was born and raised in London. On occasion, Stokowski gave his year of birth as 1887 instead of 1882, as in a letter to the Hugo Riemann Musiklexicon in 1950, which incorrectly gave his birthplace as Kraków, Poland. Nicolas Slonimsky, editor of Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, received a letter from a Finnish encyclopaedia editor that said, "The Maestro himself told me that he was born in Pomerania, Germany, in 1889."
In Germany there was a corresponding rumour that his original name was "Stock". However, Stokowski's birth certificate gives his birth on 18 April 1882, at 13 Upper Marylebone Street, in the Marylebone District of London. Stokowski was named after his Polish-born grandfather Leopold, who died in the English county of Surrey on 13 January 1879, at the age of 49; the "mystery" surrounding his origins and accent is clarified in Oliver Daniel's 1000-page biography Stokowski – A Counterpoint of View, in which Daniel reveals Stokowski came under the influence of his first wife, pianist Olga Samaroff. Samaroff, born Lucy Mary Agnes Hickenlooper, was from Galveston and adopted a more exotic-sounding name to further her career. For professional and career reasons, she "urged him to emphasize only the Polish part of his background" once he became a resident of the United States, he studied at the Royal College of Music, where he first enrolled in 1896 at the age of thirteen, making him one of the youngest students to do so.
In his life in the United States, Stokowski would perform six of the nine symphonies composed by his fellow organ student Ralph Vaughan Williams. Stokowski sang in the choir of the St Marylebone Parish Church, he became the assistant organist to Sir Walford Davies at The Temple Church. By age 16, Stokowski was elected to a membership in the Royal College of Organists. In 1900, he formed the choir of St. Mary's Church, Charing Cross Road, where he trained the choirboys and played the organ. In 1902, he was appointed the choir director of St. James's Church, Piccadilly, he attended The Queen's College, where he earned a Bachelor of Music degree in 1903. In 1905, Stokowski began work in New York City as the organist and choir director of St. Bartholomew's Church, he was popular among the parishioners, who included members of the Vanderbilt family, but in the course of time, he resigned this position in order to pursue a career as an orchestra conductor. Stokowski moved to Paris for additional study in conducting.
There he heard that the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra would be needing a new conductor when it returned from a long sabbatical. In 1908, Stokowski began a campaign to win this position, writing letters to Mrs. Christian R. Holmes, the orchestra's president, travelling all the way to Cincinnati, for a personal interview. Stokowski was selected over the other applicants, took up his conducting duties in late 1909; that was the year of his official conducting debut in Paris with the Colonne Orchestra on 12 May 1909, when Stokowski accompanied his bride to be, the pianist Olga Samaroff, in Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto No. 1. Stokowski's conducting debut in London took place the following week on 18 May with the New Symphony Orchestra at Queen's Hall, his engagement as new permanent conductor in Cincinnati was a great success. He introduced the concept of "pops concerts" and, starting with his first season, he began championing the work of living composers, his concerts included performances of music by Richard Strauss, Rachmaninoff, Glazunov, Saint-Saëns and many others.
He conducted the American premieres of new works by such composers as Elgar, whose 2nd Symphony was first presented there on 24 November 1911. He was to maintain his advocacy of contemporary music to the end of his career. However, in early 1912, Stokowski became frustrated with the politics of the orchestra's Board of Directors, submitted his resignation. There was some dispute over w
They Were Expendable is a 1945 American war film directed by John Ford and starring Robert Montgomery and John Wayne and featuring Donna Reed. The film is based on the 1942 book by William L. White, relating the story of the exploits of Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Three, a PT boat unit defending the Philippines against Japanese invasion during the Battle of the Philippines in World War II. While a work of fiction, the book was based on actual people; the characters of John Brickley and Rusty Ryan are fictionalizations of the actual subjects, John D. Bulkeley and Robert Kelly, respectively. Both the film and the book –, a best seller and, excerpted in Reader's Digest and Life – depict actions which did not occur, but were believed to be real during the war. In December 1941, a squadron of U. S. Navy PT boats under the command of Lt. John "Brick" Brickley and based at Cavite in the Philippines demonstrates its capabilities, but the admiral in command is unimpressed. One of Brick's men, Lt. J. G.
"Rusty" Ryan becomes disgusted and is in the middle of writing his request for a transfer when news arrives of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Brickley are Ryan are frustrated for a time as they are assigned to messenger duty, their superiors send them to attack larger Japanese vessels. As they are about to leave on a mission to take on a large Japanese cruiser, Brick orders Rusty to the hospital when it is discovered that he has blood poisoning. While in the hospital, Rusty begins a romance with Army nurse Sandy Davyss. Brick's boats sink the cruiser, after which the squadron meets with more and more success, though at the cost of both boats and men. However, the American forces are fighting a losing battle, it is only a matter of time before the Philippines will fall. With the mounting Japanese onslaught against the doomed American garrisons at Bataan and Corregidor, the squadron is sent to evacuate General Douglas MacArthur, his family, others; this done, they resume their attacks against the Japanese, who whittle down the squadron.
Crews without boats are sent to fight as infantry. The last boat is turned over to the Army for messenger duty. Brickley and two ensigns are airlifted out on the last plane because the PT boats have proved their worth and they are needed stateside as trainers; the remaining enlisted men, led by Chief Mulcahey, are left behind to continue the fight with remnants of the U. S. Army and Filipino guerrillas. Since the acquisition of the film rights of William L. White's They Were Expendable MGM sought Ford to direct a film based on the book. During this time Ford met Lieutenant John D. Bulkeley during the preparation of the Normandy Invasion and sighted Bulkeley's former executive officer Lt Robert Montgomery on D-Day. According to Turner Classic Movies host Ben Mankiewicz, during filming, director John Ford, a notoriously hard taskmaster, was hard on Wayne, who did not serve in the armed forces. During production, Ford broke his leg, he turned to Montgomery – who had commanded a PT boat – to temporarily take over for him as director.
Montgomery did so well. The film, which received extensive support from the Navy Department, was shot on location in Key Biscayne and the Florida Keys; this region most approximated the South West Pacific Theater. Actual U. S. Navy 80-foot Elco PT boats were used throughout the filming, albeit re-marked with false hull numbers that would have been in use in late 1941 and early 1942. Additional U. S. naval aircraft from nearby naval air stations in Miami, Fort Lauderdale and Key West were temporarily remarked and were used to simulate Japanese aircraft in the film. John Ford's onscreen directing credit reads, "Directed by John Ford, Captain U. S. N. R.". U. S. N. Ret". U. S. N. R." The film earned two Oscar nominations, for Best Sound Recording, for Douglas Shearer, for Best Effects. It was named to the "10 Best Films of 1945" list by The New York Times. John Wayne filmography Blank, Joan Gill. Key Biscayne. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, 1996. ISBN 1-56164-096-4. At Close Quarters – PT Boats in the United States Navy by Captain Robert J. Bulkley, Jr. USNR They Were Expendable on IMDb They Were Expendable at AllMovie They Were Expendable at Rotten Tomatoes They Were Expendable at the TCM Movie Database They Were Expendable at the American Film Institute Catalog They Were Expendable: A Critique of John Ford's 1945 War Film