Free software

Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty, not price: users—individually or in cooperation with computer programmers—are free to do what they want with their copies of a free software regardless of how much is paid to obtain the program. Computer programs are deemed free if they give users ultimate control over the software and, over their devices; the right to study and modify a computer program entails that source code—the preferred format for making changes—be made available to users of that program. While this is called "access to source code" or "public availability", the Free Software Foundation recommends against thinking in those terms, because it might give the impression that users have an obligation to give non-users a copy of the program. Although the term "free software" had been used loosely in the past, Richard Stallman is credited with tying it to the sense under discussion and starting the free-software movement in 1983, when he launched the GNU Project: a collaborative effort to create a freedom-respecting operating system, to revive the spirit of cooperation once prevalent among hackers during the early days of computing.

Free software thus differs from: proprietary software, such as Microsoft Office, Google Docs and Slides or iWork from Apple. Users cannot study and share their source code. Freeware, a category of proprietary software that does not require payment for basic use. For software under the purview of copyright to be free, it must carry a software license whereby the author grants users the aforementioned rights. Software, not covered by copyright law, such as software in the public domain, is free as long as the source code is in the public domain too, or otherwise available without restrictions. Proprietary software uses restrictive software licences or EULAs and does not provide users with the source code. Users are thus or technically prevented from changing the software, this results on reliance on the publisher to provide updates and support.. Users may not reverse engineer, modify, or redistribute proprietary software. Beyond copyright law and lack of source code, there can exist additional obstacles keeping users from exercising freedom over a piece of software, such as software patents and digital rights management.

Free software can be a commercial activity or not. Some free software is developed by volunteer computer programmers while other is developed by corporations. Although both definitions refer to equivalent corpora of programs, the Free Software Foundation recommends using the term "free software" rather than "open-source software", because the goals and messaging are quite dissimilar. "Open source" and its associated campaign focus on the technicalities of the public development model and marketing free software to businesses, while taking the ethical issue of user rights lightly or antagonistically. Stallman has stated that considering the practical advantages of free software is like considering the practical advantages of not being handcuffed, in that it is not necessary for an individual to consider practical reasons in order to realize that being handcuffed is undesirable in itself; the FSF notes that "Open Source" has one specific meaning in common English, namely that "you can look at the source code."

It states that while the term "Free Software" can lead to two different interpretations, at least one of them is consistent with the intended meaning unlike the term "Open Source". The loan adjective "libre" is used to avoid the ambiguity of the word "free" in English language, the ambiguity with the older usage of "free software" as public-domain software. See Gratis versus libre; the first formal definition of free software was published by FSF in February 1986. That definition, written by Richard Stallman, is still maintained today and states that software is free software if people who receive a copy of the software have the following four freedoms; the numbering begins with zero, not only as a spoof on the common usage of zero-based numbering in programming languages, but because "Freedom 0" was not included in the list, but added first in the list as it was considered important. Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program for any purpose. Freedom 1: The freedom to study how the program works, change it to make it do what you wish.

Freedom 2: The freedom to redistribute and make copies so you can help your neighbour. Freedom 3: The freedom to improve the program, release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits. Freedoms 1 and 3 require source code to be available because studying and modifying software without its source code can range from impractical to nearly impossible. Thus, free software means that computer users have the freedom to cooperate with whom they choose, to control the software they use. To summarize this into a remark distinguishing libre software from gratis software, the Free Software Foundation says: "Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of'free' as in'free speech', not as in'free beer'". See Gratis versus libre. In the late 1990s, other groups published their own definitions that describe an identical set of software; the most notable are Debian Free

Mersch Castle

Mersch Castle in central Luxembourg is one of the castles belonging to the Valley of the Seven Castles. Located in the centre of Mersch, its history goes back to the 13th century. Today the castle houses the administrative offices of the local commune; the castle was built in the 13th century by Theodoric, a knight in the service of Countess Ermesinde of Luxembourg. It was burnt down by the Burgundians. In 1574, Paul von der Veltz transformed the building into a comfortable castle in the Renaissance style; the keep had large windows and the property was surrounded by a protective wall with seven towers. Finely vaulted ceilings were erected over the rooms on the first floor; the Knights' Hall on the second floor has a magnificent chimney. The arms of 16 noblemen decorated the walls. In 1603, the castle was again destroyed by the Dutch. In 1635, during the Thirty Years' War, the castle and the village were left in a sorry state. However, around 1700, it was once again repaired, this time by Johann-Friedrich von Elter who rebuilt the gate and appended his coat of arms.

The chapel was restored in 1717 by von Elter. The altar bears the arms of Charlotte von Elter. In 1898, the Sonnenberg-Reinach family sold the castle to a businessman called Schwartz-Hallinger. In 1930, restoration work was carried out by the owner M. Uhres. In 1938, a youth hostel was housed in a new building adjacent to the castle. From 1957, the commune acquired the building but sold it to the State of Luxembourg in 1960; as a result of an exchange agreement, the commune regained ownership in 1988 and undertook substantial renovation work for the needs of itse administrative services which now occupy the building. List of castles in Luxembourg

Gareth Grant

Gareth Michael Grant is an English footballer. He played as a professional in the Football League and Premier League for Bradford City, Halifax Town and Lincoln City. Grant made 30 appearances in the Football League for Halifax Town and Lincoln City. At Bradford he scored three goals, against FK Atlantas in the Intertoto Cup, Darlington in the League Cup and Portsmouth in the league. During his spell with Lincoln he scored once against Chesterfield in the LDV Vans Trophy. After Lincoln, he played in non-league football for Chester City, for whom he made one start and scored two goals in the Cheshire Senior Cup against Cheadle Town. Grant played for Gainsborough Trinity and Harrogate Town, where he scored 15 goals from 43 appearances in all competitions in the 2005–06 season. In the summer of 2006, Grant moved to Farsley Celtic and helped them to gain promotion to the Conference National in 2007, including scoring a goal in the play-off final win of that year. In February 2008, Grant re-signed for Harrogate Town in time for him to face his former team Gainsborough Trinity.

He was released that year spent nearly a year out of football before rejoining Farsley Celtic in March 2009. On 13 March 2010 Grant signed alongside his Farsley strike partner Lee Ellington for fellow Conference North side Droylsden, but left shortly afterwards to join former club Gainsborough Trinity. On 1 July 2010 he joined Farsley, moving on to join Ossett Town in July 2013. In March 2014 he joined Frickley Athletic. A. ^ These figures only include seasons in the Conference National, so are incomplete. Gareth Grant at Soccerbase Gareth Grant at Soccerbase Chester City'What happened to...?' Article 2008 interview on Farsley Today Lincoln City F. C. Official Archive Profile