Freedom Party of Austria

The Freedom Party of Austria is a right-wing populist, national-conservative political party in Austria. The party, led by Norbert Hofer since September 2019, is a member of the Identity and Democracy group in the European Parliament, as well as of the Identity and Democracy Party; the FPÖ was founded in 1956 as the successor to the short-lived Federation of Independents, representing the "Third Camp" of Austrian politics, i.e. pan-Germanists and national liberals opposed to both socialism and Catholic clericalism. The party's first leader was a former Nazi functionary and SS officer; the FPÖ, a third party with modest support, was admitted to the Liberal International in 1979 and participated in a government led by the Social Democratic Party, following the 1983 legislative election. When Jörg Haider was chosen as new FPÖ leader in 1986, the party started an ideological turn towards right-wing populism; this new political course soon resulted in a strong surge in electoral support, although it led the SPÖ to break ties.

In 1993, after a controversial proposal on immigration issues, the adherents of a position closer to classical liberalism broke away from the FPÖ and formed the Liberal Forum, which took over the FPÖ's membership in the LI and would eventually merge into NEOS. Among other things, the party supports the unification of South Tyrol with Tyrol and therefore the South Tyrolean secessionist movement, which notably includes its South Tyrolean sister party Die Freiheitlichen. In the 1999 legislative election the FPÖ placed second and won 26.9% of the vote, its best-ever result in a nationwide election, for the first time came ahead of the Austrian People's Party by a small margin. The FPÖ reached a coalition agreement with the ÖVP in 2000, but ceded the chancellorship to the ÖVP to appease international opinion; the FPÖ soon became uncomfortable with governing and fell in the 2002 legislative election, in which it obtained only 10% of the vote. In 2005 increasing internal disagreements in the FPÖ led Haider and several leading members to defect and form the Alliance for the Future of Austria, which replaced the FPÖ as government partner.

Under the leadership of Heinz-Christian Strache, the party re-gained and increased popular support. In the 2013 legislative election the FPÖ won 20.5% of the vote and, more it came ahead either of the SPÖ or the ÖVP in some state elections, entered in an SPÖ-led government in Burgenland and gained more than 30% of the vote in Vienna. In the 2016 presidential election, FPÖ member Norbert Hofer won the first round, receiving 35.1%, but was defeated by The Greens' candidate Alexander Van der Bellen, 53.8% against 46.2%, in the final run-off. In the nationwide legislative snap elections in October 2017, the FPÖ won 26% of the vote, a narrow third place, entered the coalition government as a junior partner, with the ÖVP leader, Sebastian Kurz, as Chancellor; the Ibiza affair that broke out on 17 May 2019 has led Strache to tender his resignation the next day as both Vice-Chancellor and party leader, which in turn led to the collapse of the coalition with the ÖVP, subsequent new elections. The scandal was triggered by video of a July 2017 meeting in Ibiza, published on 17 May 2019, appearing to show Strache and Gudenus discussing underhanded political practices.

In the video, both politicians appeared receptive to proposals by a woman posing as the niece of a Russian oligarch, discussing providing the FPÖ positive news coverage in return for business contracts. Strache and Gudenus hinted at corrupt political practices involving other wealthy donors to the FPÖ elsewhere. In a snap election held on 29 September 2019, the Freedom Party won 16 percent of the vote; the results represent a loss of about one-third of the party's seats in parliament. The FPÖ is a descendant of the pan-German and national liberal camp dating back to the Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas. During the interwar era, the national liberal camp fought against the mutually-hostile Christian Social and Marxist camps in their struggles to structure the new republic according to their respective ideologies. After a short civil war, the Federal State of Austria, an authoritarian Christian Social dictatorship, was established in 1934. By 1938, with the Anschluss of Austria into Nazi Germany, the national liberal camp had been swallowed whole by Austrian National Socialism and all other parties were absorbed into Nazi totalitarianism.

Both Socialists and Christian Socials were persecuted under the Nazi regime, the national liberal camp was scarred after the war due to guilt by association with National Socialism. In 1949, the Federation of Independents was founded as a national liberal alternative to the main Austrian parties—the Social Democratic Party and the Austrian People's Party, successors to the interwar era Marxist and Christian Social parties; the VdU was founded by two liberal Salzburg journalists—former Nazi Germany prisoners—who wanted to stay clear of the mainstream socialist and Catholic camps and feared that hostility following the hastily devised postwar denazification policy might stimulate a revival of Nazism. Aiming to become a political home to everyone not a member of the two main parties, the VdU incorporat


Horslips are an Irish Celtic rock band that compose and perform songs inspired by traditional Irish airs and reels. The group are regarded as'founding fathers of Celtic rock' for their fusion of traditional Irish music with rock music and went on to inspire many local and international acts, they ` retired' in 1980 for an extended period. The name originated from a spoonerism on The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse which became "The Four Poxmen of The Horslypse". Although Horslips had limited commercial success when the band was playing in the 70s, there was a revival of interest in their music in the late 1990s and they came to be regarded as one of the defining bands of the Celtic rock genre. There have since been small scale reunions including appearances on The Late Late Show and RTÉ's Other Voices; the band reformed for two Irish shows in the Odyssey Arena in Belfast and the 3Arena in Dublin at the end of 2009, have continued to play shows since then. Jim Lockhart, from James's St in Dublin, studied Economics and Politics at University College Dublin.

He fell under the influence of Seán Ó Riada, wanting to build an orchestral sound out of Irish music. He plays keyboards, pipes and flute, he did vocals on a select number of songs in Manx or Irish. Eamon Carr, is from County Meath, he was one of the founding members of a poetry and beat performance group called Tara Telephone in Dublin in the late 60s that published the quarterly literary journal Capella. He is the drummer in the band. Charles O'Connor, from Middlesbrough in the UK plays concertina, mandolin and both electric and slide guitar, he shares the main vocal tasks with Barry Devlin and Johnny Fean. Barry Devlin, from Ardboe in County Tyrone, once trained as a Columban priest, he left this to do English in UCD and after joined a graphics company as a screenwriter. He is shares vocals and its unofficial front man. Johnny Fean spent his childhood in Shannon, County Clare, he soon mastered guitar, banjo and harmonica. In his teens, he played in sessions in County Clare, he incorporated it into his guitar style.

In his late teens he played in a group called Sweet Street, with Joe O'Donnell on electric fiddle and Eugene Wallace. He played in Jeremiah Henry, a rock and blues band, his idols were Eric Clapton. He left Jeremiah Henry in 1970 to play traditional music again in Limerick. Barry Devlin, Eamon Carr and Charles O'Connor met when they worked at the Ark advertising company in Dublin, they were cajoled into pretending to be a band for a Harp Lager commercial but needed a keyboard player. Devlin said; the four enjoyed the act so much. They joined guitarist Declan Sinnott, a colleague of Eamon Carr's from Tara Telephone and Gene Mulvaney to form Horslips in 1970; the band went professional on St Patrick's Day 1972 having shed Mulvaney and released a single, "Johnny's Wedding", on their own record label, Oats. Declan Sinnott left soon after due to his annoyance at the group appearing in an advert for Mirinda orange drink and was replaced by Gus Guest then Johnny Fean. Horslips designed their own artwork, wrote sleeve-notes and researched the legends that they made into concept albums.

They established their own record label and licensed the recordings through Atco, RCA and DJM for release outside Ireland. They kept their base unlike previous Irish bands. In October 1972, Horslips went to Longfield House in Tipperary and recorded their first album, Happy To Meet, Sorry To Part, in the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio, they released another single, "Green Gravel". On the first album the melodies were traditional. Jim Lockhart was on keyboards and mastered other instruments including uillean pipes. Eamon Carr was including the Irish bodhrán. Happy To Meet, Sorry To Part was the fastest-selling album for eight years in Ireland; the sleeve was an elaborate concertina-shaped fold-out design. The Abbey Theatre in Dublin asked the band to provide the background for a stage adaptation of "The Táin", they leapt at the opportunity. "Táin Bó Cúailnge" is a tenth-century story written in Middle Irish. It tells of an ancient war between Connacht; the Táin was released in 1973 and had more original material alongside the traditional tunes, greater emphasis on rock.

In the same year a single, "Dearg Doom", went to number one in Germany. Dancehall Sweethearts followed in 1974, balanced folk with rock, their fourth album, The Unfortunate Cup of Tea, drifted toward pop music and was considered less successful. RCA ended their funding deal for the group in 1975; the group went back to basics. Drive The Cold Winter Away was their most traditional album to date, they signed with DJM Records worldwide through A&R man Frank Neilson. The Book of Invasions: A Celtic Symphony, like The Táin, was an adaptation of Irish legends built into a complex story, it became their only entry in the UK Albums Chart, where it peaked at No. 39 in 1977. Ambitious, the band now tried to make it in the United States, they brought in Jim Slye to become their manager. He sold their publishing rights to William McBurney for £4,000. In 1977 they produced Aliens, about the experience of the Irish in nineteenth-century America

2007 Euro Beach Soccer League

The 2007 Euro Beach Soccer League, was the tenth edition of the Euro Beach Soccer League, the premier beach soccer competition contested between European men's national teams, occurring annually since its establishment in 1998. The league was organised by Beach Soccer Worldwide between June 29 and August 26, 2007 in six different nations across Europe. Changes made to the structure of the league in 2006 remained in place for this season. However, there were some notable adjustments to the organisation of Division B – the lower tier season was shortened to just one round of matches involving all nations and hence was renamed as the Preliminary round for this season. Spain entered the tournament as defending champions but lost to Portugal in the Superfinal semi-finals; the Portuguese proceeded to win the title, beating France in the final to claim their second European crown, having first won five years prior in 2002. This was their last top four placing to date; the league doubled as the European qualification process for the 2007 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup.

The nations finishing in first, second and fourth place qualified, along with the winners of the last chance bracket. Traditionally known as Division B, the lower tier of teams' competition was renamed as the Preliminary round for this season; the preliminary round took place prior to the Division A season. The event decided which four nations would advance to play in Division A in the year alongside the top tier's automatic entrants. For this season, BSWW discarded the traditional multi-stage regular season for lower tier nations. In place of this was organised a single round of matches to decide those to progress to Division A. Since the division consisted of just one stage of fixtures, all 12 teams participated, split into four groups of three, competing in a round robin format. Unlike in previous years, the overall division table did not determine the successful teams to progress to the next stage of their EBSL campaign. Instead, each of the four group winners secured a place in Division A.

The preliminary round took place in Greece. Key Following the completion of Division B, Division A commenced. Division A consisted of four rounds of fixtures known as stages, with one stage hosted in each of the four nations which received automatic entry into the division. All eight teams took part in each stage; each stage was played as a straight knockout tournament. All eight teams contesting the stage title started in the quarter-finals, playing one match per round until the final when the winner of the stage was crowned; the losers of the quarter and semi-finals played in consolation matches to determine their final league placements. Unlike in previous years, points earned by the participating teams for winning matches did not count towards league table. Instead, the system of awarding points established last season in 2006 continued to be used – teams earned points for the league table based on their final placement in each stage from 10 points for winning the stage, down to 1 point for finishing last.

The breakdown of the distribution of points is shown in the table below: The first stage of Division A took place in San Benedetto del Tronto, Italy. Dates: QFs – 13 July, SFs – 14 July, Finals – 15 July The second stage of Division A took place in Portimão, Portugal. Dates: QFs – 19 July, SFs – 20 July, Finals – 21 July The third stage of Division A took place in Tignes, France. Dates: QFs – 27 July, SFs – 28 July, Finals – 29 July The fourth stage of Division A took place in Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Dates: QFs – 3 August, SFs – 4 August, Finals – 5 August Following the completion of all four stages, the final Division A table was drawn up; the top six nations qualified for the Superfinal. The Superfinal took place at the Plages du Prado, France; the playoff event was organised as a multi-stage tournament. The top two from each group advanced to the semi-finals from which point on the Superfinal was played as a knockout tournament until the winner of the 2007 EBSL was crowned, with an additional match to determine third place.

The semifinalists secured qualification to the 2007 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup. Key European nations were granted five berths at the 2007 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup; as Superfinal semifinalists, Spain and France claimed four of these spots. This meant; this berth was contested in a final round of the 2007 EBSL, independent from the normal proceedings of the league, known as the Last chance bracket. Played as a knockout tournament, parallel to the staging of the Superfinal, Italy won the event and claimed the final World Cup spot. Roonba RSSSF