Rastatt is a town and baroque residence in the District of Rastatt, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located in the Upper Rhine Plain on the Murg river,6 km above its junction with the Rhine and has a population of around 50,000. Rastatt was an important place of the War of the Spanish Succession and it remained the residence of the margraves of Baden-Baden until 1771. It was the location of the First and Second Congress of Rastatt, in the 1840s, Rastatt was surrounded by fortifications to form the fortress of Rastatt. For about 20 years previous to 1866, it was occupied by the troops of the German Confederation, for some years, Rastatt was one of the strongest fortresses of the German empire, but its fortifications were dismantled in 1890. In 1997, a new Mercedes-Benz car factory started production in Rastatt and the surrounding area is home to a variety of historical buildings, includes palaces and castles such as Schloss Rastatt and Schloss Favorite. In the vicinity of Rastatt is the Black Forest and the French border, Rastatt is twinned with, Italy.
New Britain, United States Ostrov, Czech Republic
Aachen or Bad Aachen, traditionally known in English and French as Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was the residence of Charlemagne, from 936 to 1531. Aachen is the westernmost city in Germany, located near the borders with Belgium, RWTH Aachen University is located in the city. Aachens industries include science and information technology, in 2009, Aachen was ranked eighth among cities in Germany for innovation. The location has been inhabited by humans since the Neolithic era, about 5,000 years ago, latin Aquae figures in Aachens Roman name Aquae granni, which meant waters of Grannus, referring to the Celtic god of healing who was worshipped at the springs. Aachens name in French and German evolved in parallel, Aachens local dialect is called Öcher Platt and belongs to the Ripuarian language. Bronze Age settlement is evidenced by the remains of barrows found, for example, during the Iron Age, the area was settled by Celtic peoples who were perhaps drawn by the marshy Aachen basins hot sulphur springs where they worshipped Grannus, god of light and healing.
Later, the 25-hectare Roman spa resort town of Aquae Granni was, according to legend, founded by Grenus, under Hadrian, a kind of forum, surrounded by colonnades, connected the two spa complexes. There was a residential area, part of it inhabited by a flourishing Jewish community. The Romans built bathhouses near Burtscheid, a temple precinct called Vernenum was built near the modern Kornelimünster/Walheim. Today, remains have been found of three bathhouses, including two fountains in the Elisenbrunnen and the Burtscheid bathhouse, Roman civil administration in Aachen broke down between the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th centuries. Rome withdrew its troops from the area, but the town remained populated, by 470, the town came to be ruled by the Ripuarian Franks and subordinated to their capital, Cologne. Einhard mentions that in 765–6 Pepin spent both Christmas and Easter at Aquis villa, which must have been equipped to support the royal household for several months. In the year of his coronation as king of the Franks,768, Charlemagne spent most winters in Aachen between 792 and his death in 814.
Aachen became the focus of his court and the centre of his empire. In 936, Otto I was crowned king of East Francia in the church built by Charlemagne. During the reign of Otto II, the nobles revolted and the West Franks, under Lothair, Aachen was attacked again by Odo of Champagne, who attacked the imperial palace while Conrad II was absent. Odo relinquished it quickly and was killed soon afterwards, the palace and town of Aachen had fortifying walls built by order of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa between 1172 and 1176
A surveillance aircraft is an aircraft used for surveillance—collecting information over time. This article concentrates on aircraft used in roles, rather than for traffic monitoring, law enforcement. Surveillance aircraft usually carry no armament, or only limited defensive armament, a surveillance aircraft does not necessarily require high-performance capability or stealth characteristics. It may be a civilian aircraft. Surveillance aircraft have included moored balloons and unmanned aerial vehicles, surveillance is sometimes grouped with Intelligence, Target acquisition and Reconnaissance under the title ISTAR. Observation was the used for surveillance when the main sensor was the human eye. In 1794, during the Battle of Fleurus, the French Aerostatic Corps balloon LEntreprenant remained afloat for nine hours. French officers used the balloon to observe the movements of the Austrian Army, dropping notes to the ground for collection by the French Army, and signalled messages using semaphore.
One of the first aircraft used for surveillance was the Rumpler Taube during World War I, the translucent wings of the plane made it very difficult for ground based observers to detect a Taube at an altitude above 400 m. The French called this plane the Invisible Aircraft, and it is referred to as the worlds very first stealth plane. German Taube aircraft were able to detect the advancing Russian army during the Battle of Tannenberg, during World War II, light aircraft such as the Auster were used as air observation posts. Officers from the British Royal Artillery were trained as pilots to fly AOP aircraft for artillery spotting, the air observation role was generally taken over by light observation helicopters, such as the Hughes OH-6 Cayuse, from the mid-1960s. Pre war, the British identified a need for an aircraft that could follow, to this end the slow-flying Airspeed Fleet Shadower and General Aircraft Fleet Shadower designs were built and flown in 1940 but they were made obsolete by the introduction of airborne radar.
Spy flights were a source of contention between the US and Russia during most of the 1960s. Maritime patrol aircraft are typically large, slow machines capable of flying continuously for many hours, such aircraft include the Hawker-Siddeley Nimrod, the Breguet Atlantique, the Tupolev Tu-95, the Lockheed P-2 Neptune and the Lockheed P-3 Orion/CP-140 Aurora. Predator UAVs have been used by the US for border patrol, unmanned surveillance aircraft have been deployed or are under development in many countries, including Israel, the UK, the United States, China, South Africa and Pakistan. Unmanned surveillance UAVs include both airships—such as Sky Sentinel and HiSentinel 80—and airplanes, most air forces around the world lack dedicated surveillance planes. Several countries adapt aircraft for intelligence gathering
Antoine Morlot was a French division commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. After almost eight years of service in the French Royal Army, in 1792 he fought with distinction at Thionville and other actions, earning a promotion to general officer in 1793. He was notable for his participation at the Battle of Kaiserslautern where he led a brigade, after another promotion he became a general of division in the Army of the Moselle. In 1794 he led his troops at Arlon, Fleurus, in 1796, while Morlots soldiers were garrisoning Aachen and its district, he was involved in a dispute with a government official and suspended from command. Restored to service, he held posts in the interior or was inactive for many years. In 1808 when Emperor Napoleon invaded Spain in the Peninsular War and he led these soldiers at the Battle of Tudela that year and the Second Siege of Zaragoza in 1809, dying of a fever contracted during the siege. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe and he is buried at the cimetière du Père-Lachaise.
Morlot was born on 5 May 1766 at Bousse in what is now the Moselle department, on 7 December 1782 he joined the artillery of the French Royal Army, serving until 28 September 1790. At the outbreak of the French Revolution, he was elected captain in the 3rd Battalion of the Moselle Volunteers and he showed bravery and ability in the campaigns of 1792 and 1793, particularly during the blockade of Thionville. At Thionville from 3 to 5 September 1792,3,000 to 4,000 French soldiers successfully held the city against an army of 20,000 Habsburg Austrians, without heavy artillery, the attackers were forced to turn back. To put the French effort in context, on 2 December Verdun had surrendered to a Prussian army after a trifling resistance, Morlot received promotion to general of brigade on 20 September 1793. The Battle of Kaiserslautern from 28 to 30 November 1793 saw him leading a brigade in Lazare Hoches Army of the Moselle, the French withdrew with 2,400 killed and wounded plus 700 men and two guns captured.
Prussian and Saxon casualties numbered 806, during the battle Morlot led five battalions in an assault on a position defended by infantry and many cannons. Forced back by superior numbers, he was able to avoid being trapped by enemy cavalry, after seeing what he had done Hoche praised and kissed him. Morlot was active in the relief of Landau which successfully resisted a blockade from 20 August until 23 December 1793, Morlot was promoted to general of division on 3 December 1793. At this time, Hoches Army of the Moselle and the Army of the Rhine under Jean-Charles Pichegru made an effort to push the invading Prussian and Austrian armies out of Alsace. In the Second Battle of Wissembourg in December the French armies were victorious, in February 1794, Morlot was one of seven division commanders in the Army of the Moselle. On 20 May his 11, 573-strong division operated with the Left Wing of the Army of the Moselle and it had been reorganized into the 1st Line Infantry Demi Brigade, 34th Line, 110th Line, 177th Line, 14th Dragoons, 10th Cavalry Regiment and 1st Gendsdarmes
Battle of the Nile
The British fleet was led in the battle by Rear-Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, they decisively defeated the French under Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys dAigalliers. Bonaparte sought to invade Egypt as the first step in a campaign against British India and he chased the French for more than two months, on several occasions only missing them by a matter of hours. Bonaparte was aware of Nelsons pursuit and enforced absolute secrecy about his destination and he was able to capture Malta and land in Egypt without interception by the British naval forces. With the French army ashore, the French fleet anchored in Aboukir Bay,20 miles northeast of Alexandria, Commander Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys dAigalliers believed that he had established a formidable defensive position. The British fleet arrived off Egypt on 1 August and discovered Brueyss dispositions and his ships advanced on the French line and split into two divisions as they approached. One cut across the head of the line and passed between the anchored French and the shore, while the other engaged the seaward side of the French fleet.
Trapped in a crossfire, the leading French warships were battered into surrender during a fierce battle, while the centre succeeded in repelling the initial British attack. As British reinforcements arrived, the centre came under renewed assault and, at 22,00, the battle reversed the strategic situation between the two nations forces in the Mediterranean and entrenched the Royal Navy in the dominant position that it retained for the rest of the war. It encouraged other European countries to turn against France, and was a factor in the outbreak of the War of the Second Coalition. Bonapartes army was trapped in Egypt, and Royal Navy dominance off the Syrian coast contributed significantly to its defeat at the Siege of Acre in 1799 which preceded Bonapartes return to Europe. Nelson had been wounded in the battle, but he was proclaimed a hero across Europe and was subsequently made Baron Nelson—although he was dissatisfied with his rewards. His captains were highly praised and went on to form the nucleus of the legendary Nelsons Band of Brothers.
The legend of the battle has remained prominent in the popular consciousness, despite significant efforts, British control of Northern European waters rendered these ambitions impractical in the short term, and the Royal Navy remained firmly in control of the Atlantic Ocean. However, the French navy was dominant in the Mediterranean, following the withdrawal of the British fleet after the outbreak of war between Britain and Spain in 1796. During the spring of 1798, Bonaparte assembled more than 35,000 soldiers in Mediterranean France and Italy and he formed the Commission des Sciences et des Arts, a body of scientists and engineers intended to establish a French colony in Egypt. On 9 June, the fleet arrived off Malta, under the ownership of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, Bonaparte demanded that his fleet be permitted entry to the fortified harbour of Valletta. When the Knights refused, the French general responded by ordering a large invasion of the Maltese Islands. While Bonaparte was sailing to Malta, the Royal Navy re-entered the Mediterranean for the first time in more than a year and this squadron, consisting of three ships of the line and three frigates, was entrusted to Rear-Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
French Revolutionary Wars
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts, lasting from 1792 until 1802, resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted the French First Republic against Britain and several other monarchies and they are divided in two periods, the War of the First Coalition and the War of the Second Coalition. Initially confined to Europe, the fighting gradually assumed a global dimension as the political ambitions of the Revolution expanded, French success in these conflicts ensured the spread of revolutionary principles over much of Europe. The Revolutionary Wars began from increasing political pressure on King Louis XVI of France to prove his loyalty to the new direction France was taking. In the spring of 1792, France declared war on Prussia and Austria, the victory rejuvenated the French nation and emboldened the National Convention to abolish the monarchy. A series of victories by the new French armies abruptly ended with defeat at Neerwinden in the spring of 1793, by 1795, the French had captured the Austrian Netherlands and knocked Spain and Prussia out of the war with the Peace of Basel.
A hitherto unknown general called Napoleon Bonaparte began his first campaign in Italy in April 1796, in less than a year, French armies under Napoleon decimated the Habsburg forces and evicted them from the Italian peninsula, winning almost every battle and capturing 150,000 prisoners. With French forces marching towards Vienna, the Austrians sued for peace and agreed to the Treaty of Campo Formio, the War of the Second Coalition began with the French invasion of Egypt, headed by Napoleon, in 1798. The Allies took the opportunity presented by the French strategic effort in the Middle East to regain territories lost from the First Coalition. The war began well for the Allies in Europe, where they pushed the French out of Italy and invaded Switzerland—racking up victories at Magnano, Cassano. However, their efforts largely unraveled with the French victory at Zurich in September 1799, Napoleons forces annihilated a series of Egyptian and Ottoman armies at the battles of the Pyramids, Mount Tabor, and Abukir.
These victories and the conquest of Egypt further enhanced Napoleons popularity back in France, the Royal Navy had managed to inflict a humiliating defeat on the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile in 1798, further strengthening British control of the Mediterranean. Napoleons arrival from Egypt led to the fall of the Directory in the Coup of 18 Brumaire, Napoleon reorganized the French army and launched a new assault against the Austrians in Italy during the spring of 1800. This latest effort culminated in a decisive French victory at the Battle of Marengo in June 1800, another crushing French triumph at Hohenlinden in Bavaria forced the Austrians to seek peace for a second time, leading to the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. With Austria and Russia out of the war, the United Kingdom found itself increasingly isolated and agreed to the Treaty of Amiens with Napoleons government in 1802, concluding the Revolutionary Wars. The lingering tensions proved too difficult to contain, however, in 1789–1792, the entire governmental structure of France was transformed to fall into line with the Revolutionary principles of Liberty and Fraternity.
As a result, one of the first major elements of the French state to be restructured was the army, the transformation of the army was best seen in the officer corps. Before the revolution 90% had been nobility, compared to only 3% in 1794, Revolutionary fervour was high, and was closely monitored by the Committee of Public Safety, which assigned Representatives on Mission to keep watch on generals
Stuttgart is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It is located on the Neckar river in a fertile valley known as the Stuttgart Cauldron an hour from the Swabian Jura. Stuttgarts urban area has a population of 623,738, making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.7 million people live in the administrative region and another 5.3 million people in its metropolitan area. Since the 6th millennium BC, the Stuttgart area has been an important agricultural area and has been host to a number of cultures seeking to utilize the rich soil of the Neckar valley. The Roman Empire conquered the area in 83 AD and built a massive Castrum near Bad Cannstatt, Stuttgarts roots were truly laid in the 10th century with its founding by Liudolf, Duke of Swabia as a stud farm for his warhorses. Overshadowed by nearby Cannstatt, the town grew steadily and was granted a charter in 1320, the fortunes of Stuttgart turned with those of the House of Württemberg, and they made it the capital of their County and Kingdom from the 15th Century to 1918.
Stuttgart prospered despite setbacks in the forms of the Thirty Years War and devastating air raids by the Allies on the city, however, by 1952, the city had bounced back and became the major economic, industrial and publishing center it is today. Stuttgart is an important transport junction, and possesses the sixth largest airport in Germany. Such companies as Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Daimler AG, Stuttgart is unusual in the scheme of German cities. It is spread across a variety of hills and parks and this is often a source of surprise to visitors who associate the city with its reputation as the Cradle of the Automobile. The citys tourism slogan is Stuttgart offers more, under current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure, the city unveiled a new logo and slogan in March 2008 describing itself as Das neue Herz Europas. For business, it describes itself as Where business meets the future, in July 2010, Stuttgart unveiled a new city logo, designed to entice more business people to stay in the city and enjoy breaks in the area.
Stuttgart is a city of mostly immigrants, according to Dorling Kindersley Publishings Eyewitness Travel Guide to Germany, In the city of Stuttgart, every third inhabitant is a foreigner. 40% of Stuttgarts residents, and 64% of the population below the age of five are of immigrant background, the reason for this being that the city was founded in 950 AD by Duke Liudolf of Swabia to breed warhorses. Originally, the most important location in the Neckar river valley as the rim of the Stuttgart basin at what is today Bad Cannstatt. As with many military installations, a settlement sprang up nearby, when they did, the town was left in the capable hands of a local brickworks that produced sophisticated architectural ceramics and pottery. When the Romans were driven back past the Rhine and Danube rivers in the 3rd Century by the Alamanni, in 700, Duke Gotfrid mentions a Chan Stada in a document regarding property
In military operations, reconnaissance is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and enemy presence. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops, ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, espionage normally is not reconnaissance, because reconnaissance is a militarys special forces operating ahead of its main forces, spies are non-combatants operating behind enemy lines. Often called recce or recon, the verb is reconnaître. Traditionally, reconnaissance was a role that was adopted by the cavalry, speed was key in these maneuvers, thus infantry was ill suited to the task. From horses to vehicles, for warriors throughout history, commanders procured their ability to have speed and mobility, to mount and dismount, skirmishing is a traditional skill of reconnaissance, as well as harassment of the enemy. Reconnaissance conducted by ground forces includes special reconnaissance, armored reconnaissance, amphibious reconnaissance, aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance carried out by aircraft.
The purpose is to weather conditions, map terrain, and may include military purposes such as observing tangible structures, particular areas. Naval forces use aerial and satellite reconnaissance to observe enemy forces, navies undertake hydrographic surveys and intelligence gathering. Reconnaissance satellites provide military commanders with photographs of enemy forces and other intelligence, military forces use geographical and meteorological information from Earth observation satellites. A tracker needs to pay attention to both the environment and the psychology of his enemy. Knowledge of human psychology and cultural backgrounds is necessary to know the actions of the enemy and this is almost as necessary as to know the physical character of the country, its climate and products. Certain people will do certain things almost without fail, certain other things, perfectly feasible, they will not do. There is no danger of knowing too much of the habits of an enemy. One should neither underestimate the enemy nor credit him with superhuman powers and courage are latent in every human being, though roused into activity by very diverse means.
Types of reconnaissance, Terrain-oriented reconnaissance is a survey of the terrain, force-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the enemy forces and may include target acquisition. Civil-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the dimension of the battlespace. The techniques and objectives are not mutually exclusive, it is up to the commander whether they are carried out separately or by the same unit, some military elements tasked with reconnaissance are armed only for self-defense, and rely on stealth to gather information. Others are well-enough armed to deny information to the enemy by destroying their reconnaissance elements, reconnaissance-in-force is a type of military operation or military tactics used specifically to probe an enemys disposition
In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy. A balloon may be free, moving with the wind, or tethered to a fixed point and it is distinct from an airship, which is a powered aerostat that can propel itself through the air in a controlled manner. Many balloons have a basket, gondola or capsule suspended beneath the envelope for carrying people or equipment. A balloon is conceptually the simplest of all flying machines, the balloon is a fabric envelope filled with a gas that is lighter than the surrounding atmosphere. As the entire balloon is less dense than its surroundings, it rises, taking along with it a basket, attached underneath, which carries passengers or payload. Although a balloon has no propulsion system, a degree of control is possible through making the balloon rise or sink in altitude to find favorable wind directions. There are three types of balloon, The hot air balloon or Montgolfière obtains its buoyancy by heating the air inside the balloon.
The Rozière type has both heated and unheated lifting gases in separate gasbags and this type of balloon is sometimes used for long-distance record flights, such as the recent circumnavigations, but is not otherwise in use. Both the hot air, or Montgolfière, balloon and the gas balloon are still in common use, Montgolfière balloons are relatively inexpensive, as they do not require high-grade materials for their envelopes, and they are popular for balloonist sport activity. The first tethered manned balloon flight was by a larger Montgolfier balloon, the first free balloon flight was by the same Montgolfier balloon on 21 November 1783. When heated, air expands, so a given volume of space contains less air and this makes it lighter and, if its lifting power is greater than the weight of the balloon containing it, it will lift the balloon upwards. A hot air balloon can stay up while it has fuel for its burner. The Montgolfiers early hot air balloons used a solid-fuel brazier which proved less practical than the balloons that had followed almost immediately.
In the 1950s, the convenience and low cost of bottled gas burners led to a revival of hot air ballooning for sport and leisure. A man-carrying balloon using the gas hydrogen for buoyancy was made by Professor Jacques Charles and flown less than a month after the Montgolfier flight. In the 19th century, it was common to use gas to fill balloons, this was not as light as pure hydrogen gas, having about half the lifting power. Light gas balloons are predominant in scientific applications, as they are capable of reaching much higher altitudes for longer periods of time. They are generally filled with helium, although hydrogen has more lifting power, it is explosive in an atmosphere rich in oxygen