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French Constitution of 1791

The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. One of the basic precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty; the National Assembly began the process of drafting a constitution. The Declaration of the Rights of Man, adopted on 26 August 1789 became the preamble of the constitution adopted on 3 September 1791; the Declaration offered sweeping generalizations about rights and sovereignty. A twelve-member Constitutional Committee was convened on 14 July 1789, its task was to do much of the drafting of the articles of the constitution. It included two members from the First Estate. Many proposals for redefining the French state were floated in the days after the remarkable sessions of 4–5 August 1789 and the abolition of feudalism. For instance, the Marquis de Lafayette proposed a combination of the American and British systems, introducing a bicameral parliament, with the king having the suspensive veto power over the legislature, modeled to the authority recently vested in the President of the United States.

The main controversies early on surrounded the issues of what level of power to be granted to the king of France and what form would the legislature take. The Constitutional Committee proposed a bicameral legislature, but the motion was defeated 10 September 1789 in favor of one house. A second Constitutional Committee replaced it, included Talleyrand, Abbé Sieyès, Le Chapelier from the original group, as well as new members Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target, Jacques Guillaume Thouret, Jean-Nicolas Démeunier, François Denis Tronchet, Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne, all of the Third Estate, their greatest controversy faced by this new committee surrounded the issue of citizenship. Would every subject of the French Crown be given equal rights, as the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen seemed to promise, or would there be some restrictions? The October Days rendered the question much more complicated. In the end, a distinction was held between active citizens which had political rights, passive citizens, who had only civil rights.

This conclusion was intolerable to such radical deputies as Maximilien Robespierre, thereafter they never could be reconciled to the Constitution of 1791. A second body, the Committee of Revisions, was struck September 1790, included Antoine Barnave, Adrien Duport, Charles de Lameth; because the National Assembly was both a legislature and a constitutional convention, it was not always clear when its decrees were constitutional articles or mere statutes. It was the job of this committee to sort it out; the committee became important in the days after the Champs de Mars Massacre, when a wave of revulsion against popular movements swept France and resulted in a renewed effort to preserve powers for the Crown. The result is the rise of the Feuillants, a new political faction led by Barnave, who used his position on the committee to preserve a number of powers for the Crown, such as the nomination of ambassadors, military leaders, ministers. After long negotiations, the constitution was reluctantly accepted by King Louis XVI in September 1791.

Redefining the organization of the French government and the limits to the powers of government, the National Assembly set out to represent the interests of the general will. It abolished many “institutions which were injurious to liberty and equality of rights”; the National Assembly asserted its legal presence in French government by establishing its permanence in the Constitution and forming a system for recurring elections. The Assembly's belief in a sovereign nation and in equal representation can be seen in the constitutional separation of powers; the National Assembly was the legislative body, the king and royal ministers made up the executive branch and the judiciary was independent of the other two branches. On a local level, the previous feudal geographic divisions were formally abolished, the territory of the French state was divided into several administrative units, but with the principle of centralism; the Assembly, as constitution-framers, were afraid that if only representatives governed France, it was to be ruled by the representatives' self-interest.

By the same token, representative democracy weakened the king’s executive authority. The constitution was not egalitarian by today's standards, it distinguished between the poorer passive citizens. Women lacked rights to liberties such as education, freedom to speak, write and worship. Keith M. Baker writes in his essay “Constitution” that the National Assembly threaded between two options when drafting the Constitution: they could modify the existing, unwritten constitution centered on the three estates of the Estates General or they could start over and rewrite it completely; the National Assembly wanted to reorganize social structure and leg

Castle of Warfusée

Castle of Warfusée is a castle located in the municipality Saint-Georges-sur-Meuse, near Liège, Belgium. One of the loveliest castles in the area, Warfusée was completed in 1754 as a replacement for an earlier Renaissance structure; the castle served as a summer residence for Charles-Nicolas d'Oultremont, Prince-Bishop of Liège from 1763 to 1771, brother of the proprietor. To this day it still is the main residence of the Earls of d'Outremont. Access to the yard is via a gate under a tower with a steeple; the main building is flanked by two lower wings marking the boundaries of a vast yard. The rich interior has remained pretty much; the interior is exceptional. The house is open to the public upon request for groups only. List of castles in Belgium House of Oultremont Van Renesse de Warfusée Château de Warfusée official website

Tae Hyun Bang

Tae Hyun Bang is a South Korean mixed martial artist who most competed in the Lightweight division of the Ultimate Fighting Championship. A professional competitor since 2004, he has competed for World Victory Road and DEEP in Japan, he is the former DEEP Lightweight Champion. Bang made his promotional debut against Mairbek Taisumov on January 4, 2014, at UFC Fight Night 34, he lost the fight via unanimous decision. Bang faced Kajan Johnson on June 14, 2014, at UFC 174. Bang won the fight via knockout and won both Fight of the Night and Performance of the Night bonuses. Bang next faced Jon Tuck on May 16, 2015, at UFC Fight Night 66. Bang lost the fight via submission in the first round. Bang faced Leo Kuntz on November 28, 2015, at UFC Fight Night 79, he won the fight via split decision. Bang next faced Nick Hein on September 3, 2016, at UFC Fight Night 93, he lost the fight via unanimous decision. Bang was released from the UFC on October 2017. On November 24, 2017, at the Seoul Central District Court in South Korea, Tae Hyun Bang was sentenced to 10 months in prison, along with the three "brokers" who set up the plot, for accepting bribes in connection to throw his fight against Leo Kuntz at UFC Fight Night 79 for US$92,160, where he bet half of the prize money on Kuntz.

UFC officials warned both fighters of potential fight fixing when they noticed a big odd shift in the betting lines leading into the event. Bang abandoned his plan and went on to win the fight where it was reported mafia members issued death threats on Bang for they had bet US$1.7 million in favour on Kuntz to win. DEEP DEEP Lightweight Championship Ultimate Fighting Championship Fight of the Night Performance of the Night List of male mixed martial artists Tae Hyun Bang at UFC Professional MMA record for Tae Hyun Bang from Sherdog If Tae Hyun Bang felt lethargic during $100K bonus win, how good can he be? - UFC 174 post-fight bonuses: Tae Hyun Bang earns 100k for KO win - Tae Hyun Bang at Tae Hyun Bang at

Mt. Fuji (train)

The Mt. Fuji is a "Romancecar" limited express train operated by Odakyu Electric Railway between Shinjuku and Gotemba via the Odakyu Odawara Line and JR Central's Gotemba Line. Mt. Fuji services stop at the following stations. Shinjuku - Shin-Yurigaoka - Sagami-Ono - Hon-Atsugi - Hadano - Matsuda - - Gotemba Some trains do not stop at Suruga-Oyama. Odakyu 60000 series MSE 6-car EMUs Odakyu KiHa 5000 series and KiHa 5100 series DMUs Odakyu 3000 series SSE EMUs JR Central 371 series 7-car EMU Odakyu 20000 series RSE 7-car EMUs The Asagiri service was first introduced on 1 May 1959 as a JNR semi-express operating between Moji and Amagase in Kyushu; this was upgraded to "Express" status from 5 March 1966. It was discontinued from 1 October 1980. A second Asagiri service written in kanji as "朝霧" commenced on 2 July 1959 as a semi-express operating between Shinjuku and Gotemba; the Asagiri, together with the Nagao, supplemented the Ginrei and Fuyō Shinjuku—Gotemba semi-express services, which commenced on 1 October 1955.

Asagiri services were upgraded to "express" status from 1 July 1968 following electrification and the introduction of Odakyu 3000 series SE EMUs. The four names were merged into "あさぎり" in hiragana, it became a "Limited express" from 16 March 1991 with the introduction of new JR Central 371 series and Odakyu 20000 series RSE 7-car EMUs, operating between Shinjuku and Numazu. From the start of the revised timetable on 17 March 2012, the Odakyu 20000 series sets and JR Central's lone 371 series set were withdrawn, all services were operated instead using Odakyu 60000 series MSE 6-car sets. From the same date, service frequency was reduced from the current four return services daily to three on weekdays and four at weekends, all services were truncated to operate between Shinjuku and Gotemba stations. From the start of the revised timetable on 17 March 2018, Asagiri services are renamed Mt. Fuji. Odakyu Limited Express Romancecar information JR Central 371 series Asagiri information at the Wayback Machine

Sandy Campbell (British Army officer)

Alexander Fraser Campbell, GC, known as Sandy Campbell, was a British Army officer of the Royal Engineers, posthumously awarded the George Cross for conspicuous gallantry in defusing a bomb in October 1940. On 14 October 1940 at Chapel Street, Second Lieutenant Campbell along with Sergeant Michael Gibson and Sappers W. Gibson, R. Gilchrest, A. Plumb, R. W. Skelton and Driver E. F. G. Taylor were tasked to deal with a 250 kilograms unexploded bomb; the sappers spent four days uncovering the bomb, found to contain a damaged delayed-action fuse mechanism which could not be removed in situ. Though any electrical charge within the fuse was thought to have dissipated, Campbell still applied a discharge tool. On the 17 October 1940, believing the bomb to be inert ordered it to be moved, it was taken to Whitley Common where it could be detonated safely. Campbell positioned himself next to the bomb on this journey listening for any timer mechanism that might have been activated by the bomb's removal; the bomb was remotely detonated.

On 18 October 1940, Campbell and his squad were attempting to complete an identical procedure on another bomb. However, after arriving at Whitley Common, the bomb exploded during unloading, killing the entire bomb squad. Following a funeral service at Coventry Cathedral on 25 October 1940, the squad were buried in a collective grave in Coventry's London Road Cemetery; the squad comprised 2nd Lt. Alexander Fraser Campbell, Sergeant Michael Gibson, Sappers William Gibson, Richard Gilchrest, Jack Plumb, Ronald William Skelton and Driver E. F. Taylor. Campbell's posthumous George Cross citation appeared in the London Gazette on 22 January 1941: For most conspicuous gallantry in carrying out hazardous work in a brave manner, to 2nd Lieutenant A. F. Campbell, R. E.. Second Lieutenant Campbell was called upon to deal with an unexploded bomb in the Triumph Engineering Company's works in Coventry; this bomb had halted war production in two factories involving over 1,000 workers and evacuation of local residents.

He found it to be fitted with a delayed action fuse, impossible to remove. He decided to remove the bomb to a safe place; this was done by lorry with Second Lieutenant Campbell lying alongside the bomb to enable him to hear if it started ticking so he could warn the driver to escape. Having got it to a safe place he disposed of it, he was killed the next day whilst dealing with another unexploded bomb. His George Cross is on display in the Royal Engineers Museum. On 18 October 2006, the anniversary of the death of Campbell and his fellow soldiers, a memorial plaque was dedicated to their memory close to where they lost their lives on Whitley Common; the memorial reads: In Memory of the Seven Men of the Royal Engineers 9th Bomb Disposal Company Who Lost Their Lives When an Unexploded German Bomb Removed from the City Centre Exploded Whilst Being Unloaded Near This Spot for De-Fusing on Whitley Common on 18 October 1940: 2nd Lieutenant A. F. Campbell, G. C. Age 42 Sgt. M. Gibson, G. C. Age 34 Sapper W. Gibson, Age 22 Sapper R. Gilchrist, Age 23 Sapper J. Plumb, Age 25 Sapper R. W. Skelton, Age 20 Driver E. F. Taylor, R.

A. S. C. Age 32 Owen, James. Danger UXB. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1-4087-0255-0

USS Savannah (AOR-4)

USS Savannah, was a Wichita-class replenishment oiler of the United States Navy. The fifth Savannah was laid down on 22 January 1969 by the General Dynamics Quincy Shipbuilding Division at Quincy, launched on 23 April 1970, sponsored by Mrs. Ralph L. Shifley, wife of Vice Admiral R. L. Shifley, Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, commissioned on 5 December 1970, Capt. Bernard P. Williams, Jr. in command. After shakedown out of Guantanamo Bay, Savannah proceeded to her homeport at Virginia. Arriving on 12 May, she completed post-shakedown availability on 9 August, prepared for deployment to the Mediterranean. Savannah left Norfolk on 20 September. En route to Rota, she refueled ships taking part in a Caribbean exercise. After reporting to the 6th Fleet on 8 October, Savannah operated in Task Group 60.1. By the end of the year, she had replenished 178 ships. Savannah continued to operate with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean until early March 1972. On 9 March, she arrived there eight days later, her stay in the United States, was cut short by the exigencies of the Vietnam War.

On 25 April, she left the Chesapeake Bay and, four days transited the Panama Canal. Savannah arrived in Subic Bay, Philippines, on 20 May and began a five-month tour replenishing the fleet along the coast of Vietnam, she made six line swings to the Gulf of Tonkin during this time. Each swing was punctuated by a 4–6-day load out period in Subic Bay. Savannah departed Subic Bay on 5 November, she arrived at Norfolk on the 8th. Savannah operated out of Norfolk, along the Atlantic seaboard and in the Caribbean, for all of 1973. On 3 December 1973, she again headed eastward to join the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. From 12 December until late May 1974, she supported units of the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. On 3 June 1974, she returned to Norfolk. Savannah was back in the Med in 1975 supporting the USS John F Kennedy. From December 1976 to August 1977 the ship was laid up at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, for restructuring of her aft section; the 3" 50 calibre dual mounts were replaced by hangars for a pair of CH46D SeaKnight helicopters.

The ship visited the Brooklyn Navy Yard again in 1980–1981, which saw the installation of a Sea Sparrow missile system and Phalanx CIWS. From 2 December 1991 to 6 June 1992 the ship deployed to the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean with the USS America carrier group. From 11 August 1993 to 5 February 1994 the ship deployed to the Mediterranean Sea, including a trip with the USS America carrier group through the Suez Canal to the Indian Ocean on 1 November 1993 in support of U. N. efforts in Somalia. Savannah was decommissioned on 28 July 1995, at Norfolk, moored at the former Naval Shipyard in Philadelphia for a few years and laid up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet, James River, Fort Eustis, Virginia; the ship was struck from the Naval Register on 29 October 1998, transferred to the Maritime Administration for disposal. On 27 January 2009, the Department of Transportation signed a fee for service contract worth $515,726 with ESCO Marine of Brownsville, Texas, to scrap ex-Savannah; the scrapping of the Savannah was featured on the television show Break It Down which aired on 8 July 2010 on the National Geographic Channel.

Extensive footage of the ship was featured, chronicling the struggles with removing toxic items like asbestos before salvaging and cut up. Savannah earned several awards for service in the 1970s–1990s: This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Savannah at NavSource Naval History USS Savannah website Wildenberg, Thomas. Gray Steel and Black Oil: Fast Tankers and Replenishment at Sea in the U. S. Navy, 1912–1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. Retrieved 28 April 2009