The Pegaso Z-102 was a Spanish sports car produced by Pegaso in Spain in both coupé and cabriolet form between 1951 and 1958. The Z-102 was the fastest production car in the world at the time of production, having reached a top speed of 151 mph. Pegaso was an established company noted for its trucks and motor coaches, but produced sports cars for seven years. Pegaso's chief technical manager was Wifredo Ricart who worked as chief engineer for Alfa Romeo, while there designed the Alfa Romeo Tipo 512; the Z-102 started life as a pair of prototypes in 1951 with coupe and drophead body styles. Both prototypes had steel bodies which were determined to be too heavy and Pegaso made the decision to switch to alloy bodies to save weight. However, the cars were still quite heavy and brutish to drive and racing success was nonexistent; because the cars were built on a cost-no-object basis the car soon proved too costly to warrant continued production and the Z-102 was discontinued after 1958. A simplified and cheaper version, the Z-103 with 3.9, 4.5 and 4.7 litre engines, was put into production but had little success and only 3 were built.
Pegaso made the Z-102 finishing in 1958 having built a total of 84 cars. Out of those 84, 28 were cabriolets. Template:Citaion needed The original design for the Z-102 was penned by Pegaso chief technical manager Wifredo Ricart chief engineer for Alfa Romeo; the majority of Z-102s had bodies by Carrozzeria Touring, but a handful of cars had bodies by other coachbuilders. Carrozzeria Touring's design built on Ricart's original design, with changes including redesigning the grille, lowering the car, re-positioning the fog lights and simplifying various details to give it a cleaner profile; this body style is numerous of the Z-102 bodies. French coachbuilder Saoutchik bodied 18 cars, 3 of which were convertibles, as well as one of the original prototypes. Coachbuilder Serra bodied a handful of cars as well. In house coachbuilder Enasa built a version of the Z-102 called the "Cupola", designed based on sketches from Spanish students; the students were given the challenge of sketching what they thought cars of the future would look like.
Prominent design cues from those drawings were taken, Enasa brought the car to life. Only two "Cupola" models were known to have been built. One of the two was purchased by Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo. Only one of the Cupola models is known to have survived and it is owned by the Louwman Museum; the Z-102 had a pressed steel chassis with an alloy body. Everything was produced in-house at Barcelona at Pegaso's own factory, with the exception of coachwork; the Z-102 is powered by a four-cam all-alloy V8 engine featuring dry-sump lubrication. Power went through a 5-speed non-synchromesh transaxle; the Z102 entered production with a 2.5 litre engine, as was used in the prototypes, though variants used a 2.8 L, 3.2 L litre DOHC desmodromic 32-valve V8 360 hp engines with multiple carburetors or an optional supercharger. Power ranged from 175 hp to 360 hp and was sent to the rear wheels through a five-speed gearbox with gear-driven camshafts; the base model Z-102 had a top speed of 120 mph. In supercharged trim the Z-102 could reach a top speed of 151 mph, making it the world's fastest production car at that time.
The main beams of the car's frame had large lightening holes, the wheel wells under the body were used as stressed members. This rear-wheel-drive car had its transmission in the rear, connected to the differential, but it was unusually located behind the differential within a reverse A-frame whose apex was at the rear of the chassis. A fuel tank was situated on each side of the transmission; the rear suspension was made by De Dion, with the unusual feature that to restrain the tube from side-to-side movement, its tube had a small wheel at its midpoint that rolled in a vertical channel on the front of the differential instead of using a Watt's linkage or a Panhard rod. Z-102s were met with little to no real success. Three Z-102s were entered by Pegaso in the 1953 24 Hours of Le Mans, but during the race driver Juan Jover misjudged the speed of his approach to the corner after the Dunlop bridge, causing him to crash his Z-102 Spyder into the barriers at more than 200 km/h, he sustained serious injuries to his left leg from the crash, Pegaso decided to withdraw their other cars.
They competed in the 1954 Carrera Panamericana, driven by Joaquin Palacio, achieving promising results in the first stages, but an accident prevented an excellent final position. On September 25, 1953, in Jabbeke, a Z-102 Touring BS/2.8, driven by Celso Fernández, broke four official R. A. C. B. World records. Of these records the most prominent was its speed in the flying-start kilometer; the supercharged Z-102 achieved a 243.079 km/h average, a record held by a Jaguar XK120. This made the Z-102 the fastest production car in the world at that time; the original Z-102 BSS/2.5 Bisiluro Especial Competición built to take on the records couldn't be used because of a blown engine. A Pegaso Z-102 coupé with coachwork by Saoutchik, owned by Baron Thyssen-Bornemisza, wearing leopard skin upholstered seats and gold controls won the 1953 Enghien-les-Bains
Nicki Rae Crick was a psychologist and professor of child development and family studies known internationally for her research on relational aggression, defined as the use of relationships as agents of harm. At the time of her death, she held the position of Distinguished McKnight University Professor and Irving B. Harris Professor of Child Psychology at the Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota. Crick received prestigious awards for her contributions as a scientist, including the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in 2002 and the Boyd McCandless Award from APA Division 7 in 1995, she was a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and the American Psychological Association. Crick received her B. A./B. S. Degree in psychology and a master's degree in human development and family studies at Purdue University, she went to graduate school at Vanderbilt University where she obtained her Ph. D in Clinical Psychology in 1992, under the supervision of Kenneth Dodge.
After graduating, she joined the faculty of the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne. In 1996, Crick moved to the University of Minnesota where she served on the faculty of the Institute of Child Development. Crick's research career aimed to promote positive youth development, her work on peer victimization has had a huge impact on society as a whole. Peer victimization is the experience among children of being a target of the aggressive behavior of other children, who are not siblings and not age-mates. Crick observed that forms of peer maltreatment that were common in boys' peer groups tended to occur much less in girls' peer groups, concluded that girls were more relationally victimized, whereas boys were more overtly victimized. Crick published a number of influential articles on peer victimization including "An observational study of delivered and received aggression and social-psychological adjustment in preschool: "This White Crayon Doesn't Work...".
Crick's work on childhood aggression demonstrated that, as a group, boys are more physically aggressive than girls. Her study hypothesized that this finding reflects a lack of research on forms of aggression that are relevant to girls rather than an actual gender difference in levels of overall aggressiveness; the form of aggression hypothesized to be typical of girls, relational aggression, was assessed with a peer nomination instrument in third- through sixth-grade children. Results provided evidence for the validity and distinctiveness of the construct of relational aggression, defined as acts intended to harm others through deliberate manipulation of their social standing and relationships. In addition to finding that girls tended to be more relationally aggressive than boys, she found evidence that relationally aggressive children were at risk for serious adjustment difficulties. Crick's innovative research on relational aggression examined behaviors involving social exclusion or spreading malicious rumors.
The research showed that girls are more to engage in relational forms of aggression than the physical forms of aggression that had captured the majority of empirical attention. Crick's research documented the harmful consequence of relation aggression for victims and perpetrators, which forced aggression researchers to expand their studies of aggressions to include a wider range of aggressive behaviors. At heart, she was an astute methodologist who took risks to develop reliable and reasonable measures, her combination of theoretical and methodological intensity changed the way that people study aggression today. Cicchetti, D. & Crick, N. R... Precursors of and diverse pathways to personality disorder in children and adolescents: Part 1. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 683–1030. Crick, N. R. Casas, J. F. & Ku, H.-C.. Relational and physical forms of peer victimization in preschool. Developmental Psychology, 35, 376–385. Crick, N. R. & Dodge, K. A.. A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment.
Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101. Crick, N. R. & Grotpeter, J. K.. Relational aggression and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722. Remembering Nicki R. Crick