Embassy of Canada, Paris
The Embassy of Canada in France is the main diplomatic mission of Canada to the French Republic. As of May 2, 2018, the embassy and the Canadian Cultural Centre relocated to 130 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, which underwent renovation for that purpose; the embassy was located at 35 avenue Montaigne, the Canadian Cultural Centre was located at 5 rue de Constantine in Paris. The Canadian ambassador's official residence is located at 135 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. Paris is home to Canada's permanent delegations to UNESCO and the OECD, which are housed separately. In addition, the Government of Quebec has a delegation in Paris, located at 66 rue Pergolèse in the 16th arrondissement; the embassy is the oldest "foreign" posting in the Canadian foreign service. The history of Canada's presence in Paris goes back to 1882 and was precipitated by the actions of the province of Quebec; the provincial government had appointed Hector Fabre, a former journalist and senator, as its representative in France.
The federal government took advantage of this presence to name him Canada's "agent" and "commissioner" in France, although he held no diplomatic rank or status. Fabre was theoretically supposed to report to the Canadian High Commission in London, but in practise had little oversight. In 1911, Philippe Roy became Canada's and Quebec's "commissioner general" in France, by the appointment of the Laurier Liberals; the incoming Tory government disapproved of the potential conflicts-of-interest that could result from his serving both roles, he resigned from the Quebec position. In 1914, as most of the foreign representatives in Paris evacuated because of the threatening German Army, Roy remained in Paris. By January 1928, the Canadian office in Paris had been promoted to a formal legation, Roy became "minister" to France, presenting his credentials on September 19, 1928, but still under the British ambassador. During the Second World War, after the Fall of France in 1940, Canada's minister in Paris, Georges Vanier, fled to London.
Canada did not send a representative to the Vichy regime but still technically maintained relations, allowing Vanier to return to visit France several times. Once Canada shifted recognition to the Free French under Charles de Gaulle, Vanier dealt with them in London. After the liberation of France, the legation became an embassy and Vanier became Canada's first ambassador in 1944; the embassy is one of Canada's largest missions in Europe, with about 60 Canada-based diplomats and 170 locally-employed staff working at the chancery and the Canadian Cultural Centre, as well as the ambassador's official residence. Canada–France relations List of Canadian ambassadors to France Official website Official history of the Canadian mission to France
Meg Ryan is an American actress and producer. Ryan began her acting career in 1981 in minor roles before joining the cast of the CBS soap opera As the World Turns in 1982. Subsequently, she began to appear in supporting roles in films during the mid 1980s like box office hit Top Gun, achieving recognition in independent films such as Promised Land before her performance in the Rob Reiner-directed romantic comedy When Harry Met Sally... brought her widespread attention and her first Golden Globe nomination. Ryan subsequently established herself, both nationally and internationally, as one of the most successful actresses in the 1990s and early 2000s in romantic comedy films such as Sleepless in Seattle, French Kiss, You've Got Mail, Kate & Leopold, her other films include The Doors, When a Man Loves a Woman, Courage Under Fire, Addicted to Love, City of Angels, Proof of Life, The Women. In 2015, she made her directorial debut with Ithaca, a film in which she acted. Ryan was born and raised in Fairfield, the daughter of Susan Jordan, a former actress and English teacher, Harry Hyra, a math teacher.
She is of German and Polish descent. She attended St. Pius X Elementary School in Fairfield, she has two sisters and Annie, a brother, musician Andrew Hyra, a member of the band Billy Pilgrim. Her parents divorced in 1976. Ryan graduated from Bethel High School in 1979, she studied journalism as an undergraduate, first at the University of Connecticut and at New York University. During college, she acted in television commercials and the soap opera As the World Turns to earn extra money. Due to her success as an actress, she dropped out of college a semester before she planned to graduate; when she joined the Screen Actors Guild, she used her grandmother's maiden name. After her film debut in George Cukor's Rich and Famous, Ryan played Betsy Stewart in the daytime drama As the World Turns, from 1982 to 1984, her character was featured in a popular romantic story arc. Around that same time, she appeared in a Burger King commercial. Several television films and smaller film roles followed, including appearances in Charles in Charge and Dangerous, Amityville 3-D and Promised Land.
In 1986, she played Carole Bradshaw, the wife of Naval Flight Officer Nick "Goose" Bradshaw in Top Gun. Ryan appeared in the film Innerspace with her future husband Dennis Quaid, in the remake of D. O. A. and in The Presidio. Her first leading role was the romantic comedy film When Harry Met Sally... which paired her with comedic leading man Billy Crystal and earned her a Golden Globe nomination. Her portrayal of Sally Albright includes an oft-recounted scene in which her character, lunching with Crystal in Katz's Delicatessen in Manhattan, theatrically demonstrates for him how easy it is for a woman to fake an orgasm. Ryan next starred in The Doors, moderately successful, Prelude to a Kiss, which flopped; the year 1993 saw the release of the hugely successful romantic comedy Sleepless in Seattle, which paired Ryan for a second time with Tom Hanks. They had been paired as romantic leads in the film Joe Versus the Volcano—a commercial disappointment which developed a cult following. Hanks and Ryan would be paired for a third time in the film You've Got Mail.
She was offered the role of the protagonist Clarice Starling in The Silence of the Lambs, but rejected it due to its gruesome and violent themes. In 1994, Ryan took a role that differed from the romantic-comedy ingenue character for which she had become famous. In Luis Mandoki's When a Man Loves a Woman, a romantic social drama film starring Andy Garcia, she played an alcoholic high-school guidance counselor; the film and her performance were both well received by critics. One critic called the film "a first-class production, accentuated by fine performances and an unflinching script", another praised Ryan for her "roller-coaster role"; the film was a notable success in its domestic run, grossing $50 million in the United States alone, garnered the actress her first Screen Actors Guild Award. The same year, Ryan returned to type, starring alongside Tim Robbins in Fred Schepisi's romantic comedy I. Q; the film centers on a mechanic and a Princeton doctoral candidate who fall in love, with the aid of the graduate student's uncle, Albert Einstein.
Ryan won Harvard's Hasty Pudding Woman of the Year award, People Magazine dubbed her one of "the 50 most beautiful people in the world". In 1995, critic Richard Corliss called her "the current soul of romantic comedy"; that same year, she appeared opposite Kevin Kline in Lawrence Kasdan's French Kiss, a romantic comedy that catered to her "America's Sweetheart" image, Ryan was awarded the Women in Film Crystal Award. In 1996, Ryan starred in the film Courage under Fire alongside Matt Damon; the following year, she voiced the lead role in the animated film Anastasia, which garnered good reviews and enjoyed box office success. She appeared opposite Matthew Broderick in Addicted to Love playing a female lead at least superficially different from her usual direction, as one of a pair of jilted lovers bent on revenge. In 1998, she starred in two films. City of Angels drew posi
François Cluzet is a French film and theatre actor. In 2007, Cluzet won a French César Award after starring as a doctor suspected of double homicide in thriller Tell No One. Cluzet may be best known for his role as Philippe in the international hit film The Intouchables. Cluzet grew up in Paris, made his stage debut in 1976. Three years he made his premiere appearance on the big screen in Cocktail Molotov with Diane Kurys. A year Cluzet appeared in acclaimed family drama Cheval d'orgueil directed by Claude Chabrol; the two reunited in 1982 for Les Fantômes du chapelier. In 1983, Cluzet acted in L'Été meurtrier with Jean Becker, he was nominated for a César Award for best supporting role of the year, in the same year he made a list for best new male for film Vive la sociale. Cluzet next collaborated with a number of major name French directors, all of whom had a predilection towards dramatic works: reuniting with Diane Kurys in 1983 for Coup de foudre, reuniting with Bertrand Tavernier, Tony Gatlif, Claire Denis, Pierre Jolivet, Bertrand Blier and again Robert Enrico.
Next, the actor worked with Claude Chabrol to play a husband tortured by jealousy in L'Enfer after having filmed with Chabrol in 1988 for Une affaire de femmes. In 1994, Cluzet tried international cinema, acting in ensemble movie Prêt-à-Porter for director Robert Altman and romance French Kiss with Lawrence Kasdan, he returned to French cinema and comedy in 1995 with Les Apprentis and Enfants de salaud with Tonie Marshall, following a new Claude Chabrol: Rien ne va plus in 1997. Cluzet has portrayed a role of the tormented writer: Fin août, début septembre with Olivier Assayas, L'Examen de minuit, Je suis un assassin, he played the double of John Lennon in Janis et John and an animator of teleshopping in France Boutique. In 2005, he played in Le Domaine perdu with Raoul Ruiz; the film portrayed the 1973 coup d'état in Chile. The year 2006 was big for Cluzet with his Quatre étoiles role of an over-the-hill F1 champion and naive, paralysed with love for Isabelle Carré, but his starring role as a doctor suspected of double homicide in thriller Tell No One was seen by a wider international audience.
For this role, he received the 2007 César for best actor. Cluzet's biggest international hit to date is Intouchables. Based on a true story, the film chronicles the friendship between a wealthy quadraplegic and a young caregiver, released from jail. In March 2012, The Intouchables became the highest-grossing non-English language film yet released. Cluzet has a son, Paul, as well as three other children: Blanche and Marguerite. 1992: Belgicae by Anita Van Belle, directed by Pierre Pradinas, at the Festival d'Avignon 1984: Nominated for César Award for Most Promising Actor for Vive la sociale 1984: Nominated for César Award for Best Supporting Actor for One Deadly Summer 1984: Prix Jean Gabin 1990: Nominated for César Award for Best Supporting Actor for Force majeure 1996: Nominated for César Award for Best Actor for Les Apprentis 2003: Nominated for César Award for Best Supporting Actor for The Adversary 2007: Nominated for César Award for Best Supporting Actor for Quatre étoiles 2007: César Award for Best Actor for Tell No One 2007: Nominated for Lumières Award for Best Actor for Tell No One 2007: Étoile d'or du premier rôle masculin for Tell No One 2007: Globes de Cristal Award for Best Actor for Tell No One 2010: Nominated for César Award for Best Actor for One for the Road 2010: Nominated for César Award for Best Actor for In the Beginning 2010: Nominated for Lumières Award for Best Actor for In the Beginning 2010: Nominated for Globes de Cristal Award for Best Actor for In the Beginning 2010: Étoile d’Or for In the Beginning 2011: Nominated for Globes de Cristal Award for Best Actor for Little White Lies 2012: Nominated for César Award for Best Actor for The Intouchables 2012: Nominated for Globes de Cristal Award for Best Actor for The Intouchables 2017: Nominated for César Award for Best Actor for Irreplaceable François Cluzet on IMDb
Embassy of the United States, Paris
The Embassy of the United States in Paris is the diplomatic mission of the United States in the French Republic. The embassy is the oldest diplomatic mission of the United States. Benjamin Franklin and some of the other Founding Fathers were the earliest United States Ambassadors to France, it is located at 2 Avenue Gabriel, on the northwest corner of the Place de la Concorde, in the 8th arrondissement. The U. S. State Department owns three buildings in Paris to support its diplomatic, consular and cultural activities, which are: the chancery building, the Hôtel de Pontalba, the Hôtel de Talleyrand. More details about the latter two buildings can be found in the Secretary of State’s Register of Culturally Significant Properties; the four-story chancery, housing the ambassador's office, faces Avenue Gabriel and the gardens of the Champs-Élysées. It was built in 1931, following the demolition of an existing building, the Hôtel Grimod de La Reynière. Designed by Delano & Aldrich – an American architectural firm based in New York City, New York – along with French architect Victor Laloux, the building has a façade that conforms with other buildings on the Place de la Concorde, as required by French law.
The so-called "Talleyrand building" at 2 rue Saint-Florentin housed the American Embassy Consular Services and Cultural Affairs offices, several other government agencies, the George C. Marshall Center. Most of these offices were subsequently moved to the chancery building. Constructed in 1769 as a private residence, the property was acquired in 1812 by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, who owned it until his death in 1838, it was purchased by the banker James Mayer de Rothschild, whose family owned it for over a century, until 1950, when it was acquired by the U. S. government. The nearby property at 41 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, known as the Hôtel de Pontalba, was built by Louis Visconti for the New Orleans–born Baroness Micaela Almonester de Pontalba between 1842 and 1855. Edmond James de Rothschild acquired the building in 1876, his estate sold it in 1948 to the U. S. government, today it is the residence of the U. S. Ambassador to France; as of 18 December 2017, sixty-six people had represented, in France, the interests of the United States as envoy, minister plenipotentiary, ambassador or chargé d'affaires.
Diplomatic rank France – United States relations French Embassy, Washington, D. C. List of diplomatic missions of the United States Place des États-Unis Official website
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
James Newton Howard
James Newton Howard is an American composer and music producer. He has scored over 100 films and is the recipient of a Grammy Award, Emmy Award, eight Academy Award nominations, his film scores include Pretty Woman, Grand Canyon, The Fugitive, The Devil's Advocate, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, Treasure Planet, King Kong, Batman Begins, Blood Diamond, The Dark Knight, The Bourne Legacy, The Hunger Games series and Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. He has collaborated with directors M. Night Shyamalan, having scored nine of his films since The Sixth Sense, Francis Lawrence, having scored all of his films since I Am Legend. Howard was born in Los Angeles, he is from a musical family. Howard began taking classical piano lessons at the age of four, he went on to attend the Thacher School in Ojai and the Music Academy of the West in Santa Barbara, California with Reginald Stewart and Leon Fleischer. He attended the University of Southern California, studying at the School of Music as a piano performance major, but dropped out after 6 weeks because "He wanted to do other things than practicing the piano."After Howard left college, he joined a short-lived rock band called Mama Lion.
The band was led by Neil Merryweather and featured vocalist Lynn Carey, Coffi Hall on bass, Rick Gaxiola on guitar. Mama Lion recorded two full-length albums. Members of Mama Lion formed the band Heavy Cruiser with Merryweather singing lead, recording two albums in the Heavy Prog Psyche genre, he worked for a couple of years as a session musician with artists including Diana Ross, Ringo Starr, Harry Nilsson. In the early 70s, he described himself as being "dirt poor", until his big break in 1975 when his manager got him an audition with Elton John, he toured with them as keyboardist during the late 70s and early 80s. He was part of the band that played Central Park, New York, on September 13, 1980. Howard arranged strings for several of John's songs during this period including the hits "Don't Go Breaking My Heart" and "Sorry Seems to Be the Hardest Word", played additional keyboards and synthesizers on studio albums including Rock of the Westies, Blue Moves, 21 at 33, The Fox. In 1982, Howard was featured on Toto IV as the strings conductor and orchestrator for "I Won't Hold You Back", "Afraid of Love", "Lovers in the Night".
A year he released the live album James Newton Howard and Friends, which featured Toto's David Paich, Steve Porcaro, Jeff Porcaro, Joe Porcaro. In 1983, Howard was co-producer and orchestrator of Riccardo Cocciante's album Sincerità. After touring with Crosby and Nash, he took an opportunity brought to him by his manager to write a film score for a small-time movie; this career move would lead to his becoming a successful film music composer. During this early foray into film music, he did not abandon his previous musical path and returned for a brief collaboration with Elton John on his Tour De Force of Australia in the fall of 1986, he conducted both his own and Paul Buckmaster's arrangements during the second half of the set, which focused on orchestrated performances of selected songs from the Elton John catalog. When delving into his family history, twenty-five years after the death of his father, Howard learned that his father was Jewish. Howard became a practicing Reconstructionist Jew.
Howard scored the surprise blockbuster romantic comedy Pretty Woman and received his first Academy Award nomination for his score for Barbra Streisand's drama The Prince of Tides. Setting the musical mood for numerous films throughout the decade, Howard's skills encompassed a plethora of genres, including four more best original score Oscar nominations, for the Harrison Ford action feature The Fugitive, the Julia Roberts romantic comedy My Best Friend's Wedding, M. Night Shyamalan's The Village, Michael Clayton. In addition, Howard scored the Western epic Wyatt Earp, Kevin Costner's Waterworld, Primal Fear, his collaborations on songs for One Fine Day and Junior garnered Oscar nominations for Best Song. Along with scoring small-scaled, independent films such as Five Corners, Glengarry Glen Ross, American Heart, Howard proved skilled at composing for big-budget Hollywood spectacles, including Space Jam, Dante's Peak, Collateral, he has scored three Disney animated feature films: Dinosaur, Atlantis: The Lost Empire and Treasure Planet.
Although he concentrates on films, Howard has contributed music for TV, earning an Emmy nomination in 1995 for his theme to NBC's ratings smash ER. He has scored all of Shyamalan's suspense thrillers, The Sixth Sense, Signs, The Village, Lady in the Water, The Happening, The Last Airbender, notably dropping the intense, yet subtle, opening credit music for The Sixth Sense from the corresponding soundtrack album. On October 14, 2005 Howard replaced Howard Shore as composer for King Kong, due to "differing creative aspirations for the score" between Shore and director Peter Jackson; the resultant score earned Howard his first Golden Globe nomination for Best
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the