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French Revolution of 1848

The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution, was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France the revolutionary events ended the July Monarchy and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. Following the overthrow of King Louis Philippe in February 1848, the elected government of the Second Republic ruled France. In the months that followed, this government steered a course. On 23 June 1848, the people of Paris rose in insurrection, which became known as June Days uprising – a bloody but unsuccessful rebellion by the Paris workers against a conservative turn in the Republic's course. On 2 December 1848, Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was elected president of the Second Republic on peasant support. Three years he suspended the elected assembly, establishing the Second French Empire, which lasted until 1870. Louis Napoléon went on to become the de facto last French monarch; the February revolution established the principle of the "right to work", its newly established government created "National Workshops" for the unemployed.

At the same time a sort of industrial parliament was established at the Luxembourg Palace, under the presidency of Louis Blanc, with the object of preparing a scheme for the organization of labor. These tensions between liberal Orléanist and Radical Republicans and Socialists led to the June Days Uprising. Under the Charter of 1814, Louis XVIII ruled France as the head of a constitutional monarchy. Upon Louis XVIII's death, his brother, the Count of Artois, ascended to the throne in 1824, as Charles X. Supported by the ultra-royalists, Charles X was an unpopular reactionary monarch whose aspirations were far more grand than those of his deceased brother, he had no desire to rule as a constitutional monarch, taking various steps to strengthen his own authority as monarch and weaken that of the lower house. In 1830, Charles X of France instigated by one of his chief advisers Jules, Prince de Polignac, issued the Four Ordinances of St. Cloud; these ordinances abolished freedom of the press, reduced the electorate by 75%, dissolved the lower house.

This action provoked an immediate reaction from the citizenry, who revolted against the monarchy during the Three Glorious Days of 26–29 July 1830. Charles was forced to flee Paris for the United Kingdom; as a result, Louis Philippe, of the Orléanist branch, rose to power, replacing the old Charter by the Charter of 1830, his rule became known as the July Monarchy. Nicknamed the "Bourgeois Monarch", Louis Philippe sat at the head of a moderately liberal state controlled by educated elites. Supported by the Orléanists, he was opposed on his right by the Legitimists and on his left by the Republicans and Socialists. Louis Philippe was an expert businessman and, by means of his businesses, he had become one of the richest men in France. Still Louis Philippe saw himself as the successful embodiment of a "small businessman", he and his government did not look with favor on the big business the industrial section of the French bourgeoisie. Louis Philippe did, support the bankers and small. Indeed, at the beginning of his reign in 1830, Jaques Laffitte, a banker and liberal politician who supported Louis Philippe's rise to the throne, said "From now on, the bankers will rule."

Accordingly, during the reign of Louis Philippe, the privileged "financial aristocracy", i.e. bankers, stock exchange magnates, railroad barons, owners of coal mines, iron ore mines, forests and all landowners associated with them, tended to support him, while the industrial section of the bourgeoisie, which may have owned the land their factories sat on but not much more, were disfavoured by Louis Philippe and tended to side with the middle class and laboring class in opposition to Louis Philippe in the Chamber of Deputies. Land-ownership was favored, this elitism resulted in the disenfranchisement of much of the middle and working classes. By 1848 only about one percent of the population held the franchise. Though France had a free press and trial by jury, only landholders were permitted to vote, which alienated the petty bourgeoisie and the industrial bourgeoisie from the government. Louis Philippe was viewed as indifferent to the needs of society to those members of the middle class who were excluded from the political arena.

Early in 1848, some Orléanist liberals, such as Adolphe Thiers, had turned against Louis Philippe, disappointed by his opposition to parliamentarism. A Reform Movement developed in France which urged the government to expand the electoral franchise, just as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland had done with the Reform Act 1832; the more radical democrats of the Reform Movement coalesced around La Réforme. Starting in July 1847 the Reformists of all shades began to hold "banquets" at which toasts were drunk to "République française", "Liberté, égalité, fraternité", etc. Louis Philippe turned a deaf ear to the Reform Movement, discontent among wide sections of the French people continued to grow. Social and political discontent sparked revolutions in France in 1830 and 1848, which in turn inspired revolts in other parts of Europe. Workers lost their jobs, bread prices rose, people accused the government of corruption; the French set up a republic. French successes led to other revolts, including those who wanted relief from the suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution, nationalism spran

Magen Shaul

Magen Shaul is a moshav in northern Israel. Located near Mount Gilboa, it falls under the jurisdiction of Gilboa Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 667. Magen Shaul was founded in 1976 by children of families who lived in other moshavim of the Ta'anakh region; the name "Magen Shaul" is borrowed from the elegy that David proclaimed after Saul died in a battle against the Philistines in the surrounding area. The economy was based on roses grown in hothouses. In the early 2000s, ten Christian Zionist families from Canada immigrated to Israel and settled in Magen Shaul, they established Gilboa Tooling Industries, a manufacturing company that exports its products to the aerospace and medical industries around the world. They established a vocational school to train metalworking trades in order to support the manufacturing sector of the Israeli industry

Kay Gyroplane

The Kay Gyroplane Type 33/1 was a 1930s British single-seat autogiro design by David Kay. David Kay had first flown an autogiro in 1932 but it was damaged in early 1933 and not repaired. Kay designed a larger single-seat autogiro, the Type 33/1 and contracted Oddie and Cull Limited of Southampton to build two fuselages; the first autogiro, registered G-ACVA, first flew on 18 February 1935 from Eastleigh Airport. The second autogiro was not completed. Following the last flight of G-ACVA on 16 August 1947 at Perth Airport at Scone, it was stored there for many years, it was refurbished at Scone in 1967 and loaned to the Museum of Transport, Glasgow. The autogyro was purchased from the Kay family by the National Museums Scotland and is on display in the main museum building in Chambers Street, Edinburgh. Type 32/1 Single-seat autogiro powered by an ABC Scorpion piston engine. Type 33/1 Single-seat autogiro powered by a Pobjoy R piston engine. On display at National Museum of Scotland in Scotland. Data from British Civil Aircraft since 1919 - Volume 3General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 5.46 m Main rotor diameter: 6.71 m Empty weight: 301 kg Gross weight: 417 kg Powerplant: 1 × Pobjoy R piston engine, 56 kW Related lists List of rotorcraft