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July Monarchy

The July Monarchy was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848. It marks the end of the Bourbon Restoration, it began with the overthrow of the conservative government of Charles X, the last king of the House of Bourbon. Louis Philippe, a member of the more liberal Orléans branch of the House of Bourbon, proclaimed himself as Roi des Français rather than "King of France", emphasizing the popular origins of his reign; the king promised to follow the "juste milieu", or the middle-of-the-road, avoiding the extremes of either the conservative supporters of Charles X and radicals on the left. The July Monarchy was dominated by numerous former Napoleonic officials, it followed conservative policies under the influence of François Guizot. The king promoted friendship with Great Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the French conquest of Algeria. By 1848, a year in which many European states had a revolution, the king's popularity had collapsed, he was overthrown.

Louis Phillipe was pushed to the throne by an alliance between the people of Paris. However, at the end of his reign, the so-called "Citizen King" was overthrown by similar citizen uprisings and use of barricades during the February Revolution of 1848; this resulted in the proclamation of the Second Republic. After Louis-Philippe's ousting and subsequent exile to Britain, the liberal Orleanist faction continued to support a return of the House of Orléans to the throne, but the July Monarchy proved to be the last Bourbon-Orleans monarchy of France. The Legitimists withdrew from politics to their castles, leaving the way open for the struggle between the Orleanists and the Republicans; the July Monarchy is seen as a period during which the haute bourgeoisie was dominant, marked the shift from the counter-revolutionary Legitimists to the Orleanists. They were willing to make some compromises with the changes brought by the 1789 Revolution. For instance, Louis-Philippe was crowned "King of the French", instead of "King of France": this marked his acceptance of popular sovereignty.

Louis-Philippe, who had flirted with liberalism in his youth, rejected much of the pomp and circumstance of the Bourbons and surrounded himself with merchants and bankers. The July Monarchy, ruled during a time of turmoil. A large group of Legitimists on the right demanded the restoration of the Bourbons to the throne. On the left and Socialism, remained a powerful force. Late in his reign Louis-Philippe became rigid and dogmatic and his President of the Council, François Guizot, had become unpopular, but the king refused to remove him; the situation escalated until the Revolutions of 1848 resulted in the fall of the monarchy and the establishment of the Second Republic. However, during the first few years of his reign, Louis-Philippe was taking action to develop legitimate, broad-based reform; the government found its source of legitimacy within the Charter of 1830, written by reform-minded members of Chamber of Deputies and committed to a platform of religious equality among Catholics and Protestants.

Louis-Philippe and his ministers adhered to policies that seemed to promote the central tenets of the constitution. However, the majority of these policies were veiled attempts to shore up the power and influence of the government and the bourgeoisie, rather than legitimate attempts to promote equality and empowerment for a broad constituency of the French population. Thus, though the July Monarchy seemed to move toward reform, this movement was illusory. During the years of the July Monarchy, enfranchisement doubled, from 94,000 under Charles X to more than 200,000 men by 1848. But, this number still represented only one percent of population and a small number of those men of eligible age; as the qualifications for voting was related to payment of a certain level of taxes, only the wealthiest men gained this privilege. The extended franchise tended to favor the wealthy merchant bourgeoisie more than any other group. Beyond resulting in the election of more bourgeoisie to the Chamber of Deputies, this electoral expansion meant that the bourgeoisie could politically challenge the nobility on legislative matters.

Thus, while appearing to honor his pledge to increase suffrage, Louis-Philippe acted to empower his supporters and increase his hold over the French Parliament. The election of only the wealthiest men tended to undermine any possibility for growth of a radical faction in Parliament, served conservative ends; the reformed Charter of 1830 limited the power of the king—stripping him of his ability to propose and decree legislation, as well as limiting his executive authority. However, Louis believed in a kind of monarchy in which the king was more than a figurehead for an elected Parliament, as such, he was involved in legislative affairs. One of his first acts in creating his government was to appoint the conservative Casimir Perier as the premier of his cabinet. Perier, a banker, was instrumental in shutting down many of the Republican secret societies and labor unions that had formed during the early years of the regime. In addition, he oversaw the

Spectral G-index

The spectral G-Index is a variable, developed to quantify the amount of short wavelength light in a visible light source relative to its visible emission. The smaller the G-index, the more blue, violet, or ultraviolet light a lamp emits relative to its total output, it is used in order to select outdoor lamps. The G-index was proposed by David Galadí Enríquez, an astrophysicist at Calar Alto Observatory; the G-index is grounded in the system of astronomical photometry, is defined as follows: G = − 2.5 l o g 10 ∑ λ = 380 n m 500 n m E ∑ λ = 380 n m 780 n m E V where G is the spectral G-index. For lamps with no emissions below 500 nm, the G-index would in principle be undefined. In practice, such lamps would be reported as having G greater than some value, due to the limits of measurement precision; the Regional Government of Andalusia has developed a spreadsheet to allow calculation of the G-index for any lamp for which the spectral power distribution is known, it can be calculated in the "Astrocalc" software or the f.luxometer web app.

The G-index does not directly measure light pollution, but rather says something about the color of light coming from a lamp. For example, since the equation defining G-index is normalised to total flux, if twice as many lamps are used, the G-index would not change; the definition of G-index does not include the direction in which light shines, so it is not directly related to skyglow, which depends on direction. The ongoing global switch from orange high pressure sodium lamps for street lighting to white LEDs has resulted in a shift towards broad spectrum light, with greater short wavelength emissions; this switch is problematic from the perspective of increased astronomical and ecological light pollution. Short wavelength light is more to scatter in the atmosphere, therefore produces more artificial skyglow than an equivalent amount of longer wavelength light. Additionally, both broad spectrum light and short wavelength light tend to have greater overall ecological impacts than narrow band and long wavelength visible light.

For this reason, lighting guidelines, recommendations and legislation place limits on blue light emissions. For example, the "fixture seal of approval" program of the International Dark-Sky Association limits lights to have a correlated color temperature below 3000 K, while the national French light pollution law restricts CCT to maximum 3000 K in most areas, 2400 K or 2700 K in protected areas such as nature reserves; the problem with these approaches is that CCT is not correlated with blue light emissions. Lamps with identical CCT can have quite different fractional blue light emissions; this is because CCT is based upon comparison to a blackbody light source, a poor approximation for LEDs and vapor discharge lamps such as high pressure sodium. The G-index was therefore developed for use in decision making for the purchase of outdoor lamps and in lighting regulations as an improved alternative to the CCT metric. In 2019, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre incorporated the G-index into their guidelines for the Green Public Procurement of road lighting.

In areas needing protection for astronomical or ecological reasons, they recommend the use of the G-index instead of CCT in making lighting decisions, because the G-index more quantifies the amount of blue light. In their "core criteria", they recommend that "in parks and areas considered by the procurer to be ecologically sensitive, the G-index shall be ≥1.5". In the case that G-index could for some reason not be calculated, they suggest that CCT≤3000 K is to satisfy this criterion. In the stricter "comprehensive criteria", they recommend that parks and ecologically sensitive areas or areas at specified distances from optical astronomy observatories have a G-index greater than or equal to 2.0. Again, in this case if calculating the G-index is not possible, CCT≤2700 K is suggested; the G-index is planned to be used by the Regional Government of Andalusia for the purpose of protecting the night sky. Depending on the "environmental zone", the regulation requires lighting to have a G value above 2, 1.5, or 1.

In areas where astronomical activities are ongoing, it is expected that only monochromatic or quasi-monochromatic lamps will be used, with G>3.5 and in principle only emissions in the interval 585-605 nm. More information, including a spreadsheet for calculating G-index, Regional Government of Andalusia (note: Spanish language page.

Diego Lima

Diego Lima is a Brazilian goalkeeper formed in the Flamengo. He plays for Clube de Regatas do Flamengo reserves team. Diego Lima da Silva was goalkeeper of the team of the Flamengo youth in 2007. In 2006, his first year in the category, won the Campeonato Carioca de Juvenis; the next year, lifted the Copa Macaé and Torneio Circuito das Águas. The shirt had an opportunity in the juniores category, he joined a group that ranked third in the Champions Youth Cup, the interclub championship for players under 19 years. In 2010, he had his first chance with the professional group of Flamengo and traveled to the intertemporal in Itu, São Paulo, in preparation for the sequel to the Campeonato Brasileiro. According to combined sources on the Flamengo official website and Flaestatística. Flamengo Campeonato Carioca Juvenil: 2006 Torneio Internacional Circuito das Águas: 2006, 2007 Copa Macaé: 2007 Flamengo - October 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011. Ogol Player profile @ Flapédia