French colonization of the Americas

The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere. France founded colonies in much of eastern North America, on a number of Caribbean islands, in South America. Most colonies were developed to export products such as fish, rice and furs; as they colonized the New World, the French established forts and settlements that would become such cities as Quebec and Montreal in Canada. The French first came to the New World as travelers, seeking a route to the Pacific Ocean and wealth. Major French exploration of North America began under the rule of King of France. In 1524, Francis sent Italian-born Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the region between Florida and Newfoundland for a route to the Pacific Ocean. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain and English Newfoundland, thus promoting French interests. In 1534, Francis I of France sent Jacques Cartier on the first of three voyages to explore the coast of Newfoundland and the St. Lawrence River.

He founded New France by planting a cross on the shore of the Gaspé Peninsula. The French subsequently tried to establish several colonies throughout North America that failed, due to weather, disease, or conflict with other European powers. Cartier attempted to create the first permanent European settlement in North America at Cap-Rouge in 1541 with 400 settlers but the settlement was abandoned the next year after bad weather and attacks from Native Americans in the area. A small group of French troops were left on Parris Island, South Carolina in 1562 to build Charlesfort, but left after a year when they were not resupplied by France. Fort Caroline established in present-day Jacksonville, Florida, in 1564, lasted only a year before being destroyed by the Spanish from St. Augustine. An attempt to settle convicts on Sable Island off Nova Scotia in 1598 failed after a short time. In 1599, a sixteen-person trading post was established in Tadoussac, of which only five men survived the first winter.

In 1604 Pierre Du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain founded a short-lived French colony, the first in Acadia, on Saint Croix Island, presently part of the state of Maine, much plagued by illness scurvy. The following year the settlement was moved to Port Royal, located in present-day Nova Scotia. Samuel de Champlain explored the Great Lakes. In 1634, Jean Nicolet founded La Baye des Puants, one of the oldest permanent European settlements in America. In 1634, Sieur de Laviolette founded Trois-Rivières. In 1642, Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve, founded Fort Ville-Marie, now known as Montreal. Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette founded Sault Sainte Marie and Saint Ignace and explored the Mississippi River. At the end of the 17th century, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle established a network of forts going from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. Fort Saint Louis was established in Texas in 1685, but was gone by 1688. Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit in 1701 and Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville founded La Nouvelle Orléans in 1718.

Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville founded Baton Rouge in 1719.. The French were eager to explore North America but New France remained unpopulated. Due to the lack of women, intermarriages between French and Indians were frequent, giving rise to the Métis people. Relations between the French and Indians were peaceful; as the 19th-century historian Francis Parkman stated: "Spanish civilization crushed the Indian. Louis XIV tried to increase the population by sending 800 young women nicknamed the "King's Daughters". However, the low density of population in New France remained a persistent problem. At the beginning of the French and Indian War, the British population in North America outnumbered the French 20 to 1. France fought a total of six colonial wars in North America. In 1562, Charles IX, under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny sent Jean Ribault and a group of Huguenot settlers in an attempt to colonize the Atlantic coast and found a colony on a territory which will take the name of the French Florida.

They discovered the probe and Port Royal Island, which will be called by Parris Island in South Carolina, on which he built a fort named Charlesfort. The group, led by René Goulaine de Laudonnière, moved to the south where they founded the Fort Caroline on the Saint John's river in Florida on June 22, 1564; this irritated the Spanish who claimed Flo

Sir John Perceval, 1st Baronet

Sir John Perceval, 1st Baronet was a substantial land owner in Ireland. He was knighted by Henry Cromwell for his services to the Commonwealth government of Ireland during the Interregnum. Shortly before the Restoration he held the offices of Chief Prothonotary of the Common Pleas and Clerk of the Crown. After the Restoration he was granted a baronetcy and given a full pardon for his activities during the Interregnum, he was appointed Privy Councillor to King Charles II, a Knight of the Shire for County Cork, was a member of the Council of Trade. John Perceval was born on 7 September 1629 in Dublin, he was the eldest son and heir of Sir Philip Perceval and of Catherine, the daughter of Arthur Usher of Dublin, grandson to George Perceval. He was tutored in the home counties of England alongside Lord Inchequin's eldest son, placed under the guardianship of Sir Philip Perceval while his father was engaged in the Civil War in Ireland. John Perceval went to Cambridge University in February 1646. While at Cambridge he met and befriended Henry Cromwell.

His father died the following year, John Perceval decided that, with wars raging in both England and Ireland, he would remain at university and so remain out of public life to avoid choosing sides in the wars. In 1649, after the execution of Charles I, the rebellion in Ireland was crushed by the New Model Army under the command of Oliver Cromwell. Given Perceval's large holdings in Ireland, he thought it politic to return to protect his interests; this was difficult because his father had opposed the English Independents who were now in the ascendancy. As well as protecting his lands, Perceval proposed to marry the daughter of the Speaker of the Rump Parliament William Lenthall who would protect his estates for the benefit of his daughter. However, with the diminution of Lenthall's influence within the Commonwealth, the marriage fell through. Perceval's father Sir Philip Perceval, was in the Irish government and supported Cromwell; however he opposed the New Model Army. On his death, Cromwell calculated that his son could be of use and he protected John Perceval's interests in the short term, hoping to use him as an ally in the longer term.

The first example of this support occurred in England in 1650 when the Somerset sequestration committee proposed that Perceval's holdings in Somerset should be sequestrated. The matter was taken up in London and, through Cromwell's intervention, settled in favour of Perceval. In Ireland, the Commonwealth sequestered all of Perceval's estates. Perceval prevented absolute confiscation and as his interests improved, this severity relaxed; however he was obliged to pay large sums to the Commonwealth. For example, in the year 1 May 1650, to 1 May 1651 for his Munster estate, he contributed £1,965 and, in the following year, his contribution amounted to £200 more than the estate produced. Once Sir John Perceval was of age, he laid claim to all of his father's estates in Ireland, amounting to seventy-eight and a half Knight's Fees, containing 101,000 acres, of some of the best land in Ireland. There were holdings in the counties of: Cork, Catherlough, Kerry, Mayo and Dublin. There were some other estates over which he had control, some were in his possession, some belonged to his mother, he was paid a small amount of rent from housing in Dublin City.

Oliver Cromwell, in Ireland finishing his campaign against the Irish confederates and Royalists, supported Perceval in his claim. When Cromwell left Ireland in the middle of May 1650 to take the war to Scotland, Henry Ireton, his son-in-law, remained in Ireland as Lord Deputy in Cromwell's place. Militarily he was left with a mopping up operation. After his death, his successor, Edmund Ludlow, was faced with less effective military opposition, after Charles Fleetwood arrived in Ireland with supreme command, the English establishment was confident enough of their hold on Ireland that the English Parliament declared the rebellion subdued on 26 September 1651; the next issue facing the English Parliament was what sort of settlement to impose on Ireland. This included a High Commission to try those, in arms against the Commonwealth, many of whom were transported and their lands sequestrated, the banishing of known Roman Catholics to Connaught and the confiscation of their lands. Oliver Cromwell sent Sir John Perceval to assist General Charles Fleetwood with this task.

Fleetwood was impressed with Perceval's service, wrote to England saying as much. In recognition of this service, Perceval was granted the office of King's Bench, sequestrated with his estate from the time of his father's death. On 6 July 1653 the office of Commissioners of Revenue was told to allow him to receive the entire income from his estates. To provide a suitable living for himself, to pay off some of his father's debts, to form a dowry for his sister, he sold 15,000 acres of his best land in a depressed market. In December 1653 the Council of Officers introduced a written constitution into the Commonwealth called the Instrument of Government and under its provisions declared Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector. Perceval travelled to London in May 1654 and while there renewed his friendship with Henry Cromwell and had an audience with Oliver, he was invited to sit in the First Protectorate Parliament but declined because he thought that his public and private commitments in Ireland should take priority.

When he saw what a debacle the First Protectorate Parliament had become, Perceval decided to distance himself from the regime con

Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation

The Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of Upper and Lower Chehalis, Muckleshoot and Quinault peoples. They are one of the Northern Straits branch Central Coast Salish peoples of indigenous peoples of the Northwest Coast, their tribe is located in southwest Washington. The Confederated Tribes' traditional territories were along the Black, Cowlitz, Johns, Satsop and Wynoochee Rivers, near Grays Harbor and on the lower Puget Sound of Washington; the Chehalis Reservation is 4,438 acres large, 661 American Indians tribal members, live on the reservation. The reservation was first established in 1860 for the Upper Chehalis people. 4,224.63 acres larger, 3,753.63 acres of land were distributed to non-native settlers through an 1866 Executive Order. An additional 471 acres were given to schools. More land was taken from the tribe. In 1906, only 149 Chehalis people remained on the reservation, only 382 lived there in 1984; the Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation's headquarters is in Washington.

The tribe is governed by democratically elected General Council. They ratified their constitution and bylaws on 15 July 1939; as of November 2017, Harry Pickernell Sr. is the current chairman of the Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis. Past chairman include: Don Secena David Burnett ( English is spoken by the tribe, their traditional languages include Upper Chehalis and Lower Chehalis languages, which are Quinault languages that belong to the Tsamosan branch of the Salish language family. The last native speaker of the Upper Chehalis language died in 2001; the Chehalis Tribe owns and operates Lucky Eagle Casino, Eagles Landing Hotel, Grand Buffet, Scatter Creek Grill, Prime Rib and Steakhouse, Sidewalk Deli in Rochester and the Great Wolf Lodge Resort in Grand Mound, Washington. It owns three convenience stores, a fast food restaurant, two construction companies, a cigarette stamping business; the tribe employs 1,498 people. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Chehalis Tribe, official website