French hip hop is the hip hop music style developed in French-speaking countries. By 1982 and 1983, a number of hip hop radio shows had appeared on Paris radio, including "Rapper Dapper" and "Funk à Billy". In November 1982 the New York City Rap Tour, traveled around France and to London featuring Afrika Bambaataa, Grandmixer DST, Fab 5 Freddy, Mr Freeze and the Rock Steady Crew; the first major star of French hip hop was MC Solaar. Born Claude M'Barali in Dakar, Senegal, he moved as a child to France in 1970 and lived in Villeneuve-Saint-Georges, his 1991 album, Qui sème le vent récolte le tempo, was a major hit. The European Music Office's report on Music in Europe said that the French language was well-suited for rapping, he set many records, including being the first French hip hop recording artist to go platinum. Some artists claim that the French language hip hop style was influenced by the music of French singer Renaud. Following MC Solaar's breakthrough, two broad styles emerged within the French hip hop scene.
Many such artists found themselves at the heart of controversies over lyrics that were seen as glorifying the murder of police officers and other crimes, similar to outcries over violent thuggish lyrics in American gangsta rap. The cases include the notorious Ministère AMER's "Sacrifice de poulet", NTM's "Police" and Lunatic's "Le crime paie". French hip-hop, like hip-hop in other countries, is influenced by American hip-hop. Columnist David Brooks wrote that "ghetto life, at least as portrayed in rap videos, now defines for the young and disaffected what it means to be oppressed. Gangsta resistance is the most compelling model for how to rebel against that oppression." He argued that the gangster image of American hip hop appeals to young & impoverished immigrant minorities in France, as a means to oppose the racism and oppression they experience. Jody Rosen counters Brooks' argument, criticizing that Brooks makes use of only a few, old samples of potential French gangsta rap that contain violent or misogynistic lyrics.
Brooks fails to assess French hip hop's larger scope, discounts its potential for "rappers of amazing skill and wit."France is the world's second-largest hip-hop market and the fifth largest global music market, with 7 percent of the world's music sales, but with an unusually high quantity of local product, although the domestic share of the French music market dropped from 48 percent to 44 percent in 1998. Francophone rap was given a boost in the early 21st century by a decision of the French ministry of culture, which insisted that French-language stations play a minimum of 40 percent French-language music during transmission; this makes up one quarter of the radio's top 100, ten percent of local music production and has sold hundreds of thousands of CDs. French hip hop, however, is criticized for imitating American hip hop style. French rapper MC Solaar agrees sarcastically, saying, "French rap is pretty much a U. S. branch office... we copy everything, don't we? We don't take a step back."Parts of American hip-hop culture have left a mark on the culture of French hip-hop as well in terms of fashion, music videos, jewelry and other things.
Hip-hop culture was imported from America with the influence of New York rappers and the music that came out of New York. Through the 1990s, the music grew to become one of the most popular genres in France; the group went their separate ways in 2000. In the 2000s, similar to developments in the United States, a gap has begun to emerge in French hip hop between artists seen as having sold out, belonging to the mainstream, more innovative independent artists. Booba, 113, Kaaris, La Rumeur, Dosseh, LIM, Dicidens, Kamelancien, L'Skadrille, Le 3ème Œil, Black Marché, Carré Rouge, Expression Direkt, are some hardcore rappers known for their rejection of mainstream French rap, while Casey, Rocé, Kery James, Médine, Fonky Family, Psy 4 de la Rime, Keny Arkana, Haroun, La Fouine, Oxmo Puccino, Sefyu, TLF, Sniper, Ärsenik, Dj Azer, Puissance Nord, Mino La Swija, Carpe Diem, represent a mix of hardcore or purist rap and mainstream designs. Other rappers are Soprano, Black M, Maître Gims, Lartiste, L'Algérino.
As hip hop moved into a new millennium, French hip hop artists developed seeing commercial success, some international appeal. One of the most influential French hip hop albums of all time, Cinquième As, was released by MC Solaar in 2001. At the same time, new artists like Sinik and Diam's began to see significant success, as well, bringing a new sound and genre of lyrical prowess to the game. Themes in French hip hop include opposition to the social order and puns, as well as ethnic and cultural identity. Whereas early French hip hop was seen as mimicking American hip hop in terms of aesthetic appeal French rappers added their own cultural and ethnic identities to the mix. With the rise of IAM's pharaoism, or allusions to ancient Egyptian pharaohs, we see them attempting to negotiate and create a space for themselves in a social scene rife with discrimination and racist ideologies. French hip hop can be defined by two major categories or subgenres: hip-hop from the north centered around major cities like Paris and its suburbs, hip-hop from the south which focuses around cities like Marseille.
Graeme David Ferreira is a former Zimbabwean cricketer who represented Matabeleland and Midlands in Zimbabwean domestic cricket. He played as bowling right-arm off-spin. Ferreira was born in Salisbury, he was selected for the Zimbabwe under-19s team during the 1995–96 season, played four matches against the England under-19s. Ferreira made his first-class debut in April 1996, playing for Matabeleland against Mashonaland Country Districts in the final of the 1995–96 Logan Cup, he opened the batting with Ethan Dube in both innings, Matabeleland won by six wickets despite the pair scoring only eight runs between them. After his debut, Ferreira did not return to first-class level until the 1999–00 Logan Cup, where he played three matches for Midlands. In his first match of the season, against CFX Academy, he made 46 runs from 84 balls, the highest score of his career. In the next match, against Matabeleland, he took 4/55 and 5/45, finishing with match figures of 9/100. Ferreira's final first-class match came against Mashonaland, saw Midlands lose by 251 runs after being bowled out for 31 and 56.
Player profile and statistics at Cricket Archive Player profile and statistics at ESPNcricinfo
Mary Antonia "Mari" Hulman George was the daughter of Anton "Tony" Hulman and Mary Fendrich Hulman, prominent Indiana philanthropists and business owners. She was the chairperson of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway from 1988 to 2016, of Hulman & Company. Mari was the Hulmans' only child, but from the age of eleven she was surrounded by the families of Indianapolis 500 drivers, whom she befriended, she married one such driver, Elmer George, on April 29, 1957. At 22 years of age, she became stepmother to Elmer's children from his first marriage, the couple would go on to have four children together: three daughters, Nancy and Kathi. Elmer George, who met with little success as a driver, retired from racing in 1963, he became a Speedway vice-president and head of the IMS Radio Network. For most of the couple's marriage, they owned a farm outside of Terre Haute, but spent much of their time at their 1,300-acre ranch in Wyoming. Mari filed for divorce from Elmer in May 1976. Only four weeks after this, Elmer was shot multiple times and killed by Guy Trollinger, the family's horse trainer and Mari's alleged boyfriend, after an argument at Elmer and Mari's ranch in Terre Haute late at night on the day of that year's Indianapolis 500.
On November 3, 2018 Indianapolis Motor Speedway announced. After the death of Tony Hulman in 1977, his widow Mary F. Hulman was named the chairperson of the board of directors of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and Hulman & Co. the family's primary business. Mari Hulman George was named to the position of board member; when Mary F. Hulman's health began to decline, she retired and was named chairman emeritus, a position she held until her death in 1998; the chairmanship of the companies was passed to Mari Hulman George in 1988. Mari Hulman George held those positions until the summer of 2016. Shortly after the 2016 Indianapolis 500, Mari was facing declining health and was elected chairman emeritus of the family companies. At that same time, her son Tony George was elevated to the chairman position. Like her father and mother before her, from 1997 to 2015 Mari started the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 races with the famous starting command, " Gentlemen, start your engines!" In 2014, she was joined by Jim Nabors, for the 100th running of the Indianapolis 500 in 2016, she was joined by the entire Hulman/George family.
Mari had given the command as a substitute for her mother in 1981. Like her parents, Mari Hulman George is well-known throughout Indiana for her generosity to institutions of higher learning, with her alma mater, St. Mary-of-the-Woods College in Saint Mary-of-the-Woods, Indiana among the top beneficiaries; the college maintains the Mari Hulman George School of Equine Studies, founded in part due to her love of horses. In 2001, the Indiana Department of Homeland Security renamed their search-and-rescue training area at Camp Atterbury the Mari Hulman George Search and Rescue Training Center, in recognition of her contributions to the care of animals displaced and otherwise affected by disasters, she has been active in the rescue and adoption of racing greyhounds