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Friedrich August Wolf

Friedrich August Wolf was a German Classicist and is considered the founder of modern Philology. He was born near Nordhausen, his father was organist. In grammar school, he studied Latin and Greek as well as French, Italian and music. In 1777, after two years of independent study, at the age of eighteen, Wolf went to the University of Göttingen. Legend has it that he chose to enroll in the department of "philology", despite the fact that the university had none, his enrollment was nonetheless accepted as submitted. At the time Christian Gottlob Heyne was a member of the faculty. Heyne excluded Wolf from his lectures, criticized Wolf's views on Homer. Wolf was pursued his studies through the university's library. From 1779 to 1783, he taught at Osterode, he published an edition of Plato's Symposium, in 1783, he was awarded a chair at the University of Halle in Prussia. It was in Halle, with the support of ministers serving under Frederick the Great, that Wolf first laid down the principles of the field he would call "Philology".

He defined philology as the study of human nature. Its methods include the examination of the history, writing and other examples of ancient cultures, it combines the study of history and language, through interpretation, in which history and linguistics coalesce into an organic whole. This was the ideal of Wolf's philological seminarium at Halle. During Wolf's time at Halle he published his commentary on the Leptines of Demosthenes, which influenced his student Philipp August Böckh, he published The Public Economy of Athens, Prolegomena ad Homerum. The publication of the latter led to accusations of plagiarism by Heyne; the Halle professorship ended after the French invasion of 1806. He relocated to Berlin, he died on the road to Marseille, was buried there. Hermeneutics Reinhard Markner, "Friedrich August Wolf. Eine Bibliographie."

Sargis I Jaqeli

Sargis I Jaqeli was a Georgian ruling prince of the House of Jaqeli who became the first sovereign Prince of Samtskhe in 1268. Sargis was a son of Beka Jaqeli, killed in battle with the Mongols in 1220, grandson of Ivane I Jaqeli and spasalar of Samtskhe, he had an older brother, Ivane known as Papa, with whom Sargis fought the invading Anatolian Turkish forces under their grandfather's command around 1245. By that time, the Kingdom of Georgia had come under the Mongol political hegemony and had been in decline. Sargis appears in the historical records as the spasalar of Samtskhe succeeding his grandfather Ivane, who might have died around 1247. Sargis served loyally to King David VII of Georgia, who revolted from the overlordship of the Mongol Il-Khans and placed his forces under Jaqeli's command in 1260. In December 1260, captaining a force of 8,000 rebels, Sargis engaged some 20,000 troops led by the Mongol general Arghun Aqa in the environs of Tashiskari and Akhaldaba. While an initial vanguard encounter of 1,500 Georgians with Arghun's 6,000 horsemen was a success, the rebels were routed when the main forces engaged in fighting after Arghun was dissuaded by a loyal Georgian, Kakha Toreli, from retreating.

Sargis fell back to the rebel king David's headquarters in Atsquri, but he succeeded in beating off Arghun's attack on his patrimonial fortress of Tsikhisjvari in May 1261. Subsequently, David VII and Sargis gave up the struggle and joined David VI, David VII's cousin and co-king in western Georgia. In 1262, Sargis accompanied David VII to the Il-Khan court, he is reported to have pleaded himself guilty of a revolt in order to save his royal suzerain from Hulagu Khan's rage, citing corruption of the Il-Khan tax officials as a pretext. Around same time, he took part in the Il-Khan's struggle against the rival Mongol ruler Berke of the Golden Horde, reputedly saved Hulagu's life during a battle; the khan decided to reward Sargis's service by granting him the city of Karin, an honor blocked by jealous Georgian rivals who were able to convince the malleable king David of Jaqeli's treachery. Sargis was imprisoned on his return to Tbilisi, but released through the Il-Khan's intervention. Having felt betrayed, Sargis broke with the Georgian court, but remained a faithful vassal to the Il-Khans and obtained from Hulagu the status of injü, that is, "crown land" in 1266.

This meant that Samtskhe became independent of the Georgian crown and was placed under the direct Il-Khan suzerainty. Sargis’s association with the Georgian court was not severed, however, as we hear of him having the dignity of Lord High Treasurer under Demetrius II of Georgia; the ailing aged prince Sargis ended his life in retirement in the Sapara Monastery, being succeeded by his son Beka I Jaqeli

Laura Spencer-Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough

Frances Laura Spencer-Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, was a British noblewoman and socialite. She was variously Viscountess Long, Countess of Dudley and became Duchess of Marlborough upon her fourth marriage, to John Spencer-Churchill, 10th Duke of Marlborough, she was the sister of novelist Hugo Charteris and Ann Charteris, as well as the granddaughter of Hugo Charteris, 11th Earl of Wemyss. Her third husband, Michael Temple Canfield, was the former husband of Lee Radziwill, sister of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. During World War II, she served as an auxiliary nurse. Frances Laura Charteris was born on 10 August 1915 at London, England, to Captain the Hon. Guy Lawrence Charteris and Frances Lucy Tennant, daughter of a Scottish chemical merchant. Laura, as she was called, had 3 siblings, Mary Rose and Hugo, their mother died of cancer in 1925 and the remainder of their childhood was spent shuffling between homes in London and family in Scotland, where their grandparents, the Earl and Countess of Wemyss, lived.

During World War II, she served as an auxiliary nurse for the Royal Navy. On 14 November 1933, at St Margaret's Church, London, she married Walter Francis David Long, 2nd Viscount Long, he was the son of Brigadier-General Walter Sibell Vanden-Bempde-Johnstone. During her marriage, she was the Viscountess Long. Laura's only child, was the product of this union: The couple divorced in 1942. Antoinette Sara Frances Sibell Long Laura married William Humble Eric Ward, 3rd Earl of Dudley, son of William Humble Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley and Rachel Gurney, on 23 February 1943, she was known as the Countess of Dudley until she and Ward divorced in 1954. On 13 June 1960, Laura married Michael Temple Canfield, rumoured to have been the son of Prince George, Duke of Kent and American Alice “Kiki” Gwynne Preston. Canfield was adopted as an infant by Cass Canfield, head of Harper and Row Publishing house with his wife Katharine Emmet. Michael Canfield was the previous husband of Jackie Kennedy's younger sister.

Her fourth and final husband was John Albert William Spencer-Churchill, 10th Duke of Marlborough, whom she married six weeks before his death in 1972. From the time of this marriage, she became known as the Duchess of Marlborough. Laura died on 19 February 1990 at age 74 at Portman Towers, London, England. In 1980, she published Laughter from a Cloud. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980 1915 — 1933: Miss Frances Laura Charteris 1933 — 1942: The Right Honourable The Viscountess Long 1942 — 1943: Frances, Viscountess Long 1943 — 1954: The Right Honourable The Countess of Dudley 1954 — 1960: Frances, Countess of Dudley 1960 — 1971: Mrs Michael Temple Canfield 1972 — 1972: Her Grace The Duchess of Marlborough 1972 — 1977: Her Grace Laura Spencer-Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough 1977 — 1990: Her Grace The Dowager Duchess of Marlborough