Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin was a German poet and philosopher. Described by Norbert von Hellingrath as "the most German of Germans", Hölderlin was a key figure of German Romanticism. Due to his early association with and philosophical influence on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, he was an important thinker in the development of German Idealism. Born in Lauffen am Neckar, Hölderlin's childhood was marked by bereavement, his mother intended for him to enter the Lutheran ministry, he attended the Tübinger Stift, where he was friends with Hegel and Schelling. He could not devote himself to the Christian faith, instead becoming a tutor. Two years he attended the University of Jena, where he interacted with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Novalis, before resuming his career as a tutor, he struggled to establish himself as a poet, was plagued by mental illness. He was sent to a clinic in 1806 but deemed incurable and instead given lodging by a carpenter, Ernst Zimmer.
He spent the final 36 years of his life in Zimmer's residence, died in 1843 at the age of 73. Hölderlin followed the tradition of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller as an admirer of Greek mythology and Ancient Greek poets such as Pindar and Sophocles, melded Christian and Hellenic themes in his works. Martin Heidegger, whom Hölderlin had a great influence on, said: "Hölderlin is one of our greatest, that is, most impending thinkers because he is our greatest poet." Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin was born on 20 March 1770 in Lauffen am Neckar a part of the Duchy of Württemberg. He was the first child of Heinrich Friedrich Hölderlin, his father, the manager of a church estate, died when he was two years old, Friedrich and his sister, were brought up by their mother. In 1774, his mother moved the family to Nürtingen. Two years Johann Gok became the burgomaster of Nürtingen, Hölderlin's half-brother, Karl Christoph Friedrich Gok, was born. In 1779, Johann Gok died at the age of 30.
Hölderlin expressed how his childhood was scarred by grief and sorrow, writing in a 1799 correspondence with his mother: "When my second father died, whose love for me I shall never forget, when I felt, with an incomprehensible pain, my orphaned state and saw, each day, your grief and tears, it was that my soul took on, for the first time, this heaviness that has never left and that could only grow more severe with the years." Hölderlin began his education in 1776, his mother planned for him to join the Lutheran church. In preparation for entrance exams into a monastery, he received additional instruction in Greek, Hebrew and rhetoric, starting in 1782. During this time, he struck a friendship with Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, five years Hölderlin's junior. On account of the age difference, Schelling was "subjected to universal teasing" and Hölderlin protected him from abuse by older students. During this time, Hölderlin began playing the piano and developed an interest in travel literature through exposure to Georg Forster's A Voyage Round the World.
In 1784, Hölderlin entered the Lower Monastery in Denkendorf and started his formal training for entry into the Lutheran ministry. At Denkendorf, he discovered the poetry of Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, took tentative steps in composing his own verses; the earliest known letter of Hölderlin's is dated 1784 and addressed to his former tutor Nathanael Köstlin. In the letter, Hölderlin hinted at his wavering faith in Christianity and anxiety about his mental state. Hölderlin progressed to the Higher Monastery at Maulbronn in 1786. There he fell in love with Luise Nast, the daughter of the monastery's administrator, began to doubt his desire to join the ministry. In 1788, he read Schiller's Don Carlos on Luise Nast's recommendation. Hölderlin wrote a letter to Schiller regarding Don Carlos, stating: "It won't be easy to study Carlos in a rational way, since he was for so many years the magic cloud in which the good god of my youth enveloped me so that I would not see too soon the pettiness and barbarity of the world."
In October 1788, Hölderlin began his theological studies at the Tübinger Stift, where his fellow students included Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Isaac von Sinclair and Schelling. It has been speculated that it was Hölderlin who, during their time in Tübingen, brought to Hegel's attention the ideas of Heraclitus regarding the unity of opposites, which Hegel would develop into his concept of dialectics. In 1789, Hölderlin broke off his engagement with Luise Nast, writing to her: "I wish you happiness if you choose one more worthy than me, surely you will understand that you could never have been happy with your morose, ill-humoured, sickly friend," and expressed his desire to transfer out and study law but succumbed to pressure from his mother to remain in the Stift. Along with Hegel and Schelling and his other peers during his time in the Stift, Hölderlin was an enthusiastic supporter of the French Revolution. Although he rejected the violence of the Reign of Terror, his commitment to the principles of 1789 remained intense.
Hölderlin's republican sympathies influenced many of his most famous works such as Hyperion and The Death of Empedocles. After obtaining his magister degree in 1793, his mother expected him to enter the ministry. However, Hölderlin found no satisfaction in the prevailing Protestant theology, worked instead as a private tutor. In 1794, he met
Alanna Lockward was an author and filmmaker based in Berlin and Santo Domingo. She was the founding director of Art Labour Archives, a platform for theory, political activism and art since 1996. Lockward had conceptualized and curated the trans-disciplinary meeting BE. BOP. Lockward was born in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, on March 23, 1961, she comes from a family of famous intellectuals, her grandfather was George Augustus Lockward Stamers, a historian, university professor, writer, journalist and Gideon Society member. He is the award-winning author of the history of the African Methodist Episcopal Church and other Protestant congregations in the Dominican Republic, her great-uncle was songwriter Juan Lockward. From 1979-83, she was a student at Mexico City, she completed her postgraduate Master's Degree in Art at the Universität der Künste in Berlin. Her thesis was a review of articles from the renowned German newspaper Der Tagesspiegel, her focus here was on the linguistic construction of Black identities.
Lockward was appointed Director of International Affairs at the Museo de Arte Moderno de Santo Domingo in 1988 and has served in several occasions as selection and award jury in national as well as international biennials. "Call & Response" BE. BOP.2016 at the Berlin Theater Volksbuehne. Spiritual revolutions and "The Scramble for Africa" BE. BOP.2014 at Ballhaus Naunynstrasse. Decolonizing the "Cold" War. BE. BOP.2013 Roundtable and screening program Ballhaus Naunynstrasse, May 20–23. BLACK EUROPE BODY POLITICS BE. BOP.2012. Roundtable and screening program Ballhaus Naunynstrasse, May 4–6. Filipa César – The Embassy Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin solo show in the series Labor Berlin conceived by Valerie Smith, Director of the Visual Arts Department April 15-June 5 Truestories. Truesuccess, Freies Museum, October 31– November 19. Naturaleza Intervenida Espacio Iniciarte, Seville. With Juan Ramón-Barbancho, Nilo Casares, Andrés Isaac Santana, November 16 -December 20. Commissioned by Junta de Andalucía.
In His Shoes, Prague Quadrennial performance by Nicolás Dumit Estévez. In cooperation with Franklin Furnace, New York. F-Files, Universität der Künste, Berlin Documentation Exhibition. Commissioned by the Institute for Art in Context. Días Hábiles–Noches Hábiles, Museo del Hombre Dominicano, Museo de Arte Moderno, International Performance Showcase, Santo. Commissioned by the III Festival Internacional de Teatro. 3 Idos, 3 y 2, Museo X-Teresa Arte Actual, Mexico City Contemporary Art from the Dominican Republic. Commissioned by the Dominican Embassy in Mexico. BE. BOP. 2012–2014: El Cuerpo en el Continente de la Conciencia Negra Ediciones del Signo, Buenos Aires, collection "El Desprendimiento". Marassá and the Nothingness. Un Haití Dominicano. Tatuajes fantasmas. Apuntes sobre el pensamiento y la creación contemporánea desde el Caribe. Allen Report, Retracing Transnational African Methodism. received the production prize FONPROCINE 2013. Allianz Cultural Foundation Danish Arts Council Nordic Council of Ministers "Wild at Hair.
IngridMwangiRobertHutter: Masks and Skin Politics as a German DeColonial Knowledge Production". In: ReARTIKULACIJA. Artistic-Political-Theoretical-Discursive Platform 10, 11, 12, 13. Marina Grznic, December 2010, pp. 23–24. "Towards a Utopian Archaeology. Moving-image and Continuities in Haiti, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic". In: Videoarte en Latinoamérica: Una visión crítica. Barcelona: Brumaria, 2008, pp. 81–89. "Pares & Nones: Visible Equality". In: Small Axe. A Journal of Criticism 24, Department of Anthropology Columbia University, New York, 2007, 5 pages. "Elia Alba / Nicolás Dumit Estévez". In: Voces y Visiones. Highlights from El Museo del Barrio´s Permanent Collection. Museo del Barrio, New York, 2006, pp. 16–24. Elia Alba. Los Quehaceres del Agua / Mónica Ferreras. La Verticalidad del Círculo / Charo Oquet. Una Sirena en el Reino de este Mundo. In: Arte Contemporáneo Dominicano. Casa de América-Turner. Madrid, 2002, pp. 30–33, 66-71. 106–110. She died on 7 January 2019 in Santo Domingo. Art Labour Archives Adventures in Afro Europe
Corydon is a book by André Gide consisting of four Socratic dialogues on homosexuality. The name of the book comes from Virgil's pederastic character Corydon. Parts of the text were separately printed from 1911 to 1920, the whole book appeared in its French original in France in May 1924 and in the United States in 1950, it is available in an English translation by the poet Richard Howard. The dialogues use evidence from naturalists, historians and philosophers in order to back up Gide's argument that homosexuality is natural, or better not unnatural, that it pervaded the most culturally and artistically advanced civilizations such as Periclean Greece, Renaissance Italy and Elizabethan England. Gide argues this is reflected by writers and artists from Homer and Virgil to Titian and Shakespeare in their depictions of male–male relationships, such as Achilles and Patroclus, as homosexual rather than as platonic as other critics insist. Gide uses this evidence to insist that homosexuality is more fundamental and natural than exclusive heterosexuality, which he believes is a union constructed by society.
Gide considered Corydon to be his most important work. "My friends insist that this little book is of the kind which will do me the greatest harm", he wrote of the book