Moritz Daniel Oppenheim
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim was a German painter, regarded as the first Jewish painter of the modern era. His work was informed by his cultural and religious roots at a time when many of his German Jewish contemporaries chose to convert to Christianity. Oppenheim is considered by the scholar Ismar Schorsch to be in sympathy with the ideals of the Wissenschaft des Judentums movement, because he remained "fair to the present" without denying his past. Oppenheim was born to Orthodox Jewish parents at Hanau, Germany in 1800, his niece was the wife of Rosa Benari. He received his first lessons in painting from Conrad Westermayr, in Hanau, entered the Munich Academy of Arts at the age of seventeen, he visited Paris, where Jean-Baptiste Regnault became his teacher, went to Rome, where he studied with Bertel Thorwaldsen, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Johann Friedrich Overbeck. There he studied the life of the Jewish ghetto and made sketches of the various phases of its domestic and religious life, in preparation for several large canvases which he painted upon his return to Germany.
In 1825 he settled at Frankfurt, shortly after exhibited his painting David Playing Before Saul, to see which a great number of admirers from all parts of Europe visited his studio. In 1832, at the instance of Goethe, Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach conferred upon him the honorary title of professor. Oppenheim was commissioned to paint several portraits of prominent members of the Rothschild banking dynasty. Oppenheim portrayed his his grandson Alfred Oppenheim, who became a well known artist. Oppenheim's studies of Jewish life, his pictures of Emperor Joseph II and Moses Mendelssohn, his portraits from life of Ludwig Börne and other contemporary Jewish notables, established his reputation as one of the foremost Jewish artists of the nineteenth century, his Return of the Jewish Volunteer is among his most famous works and was reproduced. All these are characteristic examples of his power of skill at grouping; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore Singer and Frank Cramer.
"Oppenheim, Moritz Daniel". In Singer, Isidore; the Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Jewish Expression in Twentieth-Century Fine Arts Moritz Daniel Oppenheim in the German National Library catalogue Museen Hanau: Die Entdeckung des jüdischen Selbstbewußtseins in der Kunst Georg Heuberger/Anton Merk: Die Entdeckung des jüdischen Selbstbewußtseins in der Kunst Der Zyklus "Bilder aus dem altjüdischen Familienleben" und sein Maler Georg Heuberger/Anton Merk: Moritz Daniel Oppenheim - Die Entdeckung des jüdischen Selbstbewußtseins in der Kunst. Wienand Verlag 1999. Claus Stephani: Das Bild des Juden in der modernen Malerei. Eine Einführung. / Imaginea evreului în pictura modernă. Studiu introductiv. Traducere în limba română de Ion Peleanu. Editura Hasefer: Bucureşti, 2005. ISBN 973-630-091-9 Ruth Dröse, Frank Eisermann, Monica Kingreen, Anton Merk: Der Zyklus "Bilder aus dem altjüdischen Familienleben" und sein Maler Moritz Daniel Oppenheim. CoCon-Verlag Hanau. ISBN 3-928100-36-X The Wedding, 1861 – Moritz Oppenheim The Israel Museum, Jerusalem Moritz Daniel Oppenheim - the First Jewish Painter, trailor of a documentary Moritz Daniel Oppenheim in the Jewish Museum Frankfurt
Christian Johann Heinrich Heine was a German-Jewish poet, journalist and literary critic. He is best known outside of Germany for his early lyric poetry, set to music in the form of Lieder by composers such as Robert Schumann and Franz Schubert. Heine's verse and prose are distinguished by their satirical wit and irony, he is considered part of the Young Germany movement. His radical political views led to many of his works being banned by German authorities—which, only added to his fame, he spent the last 25 years of his life as an expatriate in Paris. Heine was born in Düsseldorf, in what was the Duchy of Berg, into a Jewish family, he was called "Harry" in childhood but became known as "Heinrich" after his conversion to Lutheranism in 1825. Heine's father, Samson Heine, was a textile merchant, his mother Peira, née van Geldern, was the daughter of a physician. Heinrich was the eldest of four children, he had a sister and two brothers, Gustav Heine von Geldern and Maximilian, who became a physician in Saint Petersburg.
Heine was a third cousin once removed of philosopher and economist Karl Marx born to a German Jewish family in the Rhineland, with whom he became a frequent correspondent in life. Düsseldorf was a small town with a population of around 16,000; the French Revolution and subsequent Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars involving Germany complicated Düsseldorf's political history during Heine's childhood. It had been the capital of the Duchy of Jülich-Berg, but was under French occupation at the time of his birth, it went to the Elector of Bavaria before being ceded to Napoleon in 1806, who turned it into the capital of the Grand Duchy of Berg, one of three French states he established in Germany. It was first ruled by Joachim Murat by Napoleon himself. Upon Napoleon's downfall in 1815 it became part of Prussia, thus Heine's formative years were spent under French influence. The adult Heine would always be devoted to the French for introduction of the Napoleonic Code and trial by jury, he glossed over the negative aspects of French rule in Berg: heavy taxation and economic depression brought about by the Continental Blockade.
Heine admired Napoleon as the promoter of revolutionary ideals of liberty and equality and loathed the political atmosphere in Germany after Napoleon's defeat, marked by the conservative policies of Austrian chancellor Klemens von Metternich, who attempted to reverse the effects of the French Revolution. Heine's parents were not devout; as a young child they sent him to a Jewish school where he learned a smattering of Hebrew, but thereafter he attended Catholic schools. Here he learned French, which would be his second language - although he always spoke it with a German accent, he acquired a lifelong love for Rhineland folklore. In 1814 Heine went to a business school in Düsseldorf where he learned to read English, the commercial language of the time; the most successful member of the Heine family was his uncle Salomon Heine, a millionaire banker in Hamburg. In 1816 Heine moved to Hamburg to become an apprentice at Heckscher & Co, his uncle's bank, but displayed little aptitude for business.
He learned to hate Hamburg with its commercial ethos, but it would become one of the poles of his life alongside Paris. When he was 18, Heine certainly had an unrequited love for his cousin Amalie, Salomon's daughter. Whether he transferred his affections to her sister Therese is unknown; this period in Heine's life is not clear but it seems that his father's business deteriorated, making Samson Heine the ward of his brother Salomon. Salomon realised that his nephew had no talent for trade, it was decided that Heine should enter the law. So, in 1819, Heine went to the University of Bonn. Political life in Germany was divided between liberals; the conservatives, who were in power, wanted to restore things to the way they were before the French Revolution. They were against German unification because they felt a united Germany might fall victim to revolutionary ideas. Most German states were absolutist monarchies with a censored press; the opponents of the conservatives, the liberals, wanted to replace absolutism with representative, constitutional government, equality before the law and a free press.
At the University of Bonn, liberal students were at war with the conservative authorities. Heine was a radical liberal and one of the first things he did after his arrival was to take part in a parade which violated the Carlsbad Decrees, a series of measures introduced by Metternich to suppress liberal political activity. Heine was more interested in studying literature than law; the university had engaged the famous literary critic and thinker August Wilhelm Schlegel as a lecturer and Heine heard him talk about the Nibelungenlied and Romanticism. Though he would mock Schlegel, Heine found in him a sympathetic critic for his early verses. Heine began to acquire a reputation as a poet at Bonn, he wrote two tragedies and William Ratcliff, but they had little success in the theatre. After a year at Bonn, Heine left to continue his law studies at the University of Göttingen. Heine hated the town, it was part of Hanover, ruled by the King of Britain, the power Heine blamed for bringing Napoleon down.
Here the poet experienced an aristocratic snobbery absent elsewhere. He hated law as the Historical School of law he had to study was used to bolster the reactionary form of gover
Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher, theologian and literary critic. He is associated with the Enlightenment, Sturm und Drang, Weimar Classicism. Like Lessing and Schleiermacher, in many respects, Herder was a Spinozist. Born in Mohrungen in Kingdom of Prussia, Herder grew up in a poor household, educating himself from his father's Bible and songbook. In 1762, as a youth of 17, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, about 60 miles north of Mohrungen, where he became a student of Immanuel Kant. At the same time, Herder became an intellectual protégé of Johann Georg Hamann, a Königsberg philosopher who disputed the claims of pure secular reason. Hamann's influence led Herder to confess to his wife in life that "I have too little reason and too much idiosyncrasy", yet Herder can justly claim to have founded a new school of German political thought. Although himself an unsociable person, Herder influenced his contemporaries greatly. One friend wrote to him in 1785, hailing his works as "inspired by God."
A varied field of theorists were to find inspiration in Herder's tantalizingly incomplete ideas. In 1764, now a clergyman, Herder went to Riga to teach, it was during this period. In 1769 Herder continued on to Paris; this resulted in both an account of his travels as well as a shift of his own self-conception as an author. By 1770 Herder went to Strasbourg; this event proved to be a key juncture in the history of German literature, as Goethe was inspired by Herder's literary criticism to develop his own style. This can be seen as the beginning of the "Sturm und Drang" movement. In 1771 Herder took a position as head pastor and court preacher at Bückeburg under Count Wilhelm von Schaumburg-Lippe. By the mid-1770s, Goethe was a well-known author, used his influence at the court of Weimar to secure Herder a position as General Superintendent. Herder moved there in 1776. Towards the end of his career, Herder endorsed the French Revolution, which earned him the enmity of many of his colleagues. At the same time, he and Goethe experienced a personal split.
Another reason for his isolation in years was due to his unpopular attacks on Kantian philosophy. In 1802 Herder was ennobled by the Elector-Prince of Bavaria, which added the prefix "von" to his last name, he died in Weimar in 1803 at age 59. In 1772 Herder published Treatise on the Origin of Language and went further in this promotion of language than his earlier injunction to "spew out the ugly slime of the Seine. Speak German, O You German". Herder now had established the foundations of comparative philology within the new currents of political outlook. Throughout this period, he continued to elaborate his own unique theory of aesthetics in works such as the above, while Goethe produced works like The Sorrows of Young Werther – the Sturm und Drang movement was born. Herder wrote an important essay on Shakespeare and Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel über Ossian und die Lieder alter Völker published in 1773 in a manifesto along with contributions by Goethe and Justus Möser. Herder wrote that "A poet is the creator of the nation around him, he gives them a world to see and has their souls in his hand to lead them to that world."
To him such poetry had its greatest purity and power in nations before they became civilised, as shown in the Old Testament, the Edda, Homer, he tried to find such virtues in ancient German folk songs and Norse poetry and mythology. After becoming General Superintendent in 1776, Herder's philosophy shifted again towards classicism, he produced works such as his unfinished Outline of a Philosophical History of Humanity which originated the school of historical thought. Herder's philosophy was of a subjective turn, stressing influence by physical and historical circumstance upon human development, stressing that "one must go into the age, into the region, into the whole history, feel one's way into everything"; the historian should be the "regenerated contemporary" of the past, history a science as "instrument of the most genuine patriotic spirit". Herder gave Germans new pride in their origins, modifying that dominance of regard allotted to Greek art extolled among others by Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing.
He remarked that he would have wished to be born in the Middle Ages and mused whether "the times of the Swabian emperors" did not "deserve to be set forth in their true light in accordance with the German mode of thought?". Herder equated the German with the favoured Dürer and everything Gothic; as with the sphere of art he proclaimed a national message within the sphere of language. He topped the line of German authors emanating from Martin Opitz, who had written his Aristarchus, sive de contemptu linguae Teutonicae in Latin in 1617, urging Germans to glory in their hitherto despised language. Herder's extensive collections of folk-poetry began a great craze in Germany for that neglected topic. Herder was one of the first to argue that language contributes to shaping the frameworks and the patterns with which each linguistic community thinks and feels. For Herder, language is'the organ of thought'; this has been misinterpreted, however. Neither Herder nor the great philosopher of language, Wilhelm von Humboldt, argue that language determines thought.
Language is both the means and the expression of man's creative capacity to think togethe
E. T. A. Hoffmann
Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann was a German Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, music critic and artist. His stories form the basis of Jacques Offenbach's famous opera The Tales of Hoffmann, in which Hoffmann appears as the hero, he is the author of the novella The Nutcracker and the Mouse King, on which Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker is based. The ballet Coppélia is based on two other stories that Hoffmann wrote, while Schumann's Kreisleriana is based on Hoffmann's character Johannes Kreisler. Hoffmann's stories influenced 19th-century literature, he is one of the major authors of the Romantic movement. Hoffmann's ancestors, both maternal and paternal, were jurists, his father, Christoph Ludwig Hoffmann, was a barrister in Königsberg, Prussia, as well as a poet and amateur musician who played the viola da gamba. In 1767 he married Lovisa Albertina Doerffer. Ernst Theodor Wilhelm, born on 24 January 1776, was the youngest of three children, of whom the second died in infancy.
When his parents separated in 1778, the father went to Insterburg with his elder son, Johann Ludwig Hoffmann, while Ernst's mother stayed in Königsberg with her relatives: two aunts, Johanna Sophie Doerffer and Charlotte Wilhelmine Doerffer and their brother, Otto Wilhelm Doerffer, who were all unmarried. This trio raised the youngster; the household, dominated by the uncle, was uncongenial. Hoffmann was to regret his estrangement from his father, he remembered his aunts with great affection the younger, whom he nicknamed Tante Füßchen. Although she died when he was only three years old, he treasured her memory and embroidered stories about her to such an extent that biographers sometimes assumed her to be imaginary, until proof of her existence was found after World War II. Between 1781 and 1792 he attended the Lutheran school or Burgschule, where he made good progress in classics, he was taught drawing by one Saemann, counterpoint by a Polish organist named Podbileski, to be the prototype of Abraham Liscot in Kater Murr.
Ernst showed great talent for piano-playing, busied himself with writing and drawing. The provincial setting was not, conducive to technical progress, despite his many-sided talents he remained rather ignorant of both classical forms and of the new artistic ideas that were developing in Germany, he had, read Schiller, Swift, Sterne and Jean Paul, wrote part of a novel titled Der Geheimnisvolle. Around 1787 he became friends with Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Younger, the son of a pastor, nephew of Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Elder, the well-known writer friend of Immanuel Kant. During 1792, both attended some of Kant's lectures at the University of Königsberg, their friendship, although tested by an increasing social difference, was to be lifelong. In 1794, Hoffmann became enamored of a married woman to whom he had given music lessons, she was ten years older, gave birth to her sixth child in 1795. In February 1796, her family protested against his attentions and, with his hesitant consent, asked another of his uncles to arrange employment for him in Glogau, Prussian Silesia.
From 1796 Hoffmann obtained employment as a clerk for his uncle, Johann Ludwig Doerffer, who lived in Glogau with his daughter Minna. After passing further examinations he visited Dresden, where he was amazed by the paintings in the gallery those of Correggio and Raphael. During the summer of 1798, his uncle was promoted to a court in Berlin, the three of them moved there in August—Hoffmann's first residence in a large city, it was there that Hoffmann first attempted to promote himself as a composer, writing an operetta called Die Maske and sending a copy to Queen Luise of Prussia. The official reply advised to him to write to the director of the Royal Theatre, a man named Iffland. By the time the latter responded, Hoffmann had passed his third round of examinations and had left for Posen in South Prussia in the company of his old friend Hippel, with a brief stop in Dresden to show him the gallery. From June 1800 to 1803 he worked in Prussian provinces in the area of Greater Masovia; this was the first time he had lived without supervision by members of his family, he started to become "what school principals, parsons and aunts call dissolute."His first job, at Posen, was endangered after Carnival on Shrove Tuesday 1802, when caricatures of military officers were distributed at a ball.
It was deduced who had drawn them, complaints were made to authorities in Berlin, who were reluctant to punish the promising young official. The problem was solved by "promoting" Hoffmann to Płock in New East Prussia, the former capital of Poland, where administrative offices were relocated from Thorn, he visited the place to arrange lodging, before returning to Posen where he married "Mischa". They moved to Płock in August 1802. Hoffmann despaired because of his exile, drew caricatures of himself drowning in mud alongside ragged villagers, he did make use, however, of his isolation, by composing. He started a diary on 1 October 1803. An essay on the theatre was published in Kotzebue's periodical, Die Freimüthige, he entered a competition in the same magaz
Novalis was the pseudonym and pen name of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg, a poet, author and philosopher of Early German Romanticism. Hardenberg's professional work and university background, namely his study of mineralogy and management of salt mines in Saxony, was ignored by his contemporary readers; the first studies showing important relations between his literary and professional works started in the 1960s. Georg Philipp Friedrich von Hardenberg was born in 1772 at Oberwiederstedt manor, in the Harz mountains. In the church in Wiederstedt, he was christened Georg Philipp Friedrich. An oil painting and a christening cap assigned to him are Hardenberg's only possessions now extant; the family seat was a manorial estate. Hardenberg descended from ancient, Lower German nobility with its ancestral seat at Nörten-Hardenberg since 1287 to this day. Different lines of the family include such important, influential magistrates and ministry officials as the Prussian chancellor Karl August von Hardenberg.
He spent his childhood on the family estate and used it as the starting point for his travels into the Harz mountains. His father, the estate owner and salt-mine manager Heinrich Ulrich Erasmus Freiherr von Hardenberg, was a pietistic man, member of the Moravian Church, his second marriage was to Auguste Bernhardine von Böltzig, who gave birth to eleven children: their second child was Georg Philipp Friedrich. The Hardenbergs were a noble family but not rich. Young Georg Philipp was short of cash, rode a small horse, sometimes had to walk. At first, young Hardenberg was taught by private tutors, he attended the Lutheran grammar school in Eisleben, where he acquired skills in rhetoric and ancient literature, common parts of the education of his time. From his twelfth year, he was in the charge of his uncle Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Hardenberg at his stately home in Lucklum. Young Hardenberg studied law from 1790 to 1794 at Jena and Wittenberg, he passed his exams with distinction. During his studies, he attended Schiller's lectures on history and befriended him during his illness.
He met Goethe and Jean Paul, befriended Ludwig Tieck, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, the brothers Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel. In October 1794, he started working as actuary for August Coelestin Just, who became not only his friend but also his biographer; the following January, he was appointed auditor to the salt works at Weißenfels. During the time he worked for August Coelestin Just, Novalis met the 12-year-old Sophie von Kühn, a girl who was, according to accounts, a "perfectly commonplace young girl, neither intelligent nor beautiful." Nonetheless, he fell in love with Sophie, since in the young Georg Philipp's view of the world "nothing is commonplace" because "all, when rightly seen, is symbolic." On 15 March 1795, when Sophie was 13 years old, the two became engaged, despite her family's reluctance and the fact that she was tubercular. The early death of Sophie in March 1797, from tuberculosis, affected Novalis and permanently, she was only 15 years old, the two had not married.
In 1795–1796, Novalis entered the Mining Academy of Freiberg in Saxony, a leading academy of science, to study geology under Professor Abraham Gottlob Werner, who befriended him. During Novalis' studies in Freiberg, he immersed himself in a wide range of studies, including mining, chemistry, history and, not least, philosophy, it was here that he collected materials for Das allgemeine Brouillon. Similar to other German authors of the Romantic age, his work in the mining industry, undergoing the first steps to industrialization, was connected with his literary work. In the period 1795–1796, Novalis concerned himself with the scientific doctrine of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, which influenced his worldview, he not only read Fichte's philosophies but developed his concepts further, transforming Fichte's Nicht-Ich to a Du, an equal subject to the Ich. This was the starting point for Novalis' Liebesreligion. Novalis' first fragments were published in 1798 in the Athenäum, a magazine edited by the Schlegel brothers, who were part of the early Romantic movement.
Novalis' first publication was entitled Blüthenstaub and saw the first appearance of his pseudonym, "Novalis". In July 1799, he became acquainted with Ludwig Tieck, that autumn he met other authors of so-called "Jena Romanticism". Novalis became engaged for the second time in December 1798, his fiancée was Julie von Charpentier, a daughter of Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Toussaint von Charpentier, a professor in Freiberg. From Pentecost 1799, Novalis again worked in the management of salt mines; that December, he became an assessor of a director. On the 6 December 1800, the twenty-eight-year-old Hardenberg was appointed Supernumerar-Amtshauptmann for the district of Thuringia, a position comparable to a present-day magistrate. From August 1800 onward, Hardenberg was suffering from tuberculosis. On 25 March 1801, he died in Weißenfels, his body was buried in the old cemetery there. Novalis lived long enough to see the publication only of Pollen and Love or the King and the Queen and Hymns to the Night.
His unfinished novels Heinrich von Ofterdingen and The Novices at Sais, his political speech Christendom or Europa, numerous other notes and fragments were published posthumously by his friends Ludwig Tieck and Friedrich Schlegel. Young Hardenberg adopted the pen name Novalis f
Ludwig Achim von Arnim
Carl Joachim Friedrich Ludwig von Arnim, better known as Achim von Arnim, was a German poet and together with Clemens Brentano and Joseph von Eichendorff, a leading figure of German Romanticism. Arnim was born in Berlin, descending from a Brandenburgian Uradel noble family first mentioned in 1204, his father was the Prussian chamberlain Joachim Erdmann von Arnim, royal envoy in Copenhagen and Dresden active as the director of the Berlin Court Opera. His mother, Amalia Carlonia Labes, died three weeks after Arnim's birth. Arnim and his elder brother Carl Otto spent their childhood with their maternal grandmother Marie Elisabeth von Labes, the widow of Michael Gabriel Fredersdorf from her first marriage, in Zernikow and in Berlin, where he attended the Joachimsthal Gymnasium. In 1798 he went on to natural science and mathematics at the University of Halle, his early writings included numerous articles for scientific magazines. His first major work, Theorie der elektrischen Erscheinungen showed a leaning to the supernatural, common among the German romanticists.
In Halle he associated with the composer Johann Friedrich Reichardt, in whose house he became acquainted with the Romantic poet Ludwig Tieck. From 1800 he continued his studies at the University of Göttingen, having met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Clemens Brentano, he inclined from natural sciences towards literature. Arnim received the degree of a Doctor of Medicine in 1801, but never practiced, he went on to travel through Europe with his brother from 1801 to 1804. He met his wife Bettina in Frankfurt, travelled down the Rhine Valley together with Clemens Brentano, visited Germaine de Staël in Coppet, Friedrich Schlegel and his wife Dorothea in Paris, continued his journey to London and Scotland. Arnim was influenced by the earlier writings of Goethe and Herder, from which he learned to appreciate the beauties of German traditional legends and folk songs. Back in Germany, he began forming a collection of these and in 1805 first published the result, in collaboration with Clemens Brentano, under the title Des Knaben Wunderhorn.
He went to see Goethe in Weimar. In Frankfurt he met with the jurist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the beginning of an enduring friendship. Arnims's editorial work was affected by the Napoleonic Wars. Upon the Prussian defeat in the 1806 Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, he followed the royal court to Königsberg, where he joined the circle of Prussian reformers around Baron vom Stein. In 1807 he moved back to Weimar and Kassel, where he visited the Brothers Grimm, to Heidelberg, he and Brentano completed the second and third volume of their folk song collection and from 1808 together with Joseph Görres published the important romantic Zeitung für Einsiedler in Heidelberg in 1808. The Heidelberg Romanticist circle included Tieck, Friedrich Schlegel, Jean Paul, Justinus Kerner, Ludwig Uhland. From 1809 Arnim again lived in Berlin, his plans to enter the Prussian civil service failed. In 1810 he affianced Brentano's sister Bettina, who won wide recognition as a writer in her own right, they married on 11 March 1811.
Shortly after their marriage the couple went on to visit Goethe in to Weimar, the reunion was overshadowed by a heated quarrel between Bettina and Goethe's wife Christiane. In Berlin, Achim worked on Heinrich von Kleist's legacy and founded the patriotic Deutsche Tischgesellschaft association of Christian men, he remained connected with the Prussian patriots such as Adam Heinrich Müller and Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué and commanded a Landsturm battalion during the German Campaign of 1813. From October 1813 he acted as publisher of the Berlin newspaper "The Prussian Correspondent", until he fell out with his predecessor Barthold Georg Niebuhr in February 1814. While his wife stayed in Berlin, Arnim in 1814 retired to Künstlerhaus Schloss Wiepersdorf, his family home, where he lived until his death by a stroke in 1831, his output, published in newspapers and almanacs as well as self-contained books, included novels, stories and journalistic works. Following his death, his library was taken over by the Weimar court library.
Arnim is considered one of the most important representatives of German Romanticism. His works were collected, in twenty volumes. Heinrich Heine wrote a eulogy of Arnim in his Deutschland, his works include: Hollin's Liebeleben Ariel's Offenbarungen Des Knaben Wunderhorn Tröst Einsamkeit Der Wintergarten Mistris Lee Armut, Schuld und Buße der Gräfin Dolores Halle und Jerusalem Isabella von Ägypten. Kaiser Karl des Fünften erste Jugendliebe Schaubühne "Frau von Saverne" Die Kronenwächter. Bd. 1: Bertholds erstes und zweites Leben Der tolle Invalide auf dem Fort Ratonneau "Fürst Ganzgott und Sänger Halbgott" Die Gleichen "Die Majoratsherren" "Owen Tudor" "Landhausleben" Die Päpstin Johanna The Arthurian Encyclopedia. Norris J. Lacy, Ed. "German Arthurian Literature." New York: Garland Publishing, Inc. 1986. Gilman, D. C.. "Arnim, Ludwig Joachim von". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Works by Ludwig Achim von Ar
Moonrise by the Sea
Moonrise by the Sea or Moonrise over the Sea is an 1822 oil-on-canvas painting by German painter Caspar David Friedrich. The work depicts a romantic seascape. Three young people, two women side by side and a man further back, are sitting on a large boulder by the sea, silhouetted against the sky as they watch the moon rising to the east above a band of clouds. In the distance are two sailing vessels, ghosting on a light breeze towards the spectators on the shore; the painting is a view of the Baltic Sea, near Friedrich's birthplace in Swedish Pomerania. It may be based on the beach at Stubbenkammer near Rügen; the work was commissioned by banker and art collector Joachim Heinrich Wilhelm Wagener, together with a second work, The Lonely Tree, to create a pair of "times of the day", depicting morning and evening landscape scenes, in a tradition of Claude Lorrain. It was completed before November 1822 and has been held by the Berlin National Gallery since 1861, donated by Wagener as part of its founding collection.
It is now in the Alte Nationalgalerie of the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. A named but much larger painting from 1821 has been held by the Hermitage Museum in St Petersburg since 1928, was in the Ropsha Palace, had been hung in the drawing room of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich. Mondaufgang am Meer, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Caspar David Friedrich: Moonwatchers, p. 40-41 Moonrise over the Sea, Hermitage Museum