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Friedrich Wöhler

Friedrich Wöhler FRS HFRSE was a German chemist. He is known for his work in inorganic chemistry, being the first to isolate numerous chemical elements, he is known for work in organic chemistry, in particular the Wöhler synthesis of urea. The Life and Work of Friedrich Wöhler by Robin Keen is considered to be "the first detailed scientific biography" of Wöhler, he was born in Eschersheim, which belonged to Hanau, but is now a district of Frankfurt am Main. He was educated at the Frankfurt Gymnasium, his initial higher studies were at Marburg University in 1820. On 2 September 1823 Wöhler passed his examinations as a Doctor of Medicine and Obstetrics at Heidelberg University, having been taught in the laboratory of Leopold Gmelin. Gmelin encouraged him to focus on chemistry, arranged for him to work under Jöns Jakob Berzelius in Stockholm, Sweden. From 1826 to 1831 Wohler taught chemistry at the Polytechnic School in Berlin. In 1839 he was stationed at the Polytechnic School at Kassel. Afterwards, he became Ordinary Professor of Chemistry in the University of Göttingen, where he remained until his death in 1882.

In 1834, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Wöhler was known for being a co-discoverer of beryllium and silicon nitride, as well as the synthesis of calcium carbide, among others. In 1834, Wöhler and Justus Liebig published an investigation of the oil of bitter almonds, they proved by their experiments that a group of carbon and oxygen atoms can behave like an element, take the place of an element, be exchanged for elements in chemical compounds. Thus the foundation was laid of the doctrine of compound radicals, a doctrine which had a profound influence on the development of chemistry. Wöhler was the first to isolate the elements beryllium in 1828, yttrium in 1828. In 1850, he determined that what was believed until to be metallic titanium was in fact a mixture of titanium and nitrogen, from which he derived the purest form isolated to that time. Wöhler and Sainte Claire Deville discovered the crystalline form of boron, Wöhler and Heinrich Buff discovered silane in 1856.

Wöhler observed that "silicium" can be obtained in crystals, that some meteoric stones contain organic matter. He analyzed meteorites, for many years wrote the digest on the literature of meteorites in the Jahresberichte über die Fortschritte der Chemie. Wöhler has been regarded as a pioneer in organic chemistry as a result of his synthesizing urea from ammonium cyanate in the Wöhler synthesis in 1828. In a letter to Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius the same year, he wrote,'In a manner of speaking, I can no longer hold my chemical water. I must tell you that I can make urea without the use of kidneys of any animal, be it man or dog.'This discovery has become celebrated as a refutation of vitalism, the hypothesis that living things are alive because of some special "vital force". It was the beginning of the end for one popular vitalist hypothesis, the idea that "organic" compounds could be made only by living things. In responding to Wöhler, Jöns Jakob Berzelius acknowledged that Wöhler's results were significant for the understanding of organic synthesis, calling them a "jewel" for Wöhler's "laurel wreath".

Both men recognized the work's importance to the study of isomerism, a new area of research. Wöhler's role in overturning vitalism is rightly argued to have become exaggerated over time; this tendency can be traced back to Hermann Kopp's History of Chemistry. He emphasized the importance of Wöhler's research as a refutation of vitalism, but ignored its importance to isomerism, setting a tone for subsequent writers; the myth that Wöhler single-handedly overturned vitalism gained popularity after it appeared in a popular history of chemistry published in 1931, which, "ignoring all pretense of historical accuracy, turned Wöhler into a crusader". Wöhler's discoveries had great influence on the theory of chemistry; the journals of every year from 1820 to 1881 contain contributions from him. In the Scientific American supplement for 1882, it was remarked that "for two or three of his researches he deserves the highest honor a scientific man can obtain, but the sum of his work is overwhelming. Had he never lived, the aspect of chemistry would be different from that it is now".

Wöhler's students included chemists Georg Ludwig Carius, Heinrich Limpricht, Rudolph Fittig, Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe, Albert Niemann, Vojtěch Šafařík, Wilhelm Kühne and Augustus Voelcker. He was first married to his cousin Franziska Maria Wöhler in Kassel on 1 June 1830; the couple had a boy and a girl named Sophie. After the death of Franziska he married Julie Pfeiffer on 16 July 1834 in Kassel; the couple had four daughters. Further works from Wöhler: Lehrbuch der Chemie, Dresden, 1825, 4 vols. Grundriss der Anorganischen Chemie, Berlin, 1830 Grundriss der Chemie, Berlin, 1837–1858 Vol.1&2 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf Grundriss der Organischen Chemie, Berlin, 1840 Praktische Übungen in der Chemischen Analyse, Berlin, 1854 Justus von Liebig Silver cyanate Silver fulminate Isomerism History of aluminium Hilaire Marin Rouelle Stanley Miller Keen, Robin. Buttner, Johannes; the Life and Work of Friedrich Wöhle

Thomas Brett (cricketer)

Thomas Brett was one of cricket's earliest well-known fast bowlers and a leading player for Hampshire when its team was organised by the Hambledon Club in the 1770s. Noted for his pace and his accuracy, Brett was a leading wicket-taker in the 1770s and was lauded by John Nyren in The Cricketers of my Time. Writing half a century Nyren described Brett as "beyond all comparison, the fastest as well as straitest bowler, known". Brett was born at Catherington in Hampshire. An unusual feature of his career at a time when players swapped sides as "given men" was that he always played for Hampshire; as he lived at Catherington, he was ineligible to represent Hambledon's Parish XI and so played only for the county team. Brett featured in the Monster Bat Incident 1771 as the bowler who led the protest and it is certain that he wrote out the formal objection to Thomas White's huge bat; this document, preserved, was countersigned by his captain Richard Nyren and Hampshire's senior batsman John Small. The protest resulted in the maximum width of the bat being set at four and one quarter inches in the Laws of Cricket.

Brett is known to have made 38 appearances for Hampshire from 1769 to 1778. He is first recorded in the match against Caterham at Guildford Bason on Monday, 31 July 1769, his known career wicket tally was over 100, but the bowling details in every game are either unknown or incomplete. It is known, for example, that he took 29 wickets in just five matches in the 1777 season but, with catches, the true figure for wickets taken is certainly higher. Brett's last recorded match was for Hampshire against Surrey at Laleham Burway in October 1778 when he was still only 31, it seems he went to live in Portsmouth so a change of occupation may have been the reason for his early retirement. He died at Portsmouth. Haygarth, Arthur. Scores & Biographies, Volume 1. Lillywhite. Nyren, John. Ashley Mote; the Cricketers of my Time. London: Robson Books. ISBN 1-86105-168-9. Waghorn, H. T.. The Dawn of Cricket. Electric Press. Wilson, Martin. An Index to Waghorn. Bodyline. Altham, H. S.. A History of Cricket, Volume 1. London: George Allen & Unwin.

Buckley, G. B.. Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket. Cotterell. Maun, Ian. From Commons to Lord's, Volume Two: 1751 to 1770. Martin Wilson. ISBN 978 0 9569066 0 1. Mote, Ashley; the Glory Days of Cricket. Robson. Waghorn, H. T.. Cricket Scores, etc.. Blackwood

Dodoly

Matou Dodoly or Dodoly is a Congo DR soukous guitarist. He is best known for his high speed solos, he began his career in Orchestre Stukas, a soukous band that reached the apex of its popularity in Zaire in the mid-1970s. In the 1980s he played the lead guitar in Kester Emeneya's short-lived band Victoria Principal but reached the apex of his popularity in Bozi Boziana's Anti-Choc, one of the bands the dominated the soukous scene in that decade. Dodoly was so fundamental to Anti-Choc's sound that, when he left, the musicians that replaced him all sought to imitate his style. Dodoly left Anti-Choc in 1987, to join Give Djonolo's short-lived project Choc Musica, but rejoined Boziana's band in 1988; that year, he was nominated "best guitarist" by the Kinshasa press. In Anti-Choc, he contributed as a composer, writing hit songs such as Lelo Makambo – Lobi Makambo, he left Anti-Choc again in the early 1990s. Le Grand Père Bozi-Boziana & L'Anti-Choc – Ba Bokilo Bozi Boziana, Joly Detta and Deesse & L'Anti-Choc – Zongela Ngai Bozi Boziana & L'Anti-Choc – Coupe Monte Bozi Boziana – Ma Raison d'Être Anti-Choc – Adieu l'Ami Safro Manzangi Elima – Wiseman Marty Sinnock, Bozi Boziana: Zaiko to Anti-Choc with a String of Beautiful Women, Africa Sounds Marty Sinnock, Paris, Brazza – Everybody Talk'about!

King Kester Emeneya & Victoria Eleison, Africa Sounds Gary Stewart, Rumba on the River: A History of the Popular Music of the Two Congos, London 2000 Motou Dodoly Biography