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1829 Torrevieja earthquake

The 1829 Torravieja earthquake occurred in Province of Alicante of southern Spain, had an estimated magnitude of 6.6 Mw with a Mercalli intensity of IX. It damaged numerous cities and it was known as the Torrevieja earthquake because this was the largest locality that suffered its effects. In the southern province of Alicante, the period between 1820 and 1830 was the most seismically active, affecting the Bajo Segura seismotectonic line which has three major faults: the Benejúzar-Benijófar, Guardamar del Segura and Torrevieja. In general, the Alicante coast sank about 10 m across the Torrevieja fault. From September 13, 1828 to March 21, 1829, there were a series of earthquakes in the area estimated at more than two hundred. At 18:10 on March 22, 1829 an earthquake occurred, 6.6 Mercalli intensity on the current seismological scale, Intensity of IX 2,965 house were destroyed and 2,396 were damaged, destruction of bridges over the Segura river in Almoradi, Benejúzar and Guardamar, which extended the most serious effects, hundred of people were killed, half of them in Almoradí.

List of earthquakes in Spain 1884 Andalusian earthquake El nuevo urbanismo del Bajo Segura a consecuencia del terremoto de 1829, Gregorio Canales Martínez, Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. Terremotos más importantes ocurridos en España, Instituto Geográfico Nacional de España|Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Ministerio de Fomento. Memoria de los terremotos de 21 de marzo... José Agustín de Larramendi, 1829, Biblioteca Digital Hispánica

Robert MacFarlan Cole III

Robert MacFarlan Cole was an American chemical engineer and author. He helped develop many chemicals, including freon and its use as a refrigerant and an aerosol repellent, a substance to counteract poisonous gas in World War I, synthetic rubber and pyrethrin insecticides in World War II, ethylene oxide as a hospital germicide, his education included studies at the Armour Institute, the University of Illinois and the University of Chicago, where he received his doctorate in chemistry. He married, on October 26, 1918, Wertha Pendleton, the daughter of William Frederic Pendleton, the founding bishop of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, their children included: William P. Cole, Dandridge M. Cole, Aubrey Cole Odhner, the Rev. Robert H. P. Cole, he became the founder and first president of Hord Color Products in Sandusky, Ohio in 1920. There he helped pioneer color products. In 1928, Mr. Cole went to work for the American Dyewood Co. in Chester, Pa. where he developed recycling of the paper in telephone directories.

Cole reported to the E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company that he had witnessed chlorofluorocarbon, considered a poisonous gas, being used safely in Germany. A duPont chemist, William Warren Rhodes, Mr. Cole worked on the development of the gas, to which duPont gave the trade name Freon. "I was there when the first seven cc's of Freon came out of the distilling apparatus in Sandusky, Ohio" He told a Pennsylvania newspaper. During World War II, Mr. Cole was a member of the War Chemical Board and pioneered the artificial synthesis of pyrethrin, used as an insecticide by the U. S. Navy in the South Pacific, he died on January 18, 1986. Stieglitz Theory of Color Production Chicago, 1937

E. D. Nixon

Edgar Daniel Nixon, known as E. D. Nixon, was an African-American civil rights leader and union organizer in Alabama who played a crucial role in organizing the landmark Montgomery Bus Boycott there in 1955; the boycott highlighted the issues of segregation in the South, was upheld for more than a year by black residents, nearly brought the city-owned bus system to bankruptcy. It ended in December 1956, after the United States Supreme Court ruled in the related case, Browder v. Gayle, that the local and state laws were unconstitutional, ordered the state to end bus segregation. A longtime organizer and activist, Nixon was president of the local chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the Montgomery Welfare League, the Montgomery Voters League. At the time, Nixon led the Montgomery branch of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union, known as the Pullman Porters Union, which he had helped organize. Martin Luther King Jr. described Nixon as "one of the chief voices of the Negro community in the area of civil rights," and "a symbol of the hopes and aspirations of the long oppressed people of the State of Alabama."

Edgar D. Nixon was born on July 12, 1899, in rural, majority-black Lowndes County, Alabama to Wesley M. Nixon and Sue Ann Chappell Nixon; as a child, Nixon received 16 months of formal education, as black students were ill-served in the segregated public school system. His mother died when he was young, he and his seven siblings were reared among extended family in Montgomery, his father was a Baptist minister. After working in a train station baggage room, Nixon rose to become a Pullman car porter, a well-respected position with good pay, he worked steadily. He worked with them until 1964. In 1928, he joined the new union, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, helping organize its branch in Montgomery, he served as its president for many years. Nixon married Alease, they had a son, E. D. Nixon, Jr.. He became an actor known by the stage name of Nick La Tour. Nixon married Arlette Nixon, with him during many of the civil rights events. Years before the bus boycott, Nixon had worked for voting rights and civil rights for African Americans in Montgomery.

Like other blacks in the state, they had been disenfranchised since the start of the 20th century by changes in the Alabama state constitution and electoral laws. He served as an unelected advocate for the African-American community, helping individuals negotiate with white office holders and civil servants. Nixon joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, becoming president of the Montgomery chapter and, within two years, president of the state organization. In 1940, Nixon organized 750 African Americans to march to the Montgomery County courthouse and attempt to register to vote, they were unsuccessful. In 1954, he was the first black to run for a seat on the county Democratic Executive Committee; the next year, he questioned the Democratic candidates for the Montgomery City Commission on their positions on civil rights issues. In the early 1950s, Nixon and Jo Ann Robinson, president of the Women's Political Council, decided to mount a court challenge to the discriminatory seating practices on Montgomery's municipal buses, along with a boycott of the bus company.

A Montgomery ordinance reserved the front seats on these buses for white passengers only, forcing African-American riders to sit in the back. The middle section was available to blacks unless the bus became so crowded that white passengers were standing. Blacks constituted the majority of riders on the city-owned bus system. Before the activists could mount the court challenge, they needed someone to voluntarily violate the bus seating law and be arrested for it. Nixon searched for a suitable plaintiff. At the same time, some women mounted their own individual challenges. For instance, 15-year-old student Claudette Colvin was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger in March 1955, nine months before Parks' action. Nixon rejected Colvin because she became an unwed mother, another woman, arrested because he did not believe she had the fortitude to see the case through, a third woman, Mary Louise Smith, because her father was an alcoholic. See below.) The final choice was Rosa Parks, the elected secretary of the Montgomery NAACP.

Nixon had been her boss, although he said, "Women don't need to be nowhere but in the kitchen." When she asked, "Well, what about me?", he replied, "I need a secretary and you are a good one."On December 1, 1955, Parks entered a Montgomery bus, refused to give up her seat for a white passenger, was arrested. After being called about Parks' arrest, Nixon went to bail her out of jail, he arranged for Clifford Durr, a sympathetic white lawyer, to represent her. After years of working with Parks, Nixon was certain that she was the ideal candidate to challenge the discriminatory seating policy. So, Nixon had to persuade Parks to lead the fight. After consulting with her mother and husband, Parks accepted the challenge. After Parks' arrest, Nixon called a number of local ministers to organize support for the boycott. King said he


Ahipara is a town and locality in Northland, New Zealand at the southern end of Ninety Mile Beach, with the Tauroa Peninsula to the west and Herekino Forest to the east. Ahipara Bay is to the north west. Kaitaia is 14 km to the north east, Pukepoto is between the two; the population was 1,065 in the 2013 Census, a decrease of 57 from 2006. Ahipara is located within the rohe of Te Rarawa, has strong affiliations to the iwi. Ahipara hosts three marae affiliated with Te Rarawa hapū: Korou Kore Marae: Affiliated with the hapū Ngāti Moroki; the whare tūpuna is named Ngāti Moroki. Roma Marae: Affiliated with four hapū: Ngāti Pākahi, Ngāti Waiora, Parewhero and Te Patukirikiri; the whare tūpuna is named Te Ōhākī. Wainui Marae: Also called Ngāti Moetonga Marae, is affiliated with two hapū: Ngāti Moetonga and Te Rokeka; the whare tūpuna is named Ngāti Moetonga. The name comes from the Māori language words ahi, meaning fire, para, a large fern, can be translated as "a fire at which para was cooked". Prior to the late 18th century, the area was called Wharo, which means "stretched out".

That name originated when the chief Tohe ordered a slave to measure the distance the tide had receded, by counting the number of arm-spans from the high water level. The area was popular with kauri gum-diggers during the late early 20th centuries; the Ahipara Gumfields Historic Reserve is to the south of the town. Shipwreck Bay, at the southern point of Ahipara Bay, contains a number of wrecks visible at low tide. Ahipara Bay was once well known for its toheroa shellfish, but gathering these is restricted due to their near-extinction. Ahipara and Shipwreck Bays are popular surfing spots; the area featured in the 1966 surf movie The Endless Summer. Shipwreck Bay has been reported as one of the best left hand surf breaks in the world. See also: Surfing in New Zealand. Ahipara is on the Te Araroa Trail. Ahipara School is a coeducational full primary school with a decile rating of 3 and a roll of 241, it was founded in 1872 as a mission school, moved to its present site in 1901. Ahipara Sandhoppers Early Childhood Centre has been operating on the grounds of the Ahipara School for over 20 years.

Ahipara Sandhoppers has received recognition for their environmental initiatives. Ahipara has a number of coastal care groups, including the Ahipara Komiti Takutaimoana and Ahipara Community CoastCare. Official website Ahipara School school website Ahipara and Shipwreck Bay Ahipara beach at Kaka Street - recreational water quality, Land Air Water Aotearoa Ahipara - historic images and articles, National Library of New Zealand Natural areas of Ahipara Ecological District Report, New Zealand Department of Conservation

Ice canoeing

A means of winter transport between the islands and shores of the Saint Lawrence River, ice canoeing is now a sport. Crews of five athletes alternately push their canoe across the ice on the frozen parts of the river, paddle in a river with currents of four knots, tides of over 15 feet, ice blocks weighing a few tonnes blown by the wind. Shoes with bolts screwed to the bottom are worn to keep their traction on the ice. Ice canoeing has been practised since the beginnings of New France in the 1600s, as the only way to cross the Saint Lawrence River when there is too much ice for ferries, but not enough to form an ice bridge. In the 1860s more than 200 canoers at Lévis provided transportation for passengers and goods. Ice canoeing was practised in Montreal from the early 1800s; the advent of steamboats capable of breaking through the ice put an end to icecanoeing as a means of transportation in the late 1800s. In 1894, the first race was organised between Lévis and the Port of Quebec at the first Quebec Winter Carnival.

In Montreal races were held during the Fête des Neiges de Montréal from 1988 to 1992. In 2013, Héritage Maritime Canada relaunched the race as the Défi canot à glace Bota Bota. Since the 1990s races have been held at Toronto, Gatineau, Trois-Rivières and the Isle-aux-Coudres. Women have competed since 1987; the Association des Coureurs en Canot à Glace du Québec was formed in 1984 to organise and standardise races. Six races are accredited by the ACCGQ: La Grande Traversée Casino de Charlevoix, La Course en canot du Carnaval, La course de la banquise de Portneuf, Trois-Rivières Extrême, le Défi Canot à Glace Montréal, le Grand Défi des Glaces; the latter is the biggest event. It is run at Quebec City every February. More than 40 teams compete, struggling with the powerful current, large chunks of ice and cold water; the Quebec City area is the centre of ice canoeing activity, but there are teams elsewhere in the province of Quebec. A crew from Calgary has competed in the race for at least 41 years.

The race has seen teams from Chicago and France. Athletes compete in three classes: elite men, elite women, sport, the latter comprising crews of men, crews of mixed men and women. Wooden, canoes are now made with epoxy and fibreglass with an internal metal frame; the minimum weight of a canoe is 250 pounds for the sport and elite men classes, 225 pounds for elite women. The length of the boat must be between 28 feet 2 inches. Boats must contain 100 litres of flotation material, it must be possible to float the boat with 700 litres of water on board. Canoes must be brightly-coloured and not painted white. Ice Canoe Racing Association Quebec Winter Carnival