Quakertown is a borough in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in the USA. As of 2016, it had a population of 8,798; the borough is 15 miles south of Allentown and Bethlehem and 47 miles north of Philadelphia, making Quakertown a border town of both the Delaware Valley and Lehigh Valley metropolitan areas. It is considered part of the United States Census Bureau's Philadelphia−Camden−Wilmington MSA and the Delaware Valley. Quakertown is surrounded by Richland Township. Quakertown was settled by members of the Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers; the settlement was not known as Quakertown until its first post office opened in 1803. On September 18, 1777, during the American Revolutionary War, a convoy of wagons carrying the Liberty Bell from Philadelphia to Allentown, under the command of Col. Thomas Polk of Charlotte, North Carolina, stopped in Quakertown; the Liberty Bell was stored overnight behind the home of Evan Foulke, the entourage stayed at the Red Lion Inn. The John Fries' Rebellion was started in the Red Lion Inn in 1799.
In 1854, Quakertown elected its first Burgess. The North Pennsylvania Railroad caused a great increase in population, by 1880, the population of Quakertown had reached 1,800. Liberty Hall, Quakertown Historic District, Quakertown Passenger and Freight Station, Enoch Roberts House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the American Civil War along with national economic expansion changed Quakertown from a tiny village to a commercial manufacturing center. In the nineteenth century, local industrial establishments included cigar and cigar box factories, silk mills, harness factories, stove foundries; until 1969, Quakertown generated its own electrical power. The population of Quakertown in 1900 was 3,014. By 1940, the population had reached 5,150 people. At the 2010 census, the borough's population was 8,979. Today, Quakertown has several restaurants and businesses that line Pennsylvania Route 309. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land.
Licking Run begins in passes through Quakertown from the west to the east and drains into the Tohickon Creek. Tohickon Creek, which drains into the Delaware River, flows past the northeastern edge of the borough. Quakertown is in hardiness zone 6b; as of the census of 2010, there were 8,979 people residing in the borough. The racial makeup of the borough was 90.6% White, 2.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.0% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,931 people, 3,421 households, 2,251 families residing in the borough; the population density was 4,424.7 people per square mile. There were 3,631 housing units at an average density of 1,798.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 94.46% White, 1.20% African American, 0.13% Native American, 1.51% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.58% from other races, 1.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.88% of the population.
There were 3,421 households, out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.11. In the borough the population was spread out, with 25.5% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $41,942, the median income for a family was $51,194. Males had a median income of $33,697 versus $26,988 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $20,562. About 3.7% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.0% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over.
Quakertown has a council-manager system of government. The borough has a seven-member Borough Council elected at-large to four-year terms; the council appoints a Borough Manager. As of 2017, the members of Borough Council are President L. James Roberts Jr. Vice President Donald E. Rosenberger, Jon Roth, Michael Johnson, Douglas Propst, Lisa J. Gaier, Esq. and Jann Paulovitz. State Representative Craig Staats, Pennsylvania House of Representatives, District 145 State Senator Bob Mensch, Pennsylvania Senate, District 24 US Representative Brian Fitzpatrick, Pennsylvania's 1st congressional district Police services in the borough is provided 24 hours a day, 7 days a week by the Quakertown Borough Police Department, which consists of a Chief, Detective Lieutenant, Administrative Sergeant, two Patrol Sergeants, two Detectives, twelve Patrol Officers, three support staff. Fire protection in Quakertown and surrounding areas is provided by the Quakertown Fire Department, a volunteer fire department which operates the Quakertown Fire Company #1-Station 17 on West Broad Street and the West End Fire Company-Station 18 on Park Avenue.
Quakertown is directly served by four state highways. PA 309 passes through the western part of Quakertown as West End Boulevard and runs north to Allentown and south to Montgomeryville and Philadelphia. PA 313 begins at PA 309 in Quakertown and passes through the t
Milford Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania
Milford Township is a township in Bucks County, United States. The population was 9,902 at the 2010 census, it is home to the Quakertown interchange of the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 28.1 square miles, of which, 28.1 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. Milford Township is in the Delaware watershed and most of it is drained by the Unami Creek and Macoby Creek into the Perkiomen Creek and Schuylkill River, but an area in the eastern portion is drained eastward by the Tohickon Creek. Other natural features include Butter Creek, Hazelback Creek, Kuglers Roost, Licking Creek, Morgan Run, Schmoutz Creek. In Milford Township, Interstate 476 has its Quakertown Interchange with Route 663, which connects Quakertown to the east with Pennsburg and Pottstown. A local north-to-south thoroughfare is Allentown Road, which extends south from Coopersburg into Montgomery County. Other local roads of note include Geryville Pike, Krammes Road/Spinnerstown Road, Kumry Road, Old Bethlehem Pike, Sleepy Hollow Road/Steinburg Road, Trumbauersville Road.
The township's villages include Brick Tavern, Finland, Kumry, Milford Square, Rosedale, Sleepy Hollow and Steinsburg. Springfield Township Richland Township West Rockhill Township Marlborough Township, Montgomery County Upper Hanover Township, Montgomery County Lower Milford Township, Lehigh County Upper Saucon Township, Lehigh County The borough of Trumbauersville is surrounded by Milford Township; as of the 2010 census, the township was 94.1% White, 1.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 1.3% were two or more races. 1.8% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,810 people, 3,073 households, 2,449 families residing in the township; the population density was 314.0 people per square mile. There were 3,161 housing units at an average density of 112.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 97.75% White, 0.69% African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 0.49% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.02% of the population. There were 3,073 households, out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.0% were married couples living together, 5.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.3% were non-families. 15.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 5.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.16. In the township the population was spread out, with 26.2% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males. The median income for a household in the township was $59,683, the median income for a family was $64,563. Males had a median income of $41,132 versus $30,773 for females; the per capita income for the township was $23,559. About 2.1% of families and 2.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.6% of those under age 18 and 0.8% of those age 65 or over.
MIlford township is patrolled by Dublin Barracks. During the summer months, frequent episodes of high humidity occur. Heat index values exceed 100°F. On average, the wettest month of the year is July which corresponds with the annual peak for thunderstorm activity. During the winter months, wind chill values fall below 0°F. On average, the snowiest month of the year is February which corresponds with the annual peak for nor'easter activity. Milford Township is in hardiness zone 6b. State Representative Craig T. Staats, Republican, 145th district State Senator Bob Mensch, Republican, 24th district US Representative Brian Fitzpatrick, Pennsylvania's 1st congressional district Robert Mansfield, Chairman Charles Strunk, Vice Chair Thomas Courduff Milford Township
An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, selling the item to the highest bidder. The open ascending price auction is arguably the most common form of auction in use today. Participants bid against one another, with each subsequent bid required to be higher than the previous bid. An auctioneer may announce prices, bidders may call out their bids themselves, or bids may be submitted electronically with the highest current bid publicly displayed. In a Dutch auction, the auctioneer begins with a high asking price for some quantity of like items. While auctions are most associated in the public imagination with the sale of antiques, rare collectibles and expensive wines, auctions are used for commodities, radio spectrum and used cars. In economic theory, an auction may refer to any set of trading rules for exchange; the word "auction" is derived from the Latin augeō, which means "I increase" or "I augment". For most of history, auctions have been a uncommon way to negotiate the exchange of goods and commodities.
In practice, both haggling and sale by set-price have been more common. Indeed, before the seventeenth century the few auctions that were held were sporadic. Nonetheless, auctions have a long history, having been recorded as early as 500 B. C. According to Herodotus, in Babylon auctions of women for marriage were held annually; the auctions began with the woman the auctioneer considered to be the most beautiful and progressed to the least. It was considered illegal to allow a daughter to be sold outside of the auction method. During the Roman Empire, following military victory, Roman soldiers would drive a spear into the ground around which the spoils of war were left, to be auctioned off. Slaves captured as the "spoils of war", were auctioned in the forum under the sign of the spear, with the proceeds of sale going towards the war effort; the Romans used auctions to liquidate the assets of debtors whose property had been confiscated. For example, Marcus Aurelius sold household furniture to pay off debts, the sales lasting for months.
One of the most significant historical auctions occurred in the year 193 A. D. when the entire Roman Empire was put on the auction block by the Praetorian Guard. On 28 March 193, the Praetorian Guard first killed emperor Pertinax offered the empire to the highest bidder. Didius Julianus outbid everyone else for the price of 6,250 drachmas per guard, an act that initiated a brief civil war. Didius was beheaded two months when Septimius Severus conquered Rome. From the end of the Roman Empire to the eighteenth century auctions lost favor in Europe, while they had never been widespread in Asia. In some parts of England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries auction by candle began to be used for the sale of goods and leaseholds. In a candle auction, the end of the auction was signaled by the expiration of a candle flame, intended to ensure that no one could know when the auction would end and make a last-second bid. Sometimes, other unpredictable processes, such as a footrace, were used in place of the expiration of a candle.
This type of auction was first mentioned in 1641 in the records of the House of Lords. The practice became popular, in 1660 Samuel Pepys's diary recorded two occasions when the Admiralty sold surplus ships "by an inch of candle". Pepys relates a hint from a successful bidder, who had observed that, just before expiring, a candle-wick always flares up slightly: on seeing this, he would shout his final - and winning - bid; the London Gazette began reporting on the auctioning of artwork at the coffeehouses and taverns of London in the late 17th century. The first known auction house in the world was Stockholm Auction House, founded by Baron Claes Rålamb in 1674. Sotheby's the world's second-largest auction house, was founded in London on 11 March 1744, when Samuel Baker presided over the disposal of "several hundred scarce and valuable" books from the library of an acquaintance. Christie's, now the world's largest auction house, was founded by James Christie in 1766 in London and published its first auction catalog in that year, although newspaper advertisements of Christie's sales dating from 1759 have been found.
Other early auction houses that are still in operation include Dorotheum, Bonhams, Phillips de Pury & Company, Freeman's and Lyon & Turnbull. By the end of the 18th century, auctions of art works were held in taverns and coffeehouses; these auctions were held daily, auction catalogs were printed to announce available items. In some cases these catalogs were elaborate works of art themselves, containing considerable detail about the items being auctioned. At this time, Christie's established a reputation as a leading auction house, taking advantage of London's status as the major centre of the international art trade after the French Revolution. During the American Civil War, goods seized by armies were sold at auction by the Colonel of the division. Thus, some of today's auctioneers in the U. S. carry the unofficial title of "colonel". The development of the internet, has led to a significant rise in the use of auctions as auctioneers can solicit bids via the internet from a wide range of buyers in a much wider range of commodities than was practical.
In 2008, the National Auctioneers Association reported that the gross revenue of the auction industry for that ye
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money. Economists distinguish barter from gift economies in many ways. Barter takes place on a bilateral basis, but may be multilateral. In most developed countries, barter only exists parallel to monetary systems to a limited extent. Market actors use barter as a replacement for money as the method of exchange in times of monetary crisis, such as when currency becomes unstable or unavailable for conducting commerce. Economists since the times of Adam Smith, looking at non-specific pre-modern societies as examples, have used the inefficiency of barter to explain the emergence of money, of "the" economy, hence of the discipline of economics itself. However, ethnographic studies have shown that no present or past society has used barter without any other medium of exchange or measurement, nor have anthropologists found evidence that money emerged from barter, instead finding that gift-giving was the most usual means of exchange of goods and services.
Adam Smith, the father of modern economics, sought to demonstrate that markets pre-existed the state, hence should be free of government regulation. He argued. Markets emerged, in his view, out of the division of labour, by which individuals began to specialize in specific crafts and hence had to depend on others for subsistence goods; these goods were first exchanged by barter. Specialization depended on trade, but was hindered by the "double coincidence of wants" which barter requires, i.e. for the exchange to occur, each participant must want what the other has. To complete this hypothetical history, craftsmen would stockpile one particular good, be it salt or metal, that they thought no one would refuse; this is the origin of money according to Smith. Money, as a universally desired medium of exchange, allows each half of the transaction to be separated. Barter is characterized in Adam Smith's "The Wealth of Nations" by a disparaging vocabulary: "higgling, swapping, dickering." It has been characterized as negative reciprocity, or "selfish profiteering."Anthropologists have argued, in contrast, "that when something resembling barter does occur in stateless societies it is always between strangers."
Barter occurred between strangers, not fellow villagers, hence cannot be used to naturalistically explain the origin of money without the state. Since most people engaged in trade knew each other, exchange was fostered through the extension of credit. Marcel Mauss, author of'The Gift', argued that the first economic contracts were to not act in one's economic self-interest, that before money, exchange was fostered through the processes of reciprocity and redistribution, not barter. Everyday exchange relations in such societies are characterized by generalized reciprocity, or a non-calculative familial "communism" where each takes according to their needs, gives as they have. Since direct barter does not require payment in money, it can be utilized when money is in short supply, when there is little information about the credit worthiness of trade partners, or when there is a lack of trust between those trading. Barter is an option to those who cannot afford to store their small supply of wealth in money in hyperinflation situations where money devalues quickly.
The limitations of barter are explained in terms of its inefficiencies in facilitating exchange in comparison to money. It is said that barter is'inefficient' because: There needs to be a'double coincidence of wants' For barter to occur between two parties, both parties need to have what the other wants. There is no common measure of value In a monetary economy, money plays the role of a measure of value of all goods, so their values can be assessed against each other. Indivisibility of certain goods If a person wants to buy a certain amount of another's goods, but only has for payment one indivisible unit of another good, worth more than what the person wants to obtain, a barter transaction cannot occur. Lack of standards for deferred payments This is related to the absence of a common measure of value, although if the debt is denominated in units of the good that will be used in payment, it is not a problem. Difficulty in storing wealth If a society relies on perishable goods, storing wealth for the future may be impractical.
However, some barter economies rely on durable goods like sheep or cattle for this purpose. Other anthropologists have questioned whether barter is between "total" strangers, a form of barter known as "silent trade". Silent trade called silent barter, dumb barter, or depot trade, is a method by which traders who cannot speak each other's language can trade without talking. However, Benjamin Orlove has shown that while barter occurs through "silent trade", it occurs in commercial markets as well. "Because barter is a difficult way of conducting trade, it will occur only where there are strong institutional constraints on the use of money or where the barter symbolically denotes a special social relationship and is used in well-defined conditions. To sum up, multipurpose money in markets is like lubrication for machines - necessary for the
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts were four laws passed by the Federalist-dominated 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798. They made it harder for an immigrant to become a citizen, allowed the president to imprison and deport non-citizens who were deemed dangerous or who were from a hostile nation, criminalized making false statements that were critical of the federal government; the Federalists argued that the bills strengthened national security during the Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war with France from 1798 to 1800. Critics argued that they were an attempt to suppress voters who disagreed with the Federalist party and its teachings, violated the right of freedom of speech in the First Amendment; the Naturalization Act increased the residency requirement for American citizenship from five to fourteen years. At the time, the majority of immigrants supported Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans, the political opponents of the Federalists; the Alien Friends Act allowed the president to imprison or deport aliens considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States" at any time, while the Alien Enemies Act authorized the president to do the same to any male citizen of a hostile nation above the age of fourteen during times of war.
Lastly, the controversial Sedition Act restricted speech, critical of the federal government. Under the Sedition Act, the Federalists allowed people who were accused of violating the sedition laws to use truth as a defense; the Sedition Act resulted in the prosecution and conviction of many Jeffersonian newspaper owners who disagreed with the government. The acts were denounced by Democratic-Republicans and helped them to victory in the 1800 election, when Thomas Jefferson defeated the incumbent, President Adams; the Sedition Act and the Alien Friends Act were allowed to expire in 1801, respectively. The Alien Enemies Act, remains in effect as Chapter 3, it was used by the government to identify and imprison dangerous enemy aliens from Germany and Italy in World War II. After the war they were deported to their home countries. In 1948 the Supreme Court determined that presidential powers under the acts continued after cessation of hostilities until there was a peace treaty with the hostile nation.
The revised Alien Enemies Act remains in effect today. Opposition to the Federalists, spurred by Democratic-Republicans, reached new heights with the Democratic-Republicans' support of France, still in the midst of the French Revolution; some appeared to desire in the United States an event similar to the French Revolution, in order to overthrow the government. When Democratic-Republicans in some states refused to enforce federal laws such as the 1791 whiskey tax, the first tax levied by the national government, threatened to rebel, Federalists warned that they would send in the army to force them to capitulate; as the unrest sweeping Europe spread to the United States, calls for secession reached unparalleled heights, the fledgling nation seemed ready to tear itself apart. Some of this agitation was seen by Federalists as having been caused by French and French-sympathizing immigrants; the Alien Act and the Sedition Act were meant to guard against this perceived threat of anarchy. They were a major political issue in the elections of 1798 and 1800, controversial and remaining so today.
Opposition to them resulted in the controversial Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, authored by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson. Prominent prosecutions under the Sedition Act include: James Thomson Callender, a Scottish citizen, had been expelled from Great Britain for his political writings. Living first in Philadelphia seeking refuge close by in Virginia, he wrote a book titled The Prospect Before Us in which he called the Adams administration a "continual tempest of malignant passions" and the President a "repulsive pedant, a gross hypocrite and an unprincipled oppressor." Callender residing in Virginia and writing for the Richmond Examiner, was indicted in mid-1800 under the Sedition Act and convicted, fined $200, sentenced to nine months in jail. Matthew Lyon was a Democratic-Republican congressman from Vermont, he was the first individual to be placed on trial under the Sedition Acts. He was indicted in 1800 for an essay he had written in the Vermont Journal accusing the administration of "ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, selfish avarice."
While awaiting trial, Lyon commenced publication of Lyon's Republican Magazine, subtitled "The Scourge of Aristocracy". At trial, he was sentenced to four months in jail. After his release, he returned to Congress.:102–08 Benjamin Franklin Bache was editor of the Philadelphia Aurora, a Democratic-Republican newspaper. Bache had accused George Washington of incompetence and financial irregularities, "the blind, crippled, querulous Adams" of nepotism and monarchical ambition, he was arrested in 1798 under the Sedition Act, but he died of yellow fever before trial.:27–29, 65, 96 Anthony Haswell was an English immigrant and a printer of the Jeffersonian Vermont Gazette. Haswell had reprinted from the Aurora Bache's claim that the federal government employed Tories publishing an advertisement from Lyon's sons for a lottery to raise money for his fine that decried Lyon's oppression by jailers exercising "usurped powers". Haswell was found guilty of seditious libel by judge William Paterso
Tax resistance in the United States
Tax resistance in the United States has been practiced at least since colonial times, has played important parts in American history. Tax resistance is the refusal to pay a tax by means that bypass established legal norms, as a means of protest, nonviolent resistance, or conscientious objection, it was a core tactic of the American Revolution and has played a role in many struggles in America from colonial times to the present day. In addition, the philosophy of tax resistance, from the "no taxation without representation" axiom that served as a foundation of the Revolution to the assertion of individual conscience in Henry David Thoreau's Civil Disobedience, has been an important plank of American political philosophy; the theory that there should be "no taxation without representation," while it did not originate in America, is associated with the American Revolution, in which that slogan did strong duty. It continues to be a rallying cry for tax rebellions today. American Henry David Thoreau's theory of civil disobedience has proven to be influential, its influence today is not limited to tax resistance stands and campaigns but to all manner of refusal to obey unjust laws.
These are among the theories of tax resistance that have taken on a American flavor and have animated and inspired American tax resisters and tax resistance campaigns. In English political philosophy of the late 18th century, the theory was prominent that in order for the sovereign to exact a tax on a population, that population must be represented in a legislature that had the sole power to levy the tax; that theory was made axiomatic in the form of the slogan "no taxation without representation". The American colonies did not have representatives in the British parliament, so this axiom became a useful platform for colonial rebels to justify their rebellion against direct taxes imposed by the crown; the "no taxation without representation" slogan was brought to bear in the arguments for tax resistance by African-Americans and by American women who did not have the right to vote or serve in the legislature. It is used today by the District of Columbia as part of a complaint that residents of the district have no Congressional representatives.
The phrase has such potent currency in American thought that it is used today in the context of tax debates that have little to do with legislative representation, at least in the way that the original coiners of the phrase would have understood: For example, complaints that Congressional representatives only represent certain special interests, or that the complainer doesn't feel that his or her point of view is represented in legislative debates or actions. Henry David Thoreau's 1849 essay On Resistance to Civil Government — now referred to as Civil Disobedience — is part of the canon of American political philosophy, it was prompted by Thoreau's refusal to pay a poll tax because of unwillingness to support a government, enforcing the slavery of Americans and what he felt was an unjust war against Mexico. Thoreau argued that obedience to government is misplaced, that people should develop and trust their own consciences rather than use the law as a crutch. Thoreau's philosophy has inspired many tax resisters since those who have acted individually and from motives of conscientious objection.
The theory that taxpayers become complicit in the actions of their government when they pay for the government's functioning and requisitions through their taxes, that therefore one must scrutinize the actions of the government and refuse to pay for them if they become grossly immoral, is key to the war tax resistance practiced by American Quakers since colonial times. It forms an important philosophical basis for other religious and secular American war tax resisters down to the present day. War tax resisters in the United States pioneered the idea that conscientious objection to military taxation ought to be a protected right: that is, taxpayers who are morally opposed to taking part in war should not be forced to fund war, just as governments permit such people to avoid military conscription; this theory has been extended by people. A few have refused to pay taxes on the grounds that some government health spending goes to institutions that provide abortions. A number of Amish people refused to pay taxes for government social insurance programs on conscientious grounds.
The theory that taxation is ethically indistinguishable from robbery is a staple of American anarchist and libertarian thought. American anarchist philosopher Lysander Spooner put it this way:Taxation without consent is as plainly robbery, when enforced against one man, as when enforced against millions… Taking a man's money without his consent, is as much robbery, when it is done by millions of men, acting in concert, calling themselves a government, as when it is done by a single individual, acting on his own responsibility, calling himself a highwayman. Neither the numbers engaged in the act, nor the different characters they assume as a cover for the act, alter the nature of the act itself; the original U. S. Libertarian Party platform agreed that taxation was always a violation of the rights of the individual: Since we believe that every man is entitled to keep the fruits of his labor, we are opposed to all government activity which consists of the forcible collection of money or goods from citizens in violation of their individual rights.
We support the eventual repeal of all taxation. We support a system of voluntary fees for services rendered as a method for financing government in a free society. An enduring my