Ramón Menéndez Pidal
Ramón Menéndez Pidal was a Spanish philologist and historian. He worked extensively on the history of Spanish folklore and folk poetry. One of his main topics was the legend of El Cid, he was nominated for a Nobel Prize 23 times, the most nominated person, three times more than the second most nominated person, André Malraux. Menéndez Pidal was born in A Coruña, Spain, his father, Juan Menéndez Fernández, was a magistrate from Asturias. His mother was Ramona Pidal an Asturian, his older brother, Juan Menéndez Pidal, whom he outlived by more than fifty years, was a literary scholar of the folk poetry of Asturias. Another older brother, Luis Menéndez Pidal was a notable realist painter, he studied at the University of Madrid. In 1899 he was appointed chair in Romance studies in the same university, a position that he held until his retirement in 1939. In 1900 he married María Goyri, who in 1896 became the first Spanish woman to receive a degree in Philosophy and in 1909, became the first woman to attain a non-medical doctorate at a Spanish university.
They spent their honeymoon retracing the geographic locales of the Poem of the Cid. Menéndez Pidal was elected to the Spanish Royal Academy in 1901 and was elected director in 1925. However, he resigned in 1939 under pressure from academics who wanted a director more acceptable to the Franco regime. In December 1947 he was re-elected director unanimously, he held the position for the rest of his life. In 1910, he became the head of the philology section at the Centro de Estudios Históricos, a division of the liberal and Europe-oriented Junta para Ampliación de Estudios, which had sections devoted to medicine, physics and mathematics. In 1914 the Centro founded the Revista de Filología Española, which would become the premier scholarly journal in the fields of linguistics and Medieval and Renaissance Spanish literature. During the 1920s Menéndez Pidal published in rapid succession a series of major studies: Poesía juglaresca y juglares traced the development of minstrel poetry in medieval Spain.
Orígenes del español, a landmark in Romance linguistics, retraces the pre-literary phase of the Ibero-Romance dialects, the "triumph" of Castilian. A ballad collection, designed for the general public, Flor nueva de romances viejos became a best seller, includes some versions of ballads that Menéndez Pidal had authored himself. La España del Cid traced the career of the 11th century warrior lord, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, in a scholarly biography of some 1000 pages. After the Spanish Civil War, Menéndez Pidal forcibly became an "independent scholar" and revised much of his earlier work. However, from this period is his sweeping essay "Los españoles en la Historia," a study that traces the struggle between liberals and conservatives in the entire course of Spanish history, he summarised his findings on the ballads in Romancero Hispánico: Teoría e historia and applied his theory of the origins of epic poetry to French literature in La Chanson de Roland y el neotradicionalismo. Menéndez Pidal worked for many years on a comprehensive history of the Spanish language, which he could not complete in his lifetime.
He was nominated for a Nobel Prize 23 times, but never won. In 1956 alone, he received over 160 nominations for the Nobel Prize in Literature. La leyenda de los siete infantes de Lara Crónicas generales de España Manual elemental de Gramática histórica española El dialecto leonés Cantar de mio Cid: texto, gramática y vocabulario Orígenes del español La España del Cid La idea imperial de Carlos V Reliquias de la poesía épica española Romancero hispánico En torno a la lengua vasca, recolle traballos anteriores El padre Las Casas: su doble personalidad Ramon Menendez Pidal Foundation Disputa del alma y el cuerpo y auto de los reyes magos Discursos leídos ante la Real Academia Española Primera crónica general El romancero español
Province of León
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. About one quarter of its population of 463,746 lives in León; the climate is cold in winter and hot in summer. This creates the perfect environment for wine and all types of cold meats and sausages like the leonese “Morcilla” and the “Cecina”. There are two famous Roman Catholic cathedrals in the province, the main one in León and another in Astorga; the province shares the Picos de Europa National Park with Asturias. It has 211 municipalities; the province of León was established in 1833 with the new Spanish administrative organisation of regions and provinces to replace former kingdoms. The Leonese Region was composed of the provinces of Salamanca and Zamora; until 1833, the independently administered Kingdom of León, situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula, retained the status of a kingdom, although dynastic union had brought it into the Crown of Castile. The Kingdom of León was founded in 910 A.
D. when the Christian princes of Asturias along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their main seat from Oviedo to the city of León. The Atlantic provinces became the Kingdom of Portugal in 1139; the eastern, inland part of the kingdom was joined dynastically to the Kingdom of Castile first in 1037–1065, again 1077–1109 and 1126–1157, 1230–1296 and from 1301 onward. León retained the status of a kingdom until 1833, being composed by Adelantamientos Mayores, where Leonese Adelantamiento consisted of the territories between the Picos de Europa and the Duero River. According to UNESCO, in 1188 the Kingdom of León developed the first Parliament in Europe. In 1202 its parliament approved economic legislation to regulate trade and guilds; the Leonese language is recognized by the Statute of León. The Provincial Government of León signed accords with language associations for promoting Leonese. Leonese is taught in León city, Mansilla de las Mulas, La Bañeza, Valencia de Don Juan or Ponferrada for adult people, in sixteen schools of León city.
The City Council of León writes some of its announcements in Leonese in order to promote the language. In the western part of the El Bierzo, the westernmost region of the province, Galician language is spoken and taught at schools, it is officially recognized by the Statute of Castile and León. Embutidos Cecina de León: from beef. In the Leonese language, cecina means "meat, salted and dried by means of air, sun or smoke". Cecina de León is made of the hind legs of beef, salted and air-dried in the province of León, has PGI status. Botillo: from pig. Traditionally made in the western Leonese regions, botiellu in Leonese or botelo in Galician, is a dish of meat-stuffed pork intestine, it is a culinary specialty of the county of El Bierzo and of the region of Trás-os-Montes in Portugal. This type of embutido is a meat product made from different pieces left over from the butchering of a pig, including the ribs and bones with a little meat left on them; these are chopped. It can include the pig's tongue, shoulder blade and backbone, but never exceeding 20% of the total volume.
It is consumed cooked, covered with a sheet. It has a PGI status. Cheese Queso de Valdeón: a blue cheese produced in Posada de Valdeon, traditionally wrapped in chestnut or sycamore maple leaves before being sent to market. Wines Bierzo: in the west of the Province of León and covers about 3,000 km²; the area consists of a wide, flat plain. The Denominación de Origen covers 23 municipalities. Tierra de León: in the southeast of the Province of León. Sweets Mantecadas de Astorga Hojaldres de Astorga Lazos de San Guillermo Nicanores de Boñar List of municipalities in León El Bierzo Maragatería Tierra de Campos La Montaña La Ribera La Cabrera Tierras de La Bañeza Tierras de León Kingdom of León Leonese language Montes de León Cave of Valporquero The Official Tourism Website of the Province of Leon Leonese Provincial Government Leonese City Council
The Asturian or Astur-Leonese dynasty, known in Arabic as the Beni Alfons or Banu Alfonso, was the ruling family of Asturias, Galicia and León from about 740 until 1037. The first king of the dynasty was son of Duke Peter of Cantabria. For the first century, rule alternated between Alfonso's descendants and those of his brother, Fruela of Cantabria. With the death of Alfonso II a century a younger branch of the family took the throne, headed by Ramiro I. For most of the 10th century, internecine squabbles resulted in divided rule and succession struggles among various branches of the family, which were brought to an end by the succession of Bermudo II in 984; the rule of the dynasty ended with the defeat and death of Bermudo III in 1037, the throne passing via his sister to Ferdinand I of León. Under their rule, the Astur-Leonese kingdom went from a small mountain enclave to one of the dominant powers in Hispania. In 1037, King Ferdinand I of the Jiménez dynasty of Navarre ascended the throne and the rule of the Beni Alfonso came to an end.
Stanley G. Payne, A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1, Chapter Three
Castile (historical region)
Castile is a historical region of Spain divided between Old Castile and New Castile. The area covers the following modern autonomous communities: the eastern part of Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha, Community of Madrid as well as Cantabria and La Rioja. Castile's name derives from the Spanish for "land of castles" in reference to the castles built in the area to consolidate the Christian Reconquest from the Moors. An eastern county of the kingdom of León, in the 11th century Castile became an independent realm with its capital at Burgos; the County of Castile, which included most of Burgos and parts of Vizcaya, Álava, Cantabria and La Rioja. became the leading force in the northern Christian states' 800-year Reconquista of central and southern Spain from the Moorish rulers who had dominated most of the peninsula since the early 8th century. The capture of Toledo in 1085 added New Castile to the crown's territories, the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa heralded the Moors' loss of most of southern Spain.
León was reunited with Castile in 1230, the following decades saw the capture of Córdoba and Seville. By the Treaty of Alcaçovas with Portugal on March 6, 1460, the ownership of the Canary Islands was transferred to Castile; the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon in 1469, when Ferdinand II of Aragon wed Isabella I of Castile, would lead to the formal creation of Spain as a single entity in 1516 when their grandson Charles V assumed both thrones. See List of Spanish monarchs and Kings of Spain family tree; the Muslim Kingdom of Granada was conquered in 1492, formally passing to the Crown of Castile in that year. Since it lacks modern day official recognition, Castile no longer has defined borders; the area consisted of the Kingdom of Castile. After the kingdom merged with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile and the Kingdom of Spain, when it united with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre, the definition of what constituted Castile began to change, its historical capital was Burgos.
In modern Spain, it is considered to comprise Castile and León and Castile–La Mancha, with Madrid as its centre. West Castile and León, Cantabria and La Rioja are sometimes included in the definition. Since 1982 there have been two nominally Castilian autonomous communities in Spain, incorporating the toponym in their own official names: Castile and Leon and Castile-La Mancha. A third, the Community of Madrid is regarded as part of Castile, by dint of its geographic enclosure within the entity and, above all, by the statements of its Statute of Autonomy, since its autonomic process originated in national interest and not in popular disaffection with Castile. Other territories in the former Crown of Castile are left out for different reasons. In fact, the territory of the Castilian Crown comprised all other autonomous communities within Spain with the exception of Aragon, Balearic Islands and Catalonia, all belonging to the former Crown of Aragon, Navarre, offshoot of the older Kingdom of the same name.
Castile was divided between Old Castile in the north, so called because it was where the Kingdom of Castile was founded, New Castile, called the Kingdom of Toledo in the Middle Ages. The Leonese region, part of the Crown of Castile from 1230, was from medieval times considered a region in its own right on a par with the two Castiles, appeared on maps alongside Old Castile until the two joined as one region - Castile and Leon - in the 1980s. In 1833, Spain was further subdivided into administrative provinces. Two non-administrative, nominally Castilian regions existed from 1833 to 1982: Old Castile, including Santander, Logroño, Valladolid, Segovia and Ávila, New Castile consisting of Madrid, Cuenca and Ciudad Real; the language of Castile emerged as the primary language of Spain—known to many of its speakers as castellano and in English sometimes as Castilian, but as Spanish. See Names given to the Spanish language; the Castilian Kingdom and people were considered to be the main architects of the Spanish State by a process of expansion to the South against the Moors and of marriages, wars and annexation of their smaller Eastern and Western neighbours.
From the advent of the Bourbon Monarchy following the War of the Spanish Succession until the arrival of parliamentary democracy in 1977, the Castilian language was the only one with official status in the Spanish state. Castilian people Old Castile New Castile Crown of Castile Early history of the Kingdom of León Economic history of Spain Later history of Spain List of Castile Kings Castile soap Heraldry of Castile Music of Castile and Leon Castella, a food whose name originates from Castile. Two places in the United States have been named after this kingdom: Village of Castile and Town of Castile. Both are located in the state of New York
The Basques are an indigenous ethnic group characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians. Basques are indigenous to and inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country, a region, located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France; the English word Basque may be pronounced or and derives from the French Basque, derived from Gascon Basco, cognate with Spanish Vasco. These, in turn, come from plural Vascones; the Latin labial-velar approximant /w/ evolved into the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon and Spanish under the influence of Basque and Aquitanian, a language related to old Basque and spoken in Gascony in Antiquity. Several coins from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC found in the Basque Country bear the inscription barscunes; the place where they were minted is not certain, but is thought to be somewhere near Pamplona, in the heartland of the area that historians believe was inhabited by the Vascones.
Some scholars have suggested a Celtic etymology based on bhar-s-, meaning "summit", "point" or "leaves", according to which barscunes may have meant "the mountain people", "the tall ones" or "the proud ones", while others have posited a relationship to a proto-Indo-European root *bar- meaning "border", "frontier", "march". In Basque, people call themselves singular euskaldun, formed from euskal - and - dun. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers. Therefore, the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the 19th century to mean a culturally Basque person, whether Basque-speaking or not. Alfonso Irigoyen posits that the word euskara is derived from an ancient Basque verb enautsi "to say" and the suffix -ara, thus euskara would mean "way of saying", "way of speaking". One item of evidence in favour of this hypothesis is found in the Spanish book Compendio Historial, written in 1571 by the Basque writer Esteban de Garibay, he records the name of the Basque language as enusquera. It may, however, be a writing mistake.
In the 19th century, the Basque nationalist activist Sabino Arana posited an original root euzko which, he thought, came from eguzkiko. On the basis of this putative root, Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an independent Basque nation, composed of seven Basque historical territories. Arana's neologism Euzkadi is still used in both Basque and Spanish, since it is now the official name of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Since the Basque language is unrelated to Indo-European, it has long been thought to represent the people or culture that occupied Europe before the spread of Indo-European languages there. A comprehensive analysis of Basque genetic patterns has shown that Basque genetic uniqueness predates the arrival of agriculture in the Iberian Peninsula, about 7,000 years ago, it is thought that Basques are a remnant of the early inhabitants of Western Europe those of the Franco-Cantabrian region. Basque tribes were mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny, including the Vascones, the Aquitani, others.
There is enough evidence to support the hypothesis that at that time and they spoke old varieties of the Basque language. In the Early Middle Ages the territory between the Ebro and Garonne rivers was known as Vasconia, a vaguely defined ethnic area and political entity struggling to fend off pressure from the Iberian Visigothic kingdom and Arab rule to the south, as well as the Frankish push from the north. By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries; the Kingdom of Pamplona, a central Basque realm known as Navarre, underwent a process of feudalization and was subject to the influence of its much larger Aragonese and French neighbours. Castile deprived Navarre of its coastline by conquering key western territories, leaving the kingdom landlocked.
The Basques were ravaged by the War of the Bands, bitter partisan wars between local ruling families. Weakened by the Navarrese civil war, the bulk of the realm fell before the onslaught of the Spanish armies. However, the Navarrese territory north of the Pyrenees remained beyond the reach of an powerful Spain. Lower Navarre became a province of France in 1620; the Basques enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution and the Carlist Wars, when the Basques supported heir apparent Carlos V and his descendants. On either side of the Pyrenees, the Basques lost their native institutions and laws held during the Ancien régime. Since despite the current limited self-governing status of the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre as settled by the Spanish Constitution, many Basques have attempted higher degrees of self-empowerment, sometimes by acts