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Frugality is the quality of being frugal, thrifty, prudent or economical in the consumption of consumable resources such as food, time or money, avoiding waste, lavishness or extravagance. In behavioral science, frugality has been defined as the tendency to acquire goods and services in a restrained manner, resourceful use of owned economic goods and services, to achieve a longer term goal. Common strategies of frugality include the reduction of waste, curbing costly habits, suppressing instant gratification by means of fiscal self-restraint, seeking efficiency, avoiding traps, defying expensive social norms and avoiding manipulative advertising, embracing cost-free options, using barter, staying well-informed about local circumstances and both market and product/service realities. Frugality may contribute to health by leading people to avoid products that are both expensive and unhealthy when used to excess. Frugal living is practiced by those who aim to cut expenses, have more money, get the most they can from their money.

In the context of some belief systems, frugality is a philosophy in which one does not trust "expert" knowledge from commercial markets or corporate cultures, claiming to know what is in the best economic, material, or spiritual interests of the individual. Different spiritual communities consider frugality to be a spiritual discipline; the Religious Society of Friends and the Puritans are examples of such groups. The basic philosophy behind this is the idea that people ought to save money in order to allocate it to more charitable purposes, such as helping others in need. There are environmentalists who consider frugality to be a virtue through which humans can make use of their ancestral skills as hunter-gatherers, carrying little and needing little, finding meaning in nature instead of man-made conventions or religion. Henry David Thoreau expressed a similar philosophy in Walden, with his zest for self-reliance and minimal possessions while living in the woods. Frugality has been adopted as a strategic imperative by large enterprises as a means of cost reduction through engenderment of a philosophy of careful spending amongst the workforce.

Cost reduction is perceived negatively, be it within a corporate organisation or in society, so inviting each employee to embrace frugality transfers the burden of cost reduction from management to the employee. In doing so, corporations introduce a moral obligation to cost cutting, proposing the notion that careful management of costs is in the company and employee's best interests

Theorem of corresponding states

According to van der Waals, the theorem of corresponding states indicates that all fluids, when compared at the same reduced temperature and reduced pressure, have the same compressibility factor and all deviate from ideal gas behavior to about the same degree. Material constants that vary for each type of material are eliminated, in a recast reduced form of a constitutive equation; the reduced variables are defined in terms of critical variables. The principle originated with the work of Johannes Diderik van der Waals in about 1873 when he used the critical temperature and critical pressure to characterize a fluid; the most prominent example is the van der Waals equation of state, the reduced form of which applies to all fluids. The compressibility factor at the critical point, defined as Z c = P c v c μ R T c, where the subscript c indicates the critical point, is predicted to be a constant independent of substance by many equations of state. Where: T c: critical temperature P c: critical pressure v c: critical specific volume R: gas constant μ: Molar mass For example: Van der Waals equation Equation of state Compressibility factors Johannes Diderik van der Waals equation Noro-Frenkel law of corresponding states Properties of Natural Gases.

Includes a chart of compressibility factors versus reduced pressure and reduced temperature Theorem of corresponding states on SklogWiki


Zentralgewerkschaftskommission des Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbundes in der Tschechoslowakischen Republik was a German Social Democratic trade union centre in Czechoslovakia. From 1927 onwards, it was an autonomous structure inside the Czechoslovak labour centre OSČ; the organization was dissolved. The organization was founded in July 1919. In 1920 the name Gewerkschaftsbund was adopted, a headquarters was set up in Liberec. Gewerkschaftsbund emerged as a prominent force in the amongst labour movements in Czechoslovakia, having around 75% of unionized German workers as its members in 1921. Major unions affiliated to Gewerkschaftsbund were Textile Workers and Miners. In 1922, Czechoslovak communists had formed a separate trade union centre, Mezinárodní všeodborový svaz. However, not all communist trade unionists joined MVS; as of 1926, there were around 15 000 communists inside the Gewerkschaftsbund affiliates. In 1927 Gewerkschaftsbund merged into the main Czechoslovak trade union centre, the Social Democratic Odborové sdružení československé.

The organization continued to function as an autonomous body inside OSČ until the unions were banned following the German occupation. Franz Macoun was the general secretary of the organization from 1920 to 1938. Macoun had a Member of Parliament for the German Social Democratic Workers Party between 1929 and 1938; the organization issued the publication Gewerkschafts-Jugend between 1934-1937

Circle (TV network)

Circle is an American digital multicast television network, owned by Circle Media, a joint venture of Gray Television and Ryman Hospitality Properties subsidiary Opry Entertainment Group. The network's programming consists of country music and lifestyle programs—much of it made up of original productions—as well as other programming with a country music or rural living focus; the network—which broadcasts in 480i standard definition—is available through the digital subchannels of broadcast television stations, as well as on select cable television and IPTV providers through a local affiliate of the network. Circle's programming and administrative operations are headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee. Circle is Ryman Hospitality Properties' third entry into television network ownership. From its founding in 1983 until 1997, the company—known as the Gaylord Entertainment Company—was owner of The Nashville Network. Gaylord bought a second country music-oriented cable network, Country Music Television, in 1991.

Gaylord Entertainment sold both networks to the CBS Cable unit of CBS Corporation in 1997 for $1.55 billion feeling that the two then-country networks could grow faster as part of a larger media company. TNN would re-positioned as a general entertainment network and re-named Spike in 2003 Paramount Network in 2018. CMT's programming under ViacomCBS has since expanded to incorporate original lifestyle and reality programming while downplaying its focus on country music. Towards the end of the 2010s, Ryman Hospitality was looking to venture back into television. While the company retained ownership of Nashville's pioneering country radio station WSM, Ryman had lacked a television partner to broadcast the Grand Ole Opry's music revues since Great American Country removed Opry Live from its schedule in 2012. By 2018, Ryman had settled on developing a broadcast television network, feeling country music fans were underserved in the television marketplace. Ryman tested nine potential programs via a sizzle reel with positive responses from participants involved in the focus group sessions.

On April 24, 2019, Ryman announced a joint venture with Atlanta, Georgia-based broadcasting company Gray Television to launch a subchannel-originated television network—with most of Gray's stations slated to serve as charter affiliates—in early 2020, a companion premium streaming service to launch in the Spring of that same year. Plans for the then-unnamed network called for it to feature content from the Grand Ole Opry archives and performances from the Opry and its other music venues. On October 17, 2019, the joint venture partners announced the network would be named Circle, derived from the 360° media platform that the network would encompass to "bring viewers into country music’s inner circle" as well as a nod to the wooden circle of the Grand Ole Opry stage. On December 11, 2019, in a press release announcing the network's slate of original programming, Circle Media disclosed that Circle would launch on January 1, 2020. Circle launched at 10:00 a.m. Eastern Time on January 1, 2020, with a television simulcast of the WSM Radio morning program Coffee, Country & Cody as its inaugural broadcast.

Circle features programming geared toward both fans of the country music genre and rural audiences, a similar demographic targeted by competing country music-oriented multicast networks Heartland and The Country Network. Circle's programming features a mix of original and acquired series with a country music or Southern lifestyle-centric format; as the network was under development, Circle Media developed several original productions for the network's inaugural programming slate—aiming to make it is one of a handful of digital multicast services that carry original programming, one of the few to have offered a large original content slate. On December 11, 2019, Circle Media announced that it had greenlit 16 original programs slated to debut on the network in Circle's first five months of operation, including a simulcast of WSM Radio's Coffee, Country & Cody which had aired on competing country music-oriented multicast network Heartland, the music and interview series The Dailey & Vincent Show and several docu-series.

Circle maintains limited program licensing agreements with Warner Bros. Television Distribution and CBS Television Distribution as well as various independent distributors to supply acquired series and documentary programming for the network's schedule. Hee Haw, owned by Ryman Hospitality Properties since 1981, was one of the first archival programs included in the lineup, airing full one-hour episodes. Although it debuted when the Federal Communications Commissi

2008 Championship League

The 2008 Championship League was a professional non-ranking snooker tournament, played from 25 February to 15 May 2008 at the Crondon Park Golf Club in Stock, England. Joe Perry won in the final 3–1 against Mark Selby, earned a place in the 2008 Premier League Snooker. Ali Carter played in all seven qualifying groups; the breakdown of prize money for this year is shown below: Tournament total: £175,600 Group one matches were played on 25 and 26 February 2008. Ryan Day was the first player to qualify for the winners group. Group two matches were played on 27 and 28 January 2008. Ken Doherty was the second player to qualify for the winners group. Group three matches were played on 10 and 11 March 2008. Anthony Hamilton was the third player to qualify for the winners group. Group four matches were played on 12 and 13 March 2008. Shaun Murphy was the fourth player to qualify for the winners group. Group five matches were played on 14 and 15 April 2008. Joe Perry was the fifth player to qualify for the winners group.

Group six matches were played on 16 and 17 April 2008. Mark Selby was the sixth player to qualify for the winners group. Group seven matches were played on 12 and 13 May 2008. Mark King was the last player to qualify for the winners group; the matches of the winners group were played on 14 and 15 May 2008. Joe Perry has qualified to the 2008 Premier League. Total:76 Official website

Drew Schiestel

Drew Schiestel is a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman, playing for the Coventry Blaze in the British EIHL. Schiestel played for fellow EIHL side Cardiff Devils. Schiestel was selected by the Buffalo Sabres in the 2nd round of the 2007 NHL Entry Draft and played within the Sabres organization predominantly with AHL affiliates, the Portland Pirates and the Rochester Americans. On July 29, 2013, Schiestel signed as a free agent to a one-year AHL contract to return to his native Hamilton with the Bulldogs. On August 30, 2014, Schiestel left North America as a free agent and signed his first contract abroad in Germany on a one-year contract with Düsseldorfer EG of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. Schiestel continued his European career after one season in Germany, signing with Danish club Rungsted IK of the Metal Ligaen on August 21, 2015. After two seasons in Europe, Schiestel opted to return to North America for the 2016–17 season, agreeing to terms on a one-year deal with the Indy Fuel of the ECHL on October 6, 2016.

In the 2016-17 season with the Fuel, Schiestel appeared in just 14 games with 5 assists before opting to return abroad, signing a one-year deal with Hungary's Fehérvár AV19 of the Austrian Hockey League. In November 2018, Schiestel moved to the UK to sign for the Cardiff Devils - winning the 2018-19 play-off title with the club. In June 2019, Schiestel moved to league counterparts Coventry Blaze. On 6 September 2019, Schiestel was named as the Blaze captain for season 2019-20. Drew Schiestel career statistics at Drew Schiestel career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database