Fudge is a type of sugar candy, made by mixing sugar and milk, heating it to the soft-ball stage at 240 °F, beating the mixture while it cools so that it acquires a smooth, creamy consistency. In texture, this crystalline candy falls in between hard caramels. Fruits, chocolate, candies and other flavors are sometimes added either inside or on top. A recent trend has been to create novel flavors of fudge, giving vibrant visual appeal at the same time. Fudge is bought as a gift from a gift shop in tourist areas and attractions. Fudge originated in the US during the late 19th century. Recipes were printed in many advertisements during the 1880s, its popularity was due to the decreasing cost of refined white sugar, due to the ability to make it at home without special equipment. Its inexpensive, unrefined qualities made it popular among people looking for a candy alternative that fell in between expensive, fancy candies and the cheapest sweets. Fudge shops in tourist places such as Mackinac Island in Michigan began opening during the 1880s.
In a letter written in 1921 by Emelyn Battersby Hartridge, she recounts the purchasing of a box of fudge for 40 cents a pound in 1886 in Baltimore, Maryland. Fudge-making was popular at women's colleges. A student at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York, claimed to have introduced it there in 1888 by selling her own 30 lb batch; the diary of another student mentions making "fudges" in 1892. An 1893 letter from another Vassar College student describes "fudges" as containing sugar, chocolate and butter. A recipe for "Fudges at Vassar" was printed in The Sun in 1895. Despite describing the confections as "Vassar chocolates", the recipe given comprises sugar, milk and vanilla extract. Wellesley College and Smith College have their own versions of a fudge recipe dating from the late 19th or early 20th century. In forming a fondant, it is not easy to keep all vibrations and seed crystals from causing rapid crystallization into large crystals. Milkfat and corn syrup are added. Corn syrup contains glucose and maltose.
These sugars interact with sucrose molecules. They help prevent premature crystallization by inhibiting sucrose crystal contact; the fat helps inhibit rapid crystallization. Controlling the crystallization of the supersaturated sugar solution is the key to making smooth fudge. Initiation of crystals before the desired time will result in fudge with larger sugar grains; the final texture would be grainy, a quality indicative of low-quality fudge. One of the most important attributes of fudge is its texture; the end-point temperature separates hard caramel from fudge. The higher the peak temperature, the more sugar is dissolved and the more water is evaporated, resulting in a higher sugar-to-water ratio. Before the availability of cheap and accurate thermometers, cooks would use the ice water test known as the cold water test, to determine the saturation of the confection. Fudge is made at the "soft ball" stage, which varies by altitude and ambient humidity from 235 °F to 240 °F. Butter is added, the fudge is cooled and beaten until it is thick and small sugar crystals have formed.
The warm fudge is sometimes poured onto a marble slab to be shaped. Fudge-making evolved a variety of additives; the favored flavors vary by place. In the US, peanut butter and maple are popular alternatives to chocolate; when it is made from brown sugar, it is called penuche. This type of fudge is found in New England and the Southern United States. Pralines include nuts but not chocolate. Scots tablet is a Scottish confection with similar ingredients. Hot fudge in the United States and Canada is considered to be a chocolate product used as a topping for ice cream in a heated form sundaes and parfaits, it may occasionally be used as a topping for s'mores. It is a thick, chocolate-flavored syrup similar in flavor and texture to chocolate fudge, except melted so that it can be poured. Barfi – an Indian type of fudge made from cooking milk and sugar into fudge consistency. Condensed milk Fudge cookie Knäck – a Swedish toffee confection Krówki – Polish confection similar to fudge Toffee Science of candy: Fudge, Exploratorium
Suillellus mendax is a species of bolete fungus found in Europe. It was published as a species of Boletus when it was newly described in 2013, but transferred to Suillellus the following year; this species is morphologically similar to the widespread Suillellus luridus, but differs in its predominantly acidophilous ecology, a dull-coloured, finely felty cap and more narrowly ellipsoid to subfusiform spores measuring 13.3–14.7 × 4.9– 5.5 μm. Suillellus mendax forms ectomycorrhizal associations with beech and sweet chestnut. So far, it has been molecularly verified from Italy and the island of Cyprus. Suillellus mendax in Index Fungorum
Sanhati Halt railway station is a small railway station in North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal. Its code is SNHT, it serves Sanhati Halt town. The station consists of two platforms; the platforms are not well sheltered. It lacks many facilities including sanitation. Sanhati Halt railway station is located on Sealdah–Hasnabad–Bangaon–Ranaghat line of Kolkata Suburban Railway. Link between Dum Dum to Khulna now in Bangladesh, via Bangaon was constructed by Bengal Central Railway Company in 1882–84; the Sealah-Dum Dum-Barasat-Ashok Nagar-Bangaon sector was electrified in 1963–64. Sanhati Halt Station Map Google. "Sanhati Halt Railway station". Google Maps. Google
Mario Carpo is an architectural historian and critic, is the inaugural Reyner Banham Professor of Architectural History and Theory at University College, London. Areas of specialization: history of architectural theory and history of cultural technologies, with focus on the classical tradition and on contemporary digital design theory. Education: Dr. Arch.. D.. Teaching and other positions: Assistant Professor. A visiting professor in several universities in Europe and in the United States, including the University of Geneva, the University of Florence, the University of Copenhagen, Cornell University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Williams College, Yale University. Resident, American Academy in Rome, 2004. Main publications: The Digital Turn in Architecture, 1992-2012. Recent essays and articles in Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Grey Room, Harvard Design Magazine, Domus, L’Architecture d'aujourd’hui, Arquitectura Viva, Arch+, AD/Architectural Design, Lotus International, Artforum, etc
"Happy Days" is a song recorded by American singer Brooke Candy. It was written by Cassie Davis, Sean Mullins, Ali Tamposi, Olivia Waithe, Talay Riley, produced by More Mega for Candy's unreleased album Daddy Issues, it was released as a single from the record. In 2017, Candy left RCA to focus on releasing a second extended play, the release of Daddy Issues was canceled. Moving away from her past rap sound from her 2014 EP Opulence, the track is an electropop song that revolves around the pursuit of happiness and the struggles involved. Critical response to "Happy Days" was mixed. Renata Raksha directed the song's music video, which features Candy portraying three characters based on parts of her psyche; the video received positive feedback from Elle UK. Brooke Candy announced the release of "Happy Day" on January 25, 2016 by releasing footage of its music video through her Instagram account; the single was released on January 29, 2016. Produced by More Mega, "Happy Days" is written by Cassie Davis, Sean Mullins, Ali Tamposi, Olivia Waithe, Talay Riley.
The track uses the music from her released video "A Study In Duality". A remix package was released on April 2017 to promote the song. In 2017, the release for Daddy Issues was canceled after Candy left RCA to record an extended play that returned to her original punk-inspired rap sound. In an interview with Noisey, she clarified: "Sony and I parted ways – I made an entire album with them, but technically they own that music"; the single marks a shift from Candy's previous material, as she began to develop a more pop-friendly sound described as "gloomy electro-pop". Candy stated about her new musical direction: "In recent past I’ve found myself undergoing endless transformations through emotional states of being and it is reflected through changing vocal styles and aesthetic approaches… I am exploring sounds that are bit more polished and digestible." She take about the lyrics's meaning on an interview with i-D saying: "This song addresses the struggle I've had looking for "happy days" in every possible easy way, only to find out that you can't short cut the on-going process of finding your version of happiness."
"Happy Days" received a positive response from music critics. Megan Williams form IDOL Magazine praised the song's "sincere lyrics and catchy hook", she remarked how Candy managed to keep her natural attitude despite the musical shift compared to her early material. Mike Wass from Idolator gave a positive review, noting its accessibility compared to Candy's past material as well as its relatable chorus. Wass was more critical of it during his review of the follow-up single "Living Out Loud", including it in his list of the "string of flops" released to promote Daddy Issues. Popjustice staff considered that the song was set to make Candy "an unexpected 2016-slaying pop superstar". BlackBook's Justin Moran stated that the song marked Candy's "official transition from underground rap to provocative pop." Jordan Miller, from Breathe Heavy, noted the song's "radio-frendly" sound while remaining true to both Candy's persona and listener. Daisy Jones from Dazed included the track in its February 2016 "The only tracks you need to hear in February" playlist.
Wonderland Magazine's staff described the song as a "true banger". The video, directed by Renata Raksha and styled by Nicola Formichetti, was premiered on February 4, 2016 via Nylon; the visual explores how people deal with daily life's "highs and lows". It pictures Candy's personal experience about dealing with fame, she is represented via different characters based in what she considers the three versions of her psyche. Elle UK named it on its premiere date the site's "video of the day". A behind the scenes video was released on February 26, 2016. Digital download "Happy Days" – 3:42Remixes EP "Happy Days" – 5:31 "Happy Days" – 4:15 "Happy Days" – 4:28 "Happy Days" – 4:49 Taken from digital download liner notes. Songwriting – Cassie Davis, Sean "Snob Scrilla" Mullins, Ali Tamposi, Olivia Waithe, Talay Riley Production – More Mega Mixing engineer – Erik Madrid Assistant engineer – Vicent Vu Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics "Happy Days" on YouTube "Happy Days" on YouTube
Graham Local School District is a rural district in Champaign County, Ohio. The district serves the St. Paris area, several other small communities including: Rosewood, Terre Haute, Millerstown and Thackery; the district is named after local legend A. B. Graham, the founder of the 4-H agriculture program. Graham LSD is one of the largest school districts in Ohio, in terms of area covered; the district covers over 185 square miles, nearly the size the Columbus, Ohio. Despite this, the number of students is small, estimated to be about 2300 district-wide. Before the Graham Local School District existed, there were six independent schools in the western Champaign county area: Concord, Christiansburg-Jackson, Rosewood, St. Paris, Terre Haute and Westville; each school consisted of a one building school which housed all grades for their respected population. In 1957, these 6 buildings were consolidated to form Graham. Concord School became Graham East Elementary. Christiansburg-Jackson School and Rosewood School became Graham South Elementary and Graham North Elementary, respectively.
The St. Paris School became Graham Junior High School, Graham High School was built on U. S. Route 36, near Kite Road, its unclear what Westville and Terre Haute schools were used for after the merger. In 2000, a new building, Graham Middle School, was constructed just east of St. Paris on 36; the old Graham Junior High School building is used for the Board of Education, administrative offices, the Graham Digital Academy. In 2007, yet another building, Graham Elementary, was built right next to the Middle School. Graham Elementary replaced the venerable elementary schools of Graham North, Graham East and Graham South. Both North and South buildings have been demolished after nearly 100 years of service; the Concord school building is used as a community center. In 2009, Graham High School underwent a $13 million renovation, including a new kitchen area, air conditioning, a new gymnasium. Graham High School 7800 West US Hwy 36 St. Paris, Ohio 43072 663-4127 Principal: Ryan Rismiller Athletic Director: Jay Lewis Opened: 1957 Grades: 9-12 Current Enrollment: 632 Graham Middle School 9644 West US Hwy 36 St. Paris, Ohio 43072 663-5339 Principal: Nick GuideraOpened: 2000 Grades: 6-8 Current Enrollment: 533 Graham Elementary School 9464 West US Hwy 36 St. Paris, Ohio 43072 663-4449 Principal: Lynnette Roeth Opened: 2007 Grades: K-5 Current Enrollment: 1055 In 2000, several graduates representing Graham's six founding schools created The Graham Community Foundation, designed to raise funds for scholarships and grants for Graham students.
To date, the Foundation has raised $75,000 for this purpose. The funds are administrated by the Troy Foundation in Troy Ohio. Only the interest earned. Since starting the Foundation, fourteen scholarships and grants have been awarded. "The mission of the Graham Local Schools, in concert with family and community, is to provide students with the opportunity to reach their maximum potential in order to function in a changing world."