Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most automotive engines, by the means of an injector. All diesel engines use fuel injection by design. Petrol engines can use gasoline direct injection, where the fuel is directly delivered into the combustion chamber, or indirect injection where the fuel is mixed with air before the intake stroke. On petrol engines, fuel injection replaced carburetors from the 1980s onward; the primary difference between carburetion and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the fuel through a small nozzle under high pressure, while a carburetor relies on suction created by intake air accelerated through a Venturi tube to draw the fuel into the airstream. The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, but it is a design decision how a particular system is optimized. There are several competing objectives such as: Power output Fuel efficiency Emissions performance Running on alternative fuels Reliability Driveability and smooth operation Initial cost Maintenance cost Diagnostic capability Range of environmental operation Engine tuningModern digital electronic fuel injection systems optimize these competing objectives more and than earlier fuel delivery systems.
Carburetors have the potential to atomize fuel better. Benefits of fuel injection include smoother and more consistent transient throttle response, such as during quick throttle transitions, easier cold starting, more accurate adjustment to account for extremes of ambient temperatures and changes in air pressure, more stable idling, decreased maintenance needs, better fuel efficiency. Fuel injection dispenses with the need for a separate mechanical choke, which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be adjusted as the engine warms up to normal temperature. Furthermore, on spark ignition engines, fuel injection has the advantage of being able to facilitate stratified combustion which has not been possible with carburetors, it is only with the advent of multi-point fuel injection certain engine configurations such as inline five-cylinder gasoline engines have become more feasible for mass production, as traditional carburetor arrangements with single or twin carburetors can not provide fuel distribution between cylinders, unless a more complicated individual carburetor per cylinder is used.
Fuel injection systems are able to operate regardless of orientation, whereas carburetors with floats are not able to operate upside down or in microgravity, such as that encountered on airplanes. Fuel injection increases engine fuel efficiency. With the improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution of multi-point fuel injection, less fuel is needed for the same power output. Exhaust emissions are cleaner because the more precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine; the more consistent and predictable composition of the exhaust makes emissions control devices such as catalytic converters more effective and easier to design. Herbert Akroyd Stuart developed the first device with a design similar to modern fuel injection, using a'jerk pump' to meter out fuel oil at high pressure to an injector; this system was used on the hot-bulb engine and was adapted and improved by Bosch and Clessie Cummins for use on diesel engines. Fuel injection was in widespread commercial use in diesel engines by the mid-1920s.
An early use of indirect gasoline injection dates back to 1902, when French aviation engineer Leon Levavasseur installed it on his pioneering Antoinette 8V aircraft powerplant, the first V8 engine of any type produced in any quantity. Another early use of gasoline direct injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. Hesselman engines use the ultra lean-burn principle, they are started on gasoline and switched to diesel or kerosene. Direct fuel injection was used in notable World War II aero-engines such as the Junkers Jumo 210, the Daimler-Benz DB 601, the BMW 801, the Shvetsov ASh-82FN. German direct injection petrol engines used injection systems developed by Bosch from their diesel injection systems. Versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Wright R-3350 used single point fuel injection, at the time called "Pressure Carburettor". Due to the wartime relationship between Germany and Japan, Mitsubishi had two radial aircraft engines using fuel injection, the Mitsubishi Kinsei and the Mitsubishi Kasei.
Alfa Romeo tested one of the first electronic injection systems in Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 with "Ala spessa" body in 1940 Mille Miglia. The engine had six electrically operated injectors and were fed by a semi-high-pressure circulating fuel pump system. All diesel engines have fuel injected into the combustion chamber. See Diesel engine; the invention of mechanical injection for gasoline-fueled aviation engines was by the French inventor of the V8 engine configuration, Leon Levavasseur in 1902. Levavasseur designed the original Antoinette firm's series of V-form aircraft engines, starting with the Antoinette 8V to be used by the aircraft the Antoinette firm built that Levavasseur designed, flown from 1906 to the firm's demise in 1910, wi
White Gothic is the debut album by the German gothic metal band Necromance released in 1997. The album was released on independently in 1997 and the band self-marketed the album to magazines. Afterwards the band signed a record deal with Pleitegeier Records. Musically, the album's style is gothic metal; the output is characterized by distorted power chord guitars, symphonic keyboards, steril computer drums. Other characteristical elements are Runhardt Scheffler's rough and half growled vocals, a relic from the band's death metal roots; some vocals are sung by the female singer-guitarist Sandra. Her mid-range, melancholic voice is a dominant element on songs such as "Morgenlied in Böser Zeit." The songstructures on the album are somewhat simple, basing more emphasis on dark and decadentic atmosphere rather than rich soundscapes or technical playing. Some of the songs such as "Mysterious Night" and "Eternal Glory" contain more traditional guitar playing reminiscent of the early deathrock and gothic rock bands, cleaner vocals.
The production on the album is dry and thin, the drums and keyboards are more up-front in the mix. The word "white" in the album title refers to the Christian lyrical themes that collide with gothic dark romantic thematics; the lyrics contain Bible citations on End times on songs such as the outro "Voice in the Wilderness." Two of the album's songs are sung in German. Although criticized for production issues, varying song material and sometimes playing out of key, the album received positive reviews from the underground media. For example, the German gothic music and subculture magazine Orkus wrote about the album in its November issue in 1997: "Metallic guitars combined with hypnotic—melancholic—melodic keyboard sounds, a whispering singing and a beautiful female voice to a symbiosis, not only fun, but very fresh sounding!" Other zines gave the album favorable reviews. Refraktor 6 wrote: "Here is now my masterpiece of Necromance... Friends of gothic sounds can access this without hesitation."
Different Frequenzies gave it 3 out of 4 and wrote: "Necromance gave me an interesting insight into a religious world and created with White Gothic a innovative piece of music that music fans should not miss..." Dark Heart wrote in winter 1997/1998: "Every song on the album is a gem in itself, you would not want to miss that if you heard it once... on its CD Necromance establishes their status as gothic - outright cult band." "Wait for Me" - 3:47 "Morgenlied in Böser Zeit" - 4:54 "The Harvest of the Earth" - 3:59 "Our Seats Are Empty" - 3:28 "Lilies of the Field" - 4:30 "Signs of the End of the Age" - 2:04 "Mysterious Night" - 3:46 "God Is Might" - 4:08 "Eternal Glory" - 2:35 "Sounds of Brainstorms" - 3:18 "Vom Sterben" - 4:27 "Waiting for the Lord" - 3:03 "Vom Hindern" - 4:04 "Voice in the Wilderness" - 4:08 Sandra - vocals, guitar René - synthesizer Mike - guitar Runhardt - vocals, guitar
Christ among the Doctors is an oil painting by Albrecht Dürer, dating to 1506, now in the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Spain. The work dates to Dürer's sojourn in Venice, was executed hastily while he was working at the Feast of the Rosary altarpiece. According to some sources, it could have been given to painter Giovanni Bellini. In the latter's house it was seen by Lorenzo Lotto, who used one of the figures in the painting for his Madonna with Child between Sts. Flavian and Onuphrius now in the Borghese Gallery; the subject had been treated by Dürer in a woodcut of the Life of the Virgin series and in a panel of the Seven Sorrows Polyptych. However, in the Venetian work the German artist adopted a new composition, with the characters occupying the whole scene and surrounding the young Jesus, leaving a little room for the black background; the topic is the Finding in the Temple episode from Jesus' childhood, found in the Gospel of Luke. The character at the left of Jesus is a true caricature inspired by one of Leonardo da Vinci's drawings seen by Dürer.