Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. In general terms, fuel oil is any liquid fuel, burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power, except oils having a flash point of 42 °C and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains alkanes and aromatics; the term fuel oil is used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, i.e. heavier than gasoline and naphtha. Small molecules like those in propane, gasoline for cars, jet fuel have low boiling points, they are removed at the start of the fractional distillation process. Heavier petroleum products like diesel fuel and lubricating oil are much less volatile and distill out more while bunker oil is the bottom of the barrel. Oil has many uses. A small amount of electricity is produced by diesel, but it is more polluting and more expensive than natural gas.
It is used as a backup fuel for peaking power plants in case the supply of natural gas is interrupted or as the main fuel for small electrical generators. In Europe, the use of diesel is restricted to cars, SUVs, trucks and buses; the market for home heating using fuel oil has decreased due to the widespread penetration of natural gas as well as heat pumps. However, it is common in some areas, such as the Northeastern United States. Residual fuel oil is less useful because it is so viscous that it has to be heated with a special heating system before use and it may contain high amounts of pollutants sulfur, which forms sulfur dioxide upon combustion. However, its undesirable properties make it cheap. In fact, it is the cheapest liquid fuel available. Since it requires heating before use, residual fuel oil cannot be used in road vehicles, boats or small ships, as the heating equipment takes up valuable space and makes the vehicle heavier. Heating the oil is a delicate procedure, impractical on small, fast moving vehicles.
However, power plants and large ships are able to use residual fuel oil. Use of residual fuel oil was more common in the past, it powered boilers, railroad steam locomotives, steamships. Locomotives, have become powered by diesel or electric power; some industrial boilers still so do some old buildings, including in New York City. In 2011 New York City estimated that the 1% of its buildings that burned fuel oils No. 4 and No. 6 were responsible for 86% of the soot pollution generated by all buildings in the city. New York made the phase out of these fuel grades part of its environmental plan, PlaNYC, because of concerns for the health effects caused by fine particulates, all buildings using fuel oil No. 6 had been converted to less polluting fuel by the end of 2015. Residual fuel's use in electrical generation has decreased. In 1973, residual fuel oil produced 16.8% of the electricity in the US. By 1983, it had fallen to 6.2%, as of 2005, electricity production from all forms of petroleum, including diesel and residual fuel, is only 3% of total production.
The decline is the result of price competition with natural gas and environmental restrictions on emissions. For power plants, the costs of heating the oil, extra pollution control and additional maintenance required after burning it outweigh the low cost of the fuel. Burning fuel oil residual fuel oil, produces uniformly higher carbon dioxide emissions than natural gas. Heavy fuel oils continue to be used in the boiler "lighting up" facility in many coal-fired power plants; this use is analogous to using kindling to start a fire. Without performing this act it is difficult to begin the large-scale combustion process; the chief drawback to residual fuel oil is its high initial viscosity in the case of No. 6 oil, which requires a engineered system for storage and burning. Though it is still lighter than water it is much heavier and more viscous than No. 2 oil, kerosene, or gasoline. No. 6 oil must, in fact, be stored at around 38 °C heated to 65–120 °C before it can be pumped, in cooler temperatures it can congeal into a tarry semisolid.
The flash point of most blends of No. 6 oil is, about 65 °C. Attempting to pump high-viscosity oil at low temperatures was a frequent cause of damage to fuel lines and related equipment which were designed for lighter fuels. For comparison, BS 2869 Class G heavy fuel oil behaves in similar fashion, requiring storage at 40 °C, pumping at around 50 °C and finalising for burning at around 90–120 °C. Most of the facilities which burned No. 6 or other residual oils were industrial plants and similar facilities constructed in the early or mid 20th century, or which had switched from coal to oil fuel during the same time period. In either case, residual oil was seen as a good prospect because it was cheap and available. Most of these facilities hav
The Persuader is a fictional supervillain characters featured in comic books published by DC Comics. There have been three unrelated characters with this name; the Nyeun Chun Ti version of Persuader first appeared in Adventure Comics #352, was created by Jim Shooter and Curt Swan. The Cole Parker version of Persuader first appeared in Adventures of Superman #598, was created by Joe Casey and Pete Woods; the Elise Kimble version of Persuader first appeared in Teen Titans Vol. 3 #56 and was created by Sean McKeever and Eddy Barrows. The Persuader was one of five outlaws recruited by the Legion of Super-Heroes to help them combat the Sun-Eater in exchange for amnesty for their crimes; the villains turned on the Legion and formed the Fatal Five, becoming one of the Legion's most notable threats. The Persuader wielded an "atomic axe" on a long shaft; this axe could cut through anything including purely metaphoric or intangible things, such as a person's air supply, the force of gravity, or the separation between dimensions, followed the Persuader's mental commands.
The Persuader came from a heavy-gravity planet. Before becoming a supervillain, he was a gangland enforcer who gained his name from his ability to intimidate his victims, he was unchanged following the Legion Reboot. In the Teen Titans/Legion crossover that ended the Reboot Legion, the Persuader had used his axe to cut through Hypertime, thereby teaming Fatal Fives from various universes as the Fatal Five Hundred, he had a daughter. The Persuader did not appear in the Threeboot Legion continuity. During Final Crisis: Legion of 3 Worlds, the original Persuader was among the supervillains in Superboy-Prime's Legion of Super-Villains. Cole Parker was a factory worker who had lost his job in the wake of the Brainiac-13 upgrade and blamed the Daily Planet. Inspired by images of Superman fighting a holographic Fatal Five, he led a fire-axe wielding riot against the Planet and was imprisoned. A mysterious stranger appeared in Cole's cell and gave him an Atomic Axe to help him fulfill his need for vengeance.
He escaped prison and fought Superman, but in the midst of battle a miscalculation with the Axe opened an interdimensional portal, through which the Persuader was cast. The Mxyzptlk Twins decide to rewrite history. During a mission with the Suicide Squad, Parker was accidentally killed by teen hero Osiris when Osiris flew directly through Parker's body to save his sister Isis. Elise Kimble has appeared as a member of Clock King's Terror Titans. According to Terror Titans #1, Clock King has told her that she is an ancestor of the original Persuader of the 31st Century, she wears the same mask as the other Persuaders, carries an atomic axe, her weapon of choice. Her atomic axe cuts objects on a molecular level, allowing her to cleanly shear flesh, steel and any other object except for Ravager's energy swords. According to Terror Titans # 3, Elise's father left. Growing up with a spiteful mother turned her cold, she became a killer-for-hire while still in high school murdering her mother when she found out.
She joined up with Clock King to find her father. Clock King located and brought Elise's father to her, only to kill him in the midst of their reunion, so as to toughen her up. Along with the other surviving Terror Titans, Elise is defeated and turned over to the authorities after the teen metahumans held captive in the Dark Side Club are freed by Ravager and Miss Martian. While being transported by the police, the Terror Titans flee to parts unknown. Elise reappears in Teen Titans #98 as part of Superboy-Prime's Legion of Doom. While battling Ravager, Elise taunts her and claims that she must have an ulterior motive for joining the Teen Titans. Elise is defeated after being shot with an arrow by Speedy, allowing Ravager to knock her out; each of the Persuaders have enhanced physical capabilities. The Nyeun Chun Ti version of Persuader has an Atomic axe; the Elise Kimble version of Persuader has an atomic axe that can cut objects on a molecular level, allowing her to cleanly shear flesh, steel and any other object except for Ravager's energy swords.
The Persuader appeared in the Justice League Unlimited episode "Far From Home" voiced by an uncredited Kin Shriner. His first appearance in the episode, alongside Emerald Empress, referred back to their relationship in the original Legion continuity following the death of Tharok, is reminiscent of Marvel Comics' Enchantress and Executioner. Persuader appears in the Legion of Super Heroes TV series, voiced by David Sobolov. In the episode "Who Am I?", Brainiac 5 had downloaded some of Persuader's mind when it came for Chameleon Boy to infiltrate Imperiex's ranks. The Persuader appeared in "Legion", the 11th episode of the 8th season of the television series Smallville, portrayed by uncredited stunt performer Fraser Aitcheson. Persuader is a xenophobe, he steals a Legion flight ring, travels through time and attacks Clark Kent in the Kent barn, intending to kill him before he can create the legacy that inspires Earth to welcome aliens in the future. He uses a long-handled atomic axe to injure Clark and destroy the Phantom Zone crystal, meant to be used to defeat Brainiac.
Kaizou Choujin Schbibinman Zero is a 1997 game for the Satellaview addon for the Super Famicom. It is a side-scrolling beat-'em-up developed by Masaya and published by NCS, it is the fourth and final game in Kaizō Chōjin Schbibinman series, the first on the SFC. The previous entries in the series were for the PC-Engine; the game is not a direct sequel to previous Schbibinman games, instead features two new protagonists: Raita and Azuki. It is a side scrolling action game, where the player can make use of both fighting techniques and beam attacks. Players take control of either Azuki. Raita fights like a boxer, using physical attacks, Azuki, fights with a sword and together they can use combo attacks, it features two player co-operative play. It was intended for a 1994 Super Famicom release, before being released on the Satellaview in 1997, thus the game never got a physical release, making the game rare and hard to find for collectors. In 2014, the company Extreme gained the copyright for the game from Nippon Computer Systems.
To commemorate the 20th anniversary of the game's release, Columbus Circle gave the game a Japan only limited released the game on a physical Super Famicom cartridge. It was released on June 2017 where it retailed for 6,998 yen and was distributed via Amazon. Hardcore Gaming 101: Schbibinman