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Petroleum

Petroleum is a occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation using a fractionating column. It consists of occurring hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and may contain miscellaneous organic compounds; the name petroleum covers both occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterisation have been completed, it is refined and separated, most by distillation, into numerous consumer products, from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.

Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day. The use of petroleum as fuel causes global ocean acidification. According to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, without fossil fuel phase-out, including petroleum, there will be "severe and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems"; the word petroleum comes from Medieval Latin petroleum, which comes from Latin petra', "rock", Latin oleum, "oil". The term was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer known as Georgius Agricola. In the 19th century, the term petroleum was used to refer to mineral oils produced by distillation from mined organic solids such as cannel coal and refined oils produced from them. Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, is now important across society, including in economy and technology; the rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation, the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry the synthesis of plastics, solvents and pesticides.

More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society; the use of petroleum in ancient China dates back to more than 2000 years ago. In I Ching, one of the earliest Chinese writings cites that oil in its raw state, without refining, was first discovered and used in China in the first century BCE. In addition, the Chinese were the first to record the use of petroleum as fuel as early as the fourth century BCE. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China. Crude oil was distilled by Persian chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi; the streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region.

In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around Azerbaijan. These fields were described by the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan'Alī al-Mas'ūdī in the 10th century, by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. Arab and Persian chemists distilled crude oil in order to produce flammable products for military purposes. Through Islamic Spain, distillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century, it has been present in Romania since the 13th century, being recorded as păcură. Early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production. Pechelbronn is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been used; the still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since 1498, notably for medical purposes. Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century. In Wietze in lower Saxony, natural asphalt/bitumen has been explored since the 18th century.

Both in Pechelbronn as in the coal industry dominated the petroleum technologies. Chemist James Young noticed a natural petroleum seepage in the Riddings colliery at Alfreton, Derbyshire from which he distilled a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil, at the same time obtaining a more viscous oil suitable for lubricating machinery. In 1848, Young set up a small business refining the crude oil. Young succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. Young found that by slow distillation he could obtain a number of useful

2013 in rugby union

Here are the match results of the 2013 Rugby union season. Qualifiers for the 2015 Rugby World Cup, meanwhile the Six Nations Championship and The Rugby Championship are set for another season. 2 February – 16 March: Six Nations Championship Wales defended their RBS 6 Nations crown with a 30–3 victory against England. 26th title. May 17: Amlin Challenge Cup Final at RDS Arena, Dublin: Leinster defeat Stade Français 34–13 to claim the first Challenge Cup title for an Irish side. May 18: Heineken Cup Final at Aviva Stadium, Dublin: Toulon defeat Clermont 16–15 to win their first European trophy. May 28 – June 9: 2013 IRB Junior World Rugby Trophy in Temuco, Chile Italy, Chile. Italy earn promotion to the 2014 IRB Junior World Championship. June 1 – July 6: British and Irish Lions tour to Australia The Lions win the three-Test series against Australia 2–1, it is the Lions' first series win since defeating South Africa in 1997. June 5–23: 2013 IRB Junior World Championship in France England, South Africa.

England win their first title. The United States is relegated to the 2014 IRB Junior World Rugby Trophy. August 17 – October 5: The Rugby Championship New Zealand sweep all six matches for the second consecutive year, maintaining their 100% record since the competition was expanded to include Argentina in 2012. Including the competition's previous history as the Tri Nations, it is the 10th title for the All Blacks. IRB Sevens World Series: New Zealand, South Africa, Fiji. New Zealand 11th overall. World Series Core Team Qualifier: Portugal and Spain all retain their core team status for the 2013–14 series. IRB Women's Sevens World Series: New Zealand, Canada. New Zealand claim the inaugural series crown. June 28–30: 2013 Rugby World Cup Sevens in Moscow, Russia Men's: New Zealand, Fiji. New Zealand win their second title. Women's: New Zealand, United States. New Zealand win their first title. Top League Final, 27 January at Chichibunomiya Rugby Stadium, Tokyo: Suntory Sungoliath defeat Toshiba Brave Lupus 19–3 to defend their title from last season.

It is Suntory's third league title overall. 15 February – 13 July: Super Rugby: The Chiefs top the regular-season table. Super Rugby Final, August 3 at Waikato Stadium, New Zealand: The Chiefs defend their title from last season, defeating the Brumbies 27–22, it is the second Super Rugby title for the Chiefs. In the South African promotion/relegation playoff, held over two legs on July 26 and August 3, the Lions defeat the Kings 44–42; the Lions will replace the Kings for the 2014 season. English Premiership Final, May 25 at Twickenham, London: Leicester Tigers defeat Northampton Saints 37–17 to claim their 10th Premiership crown. RFU Championship Final, May 23 and 30: Newcastle Falcons defeat Bedford Blues 49–33 on aggregate in the two-legged final; as Newcastle were confirmed as meeting the Premiership's minimum standards, they replaced the Premiership's bottom club, London Welsh. Top 14 Final, June 1 at Stade de France, Saint-Denis: Castres defeat Toulon 19–14 to claim their fourth title, first since 1993.

Rugby Pro D2: Oyonnax automatically promoted to Top 14 as champion. Brive earn promotion as winner of playoffs between the next four teams, they replaced the bottom two teams in Agen and Mont-de-Marsan. Pro12 Final, May 25 at RDS Arena, Dublin: Leinster, fresh off victory in the Amlin Challenge Cup, defeat Ulster 24–18 for their third Celtic League/Pro12 title. LV Cup: Harlequins ITM Cup Premiership Final, October 26 at Westpac Stadium, Wellington: Canterbury defeat Wellington 29–13 to claim their sixth consecutive title in New Zealand's top level, 11th overall. Championship Final, October 25 at Trafalgar Park, Nelson: Tasman defeat Hawke's Bay 26–25 and are promoted to the 2014 ITM Premiership, replacing bottom-placed Bay of Plenty. Currie Cup Final, October 26 at Newlands, Cape Town: The Sharks defeat Western Province 33–19 for their seventh Currie Cup crown. 2013 in sports Rugby union in 2009

Lene Espersen

Lene Espersen is a former Danish politician and the current CEO at the Danish Association of Architectural Firms. She has since 1 July 2016 been chairman of the board of Aalborg University, a post she will have until June 30, 2020. Born to a fisherman father and a book-keeper mother, she grew up with her younger sister in Hirtshals in the north of Jutland, on Denmark’s mainland, she attended Lester B. Pearson United World College of the Pacific in Canada, she became the first in her family to graduate from university. Espersen was the first person in her family to join a political party. A member of parliament from 1994, she served as Minister of Justice from 27 November 2001 to 10 September 2008 and as Minister of Economic and Business Affairs from 10 September 2008 to 23 February 2010. Espersen served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 23 February 2010 to 3 October 2011, making her Denmark’s first female foreign minister and the only woman in such a post in the EU at the time. Espersen was the leader of the Conservative People's Party and Deputy Prime Minister from 9 September 2008 to 13 January 2011.

On 13 January 2011, she announced at a press conference at 19.00 pm after her arrival in Denmark, that she would not continue as leader of The Conservatives. The announcement came after months of increasing pressure, where various issues regarding her work ethics, had gained national attention, decreasing support in opinion polls for The Conservative party. During her tenure as political leader, support for the Conservative People's Party was reduced from around 10% to below 5%. On 14 January, Lars Barfoed succeeded Lene Espersen as political leader of the Conservative People's Party. Trilateral Commission, Member of the European Group Baltic Development Forum, Chair European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Governors When Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published controversial cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad in 2005, Espersen defended its right to publish and labelled Muslim extremism more dangerous than climate change. In 2012, in her capacity as foreign minister, she met with 17 ambassadors from Muslim countries as part of efforts to prevent any new cartoon crisis and to foster understanding.

In 2006, Espersen caused controversy when she was stripped of her parliamentary immunity after crashing into a woman on a scooter. She was subsequently banned from driving and fined €150, she has two children. Biography on the website of the Danish Parliament