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Fujian

Fújiàn is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, the Taiwan Strait to the east, its capital is Fuzhou, while its largest city by population is Xiamen, both located near the coast of the Taiwan Strait in the east of the province. The name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou, a city in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty. While its population is chiefly of ethnic Chinese origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China; the dialects of the language group Min Chinese were most spoken within the province, including the Hokkien dialects of southeastern Fujian. This is reflected in the abbreviation of the province's name. Hakka Chinese is spoken, by the Hakka people in Fujian. Min dialects and Hakka Chinese are unintelligible with Mandarin Chinese. Due to emigration, a sizable amount of the ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Malaysia and Philippines speak Southern Min.

As a result of the Chinese Civil War, Historical Fujian is now divided between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China, both territories are named the Fujian province in their respective administration divisions. The majority of the territory of historical Fujian make up the Fujian province of the PRC; the Fujian province of the ROC is made up of the Matsu Islands, the Wuqiu Islands and the Kinmen Islands, the two latter archipelagos constituting Kinmen County. With a population of 39 million, Fujian ranks 17th in population among Chinese provinces, its GDP is CN¥3.58 trillion, ranking 10th in GDP. Along with its coastal neighbours Zhejiang and Guangdong, Fujian's GDP per capita is above the national average, at CN¥92,830, it has benefited from its geographical proximity with Taiwan. Recent archaeological discoveries in 2011 demonstrate that Fujian had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC. From the Keqiutou site, an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 kilometres southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, bones and ceramics have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, definitive evidence of weaving.

The Tanshishan site in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun site in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age in character. Tianlong Jiao notes that the Neolithic appeared on the coast of Fujian around 6,000 B. P. During the Neolithic, the coast of Fujian had a low population density, with the population depending on on fishing and hunting, alongside with limited agriculture. There were four major Neolithic cultures in coastal Fujian, with the earliest Neolithic cultures originating from the north in coastal Zhejiang. Keqiutou culture 壳丘头文化 Tanshishan culture 昙石山文化 Damaoshan culture 大帽山文化 Huangguashan culture 黄瓜山文化 There were two major Neolithic cultures in inland Fujian, which were distinct from the coastal Fujian Neolithic cultures; these are the Niubishan culture from 5000–4000 years ago, the Hulushan culture from 2050 to 1550 BC. Fujian was where the kingdom of Minyue was located; the word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn", an ethnic name, "Yuè", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn period kingdom in Zhejiang to the north.

This is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after its kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is older. Minyue was a de facto kingdom until one of the emperors of the Qin dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished its status. In the aftermath of the Qin dynasty's fall, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang; the Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight with Liu and his gamble paid off. Liu founded the Han dynasty. In 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom, thus Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern Jiangxi, southern Zhejiang. After Wuzhu's death, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong and Zhejiang in the 2nd century BC.

This was stopped by the Han dynasty. The Han emperor decided to get rid of the potential threat by launching a military campaign against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC; the rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction and the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end. The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly 20 years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains; the first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dyn

Bloody Assizes

The Bloody Assizes were a series of trials started at Winchester on 25 August 1685 in the aftermath of the Battle of Sedgemoor, which ended the Monmouth Rebellion in England. There were five judges – Sir William Montague, Sir Robert Wright, Sir Francis Wythens, Sir Creswell Levinz and Sir Henry Pollexfen, led by Lord Chief Justice George Jeffreys. Over 1,000 rebels were in prison awaiting the trials August; the first notable trial was that of an elderly gentlewoman named Dame Alice Lyle. The jury reluctantly found her guilty and, the law recognising no distinction between principals and accessories in treason, she was sentenced to be burned; this was commuted to beheading, with the sentence being carried out in Winchester market-place on 2 September 1685. From Winchester the court proceeded through the West Country to Salisbury, Dorchester and on to Taunton, before finishing up at Wells on 23 September. More than 1,400 prisoners were dealt with and although most were sentenced to death, fewer than 300 were hanged or hanged and quartered.

The Taunton Assize took place in the Great Hall of Taunton Castle. Of more than 500 prisoners brought before the court on the 18/19 September, 144 were hanged and their remains displayed around the county to ensure people understood the fate of those who rebelled against the king; some 800–850 men were transported to the West Indies where they were worth more alive than dead as a source of cheap labour. Others were imprisoned to await further trial, although many did not live long enough, succumbing to'Gaol Fever', rife in the unsanitary conditions common to most English gaols at that time. A woman named Elizabeth Gaunt had the gruesome distinction of being the last woman burnt alive in England for political crimes. Jeffreys returned to London after the Assizes to report to King James, who rewarded him by making him Lord Chancellor,'For the many eminent and faithful services to the Crown'. Jeffreys became known as "the hanging judge". After the Glorious Revolution, Jeffreys was incarcerated in the Tower of London, where he died in 1689.

His death was due to his chronic medical history of kidney and bladder stones leading to an acute infection, kidney failure and toxaemia. Writing as as 1929, Sir John C. Fox said: Even to the present day, the mothers of West Somerset control their unruly offspring by threatening to send for'Judge Jeffreys'. Captain Blood The Bloody Assize, web site of Somerset County Council

Bieżanów-Prokocim

Bieżanów-Prokocim is one of 18 districts of Kraków, located in the southeast part of the city. The name Bieżanów-Prokocim comes from two villages. According to the Central Statistical Office data, the district's area is 18.47 square kilometres and 63 026 people inhabit Bieżanów-Prokocim. Bieżanów-Prokocim is divided into smaller subdivisions. Here's a list of them. Bieżanów Bieżanów Kolonia Kaim Łazy Osiedle Kolejowe Osiedle Medyków Osiedle Na Kozłówce Osiedle Nad Potokiem Osiedle Nowy Bieżanów Osiedle Nowy Prokocim Osiedle Parkowe Osiedle Złocień Prokocim Rżąka Official website of Bieżanów-Prokocim Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej