The Fula, Fulani, or Fulɓe people are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa dispersed across the region. Inhabiting many countries, they live in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa but in South Sudan and regions near the Red Sea coast. There are an estimated 40 million people of Fulani descent in West Africa in total. A significant proportion of the Fula – a third, or an estimated 12 to 13 million – are pastoralists, their ethnic group has the largest nomadic pastoral community in the world; the majority of the Fula ethnic group consisted of semi-sedentary people as well as sedentary settled farmers, artisans and nobility. As an ethnic group, they are bound together by their history and their culture. More than 96% of the Fula are Muslims. Many West African leaders are of the Fulani descent including the President of Nigeria, Muhammadu Buhari, they lead major international institutions, such as the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, Amina J. Mohammed.
There are many names used in other languages to refer to the Fulɓe. Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term. Fula, from Manding languages, is used in English, sometimes spelled Fulah or Fullah. Fula and Fulani are used in English, including within Africa; the French borrowed the Wolof term Pël, variously spelled: Peul and Peuhl. More the Fulfulde / Pulaar term Fulɓe, a plural noun has been Anglicised as Fulbe, gaining popularity in use. In Portuguese, the terms Fula or Futafula are used; the terms Fallata, Fallatah, or Fellata are of Kanuri origins, are the ethnonyms by which Fulani people are identified by in parts of Chad and in Sudan. The Fula people are distributed, across the Sahel from the Atlantic coast to the Red Sea in West Africa; the countries where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, the Gambia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Chad, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, as far east as the Red Sea in Sudan and Egypt. With the exception of Guinea, where the Fula make up the largest ethnic group, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Fulas are either a significant or a minority ethnic group in nearly all other countries they live in.
Alongside, many speak other languages of the countries they inhabit, making many Fulani bilingual or trilingual in nature. Such languages include French, Bambara and Arabic. Major concentrations of Fulani people exist in the Fouta Djallon highlands of central Guinea and south into the northernmost reaches of Sierra Leone; this is the area known as the Fombina meaning "The South" in Adamawa Fulfulde, because it represented the most southern and eastern reaches of Fulɓe hegemonic dominance in West Africa. In this area, Fulfulde is the local lingua franca, language of cross cultural communication. Further east of this area, Fulani communities become predominantly nomadic, exist at less organized social systems; these are the areas of the Chari-Baguirmi Region and its river systems, in Chad and the Central African Republic, the Ouaddaï highlands of Eastern Chad, the areas around Kordofan and the Blue Nile, Kassala regions of Sudan, as well as the Red Sea coastal city of Port Sudan. The Fulani on their way to or back from the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, settled in many parts of eastern Sudan, today representing a distinct community of over 2 million people referred to as the Fellata.
While their early settlements in West Africa were in the vicinity of the tri-border point of present-day Mali and Mauritania, they are now, after centuries of gradual migrations and conquests, spread throughout a wide band of West and Central Africa. The Fulani People occupy a vast geographical expanse located in a longitudinal East-West band south of the Sahara, just north of the coastal rain forest and swamps. There are an estimated 20-25 million Fulani people. There are three different types of Fulani based on settlement patterns, viz: the Nomadic/Pastoral or Mbororo, The Semi-Nomadic, the Settled or "Town Fulani"; the pastoral Fulani move around with their cattle throughout the year. They do not stay around for long stretches; the semi-nomadic Fulani can either be Fulɓe families who happen to settle down temporarily at particular times of the year or Fulɓe families who do not "browse" around past their immediate surroundings, though they possess livestock, they do not wander away from a fixed or settle
The Sound of One Hand Clapping is a 1997 novel by Australian author Richard Flanagan. The title is adapted from the famous Zen kōan of Hakuin Ekaku; the Sound of One Hand Clapping was Flanagan's second novel. The book focuses the relationship between a woman, Sonja Buloh, her father Bojan. Bojan is a Slovenian immigrant from the post-World War II period who came to work on the Tasmanian Hydroelectric Schemes, a drunkard. While working on a remote construction camp in the central highlands in the winter of 1954, when Sonja was just three, Bojan's wife walked into a blizzard never to be seen again and leaving Bojan to raise his daughter; when Sonja returns to visit Tasmania and her father in 1989 as a balanced middle-aged woman, the past begins to intrude, changing both their lives forever. Victorian Premier's Literary Award, Vance Palmer Prize for Fiction, 1998: winner Miles Franklin Literary Award, 1998: shortlisted Booksellers Choice Award, 1998: winner Dedication: "For Archie Flanagan, Helen Flanagan, Anton Smolej.
Forgive me its failings, but I tell it with love." "CNN.com" "Reading Matters" "Words and Flavours" "Many Hands Clapping" - interview by Murray Waldren A film adaptation of this novel was released in 1998, directed by the author, Richard Flanagan, featuring Kerry Fox, Kristof Kaczmarek, Rosie Flanagan and Arabella Wain. The film was produced by Rolf de Heer, who encouraged Flanagan to direct the film, broke into tears and "was a mess for four days" when he first read the script. Flanagan first read the phrase "the sound of one hand clapping" in an essay about feminist influence on the early English co-operative movement; the film competed for the Golden Bear at the 48th Berlin International Film Festival
France-IX is a Paris-based Internet exchange point founded in June 2010 as a membership organisation. As of 1 August 2015 it interconnects more than 278 members. France-IX was discussed by Raphael Maunier and Maurice Dean in 2008 in Dublin; the project of setting up the internet exchange called PhoenIX, was launched in December 2008. Christian Kaufmann and Nicolas Strina soon joined the initiative. Following the presentation, a survey was sent to the community of internet networks whose results were published during the FRnOG 14 in June 2009. Around that time, the working group got the official financial and logistics support from Jaguar Network, Akamai and Neo Telecoms and was renamed France-IX; the first international presentation of this project was made during RIPE 59 in Lisbon. France-IX is composed of a non-profit association where each member holds one vote, a commercial company, 100% owned by the association, in charge of daily operations; when a network subscribes to France-IX services, it becomes a de facto member of the association and holds the right to vote during the general assemblies.
There are 278 members. As of August 1, 2015, France-IX has eight board members, six of which are corporate seats and two individuals. France-IX has nine employees; as of August 1, 2015, France-IX network has 11 points of presence. Interxion 1, Aubervilliers Interxion 2, Aubervilliers Interxion 5, Saint-Denis Telehouse 2, 75011 Paris TelecityGroup 2, Courbevoie TelecityGroup, Aubervilliers Iliad DC2, Vitry-sur-Seine Iliad DC3, Vitry-sur-Seine Digital Realty, Saint-Denis Interxion MRS1, Marseille Jaguar Network MRS01, Marseille Services are available through two types of ports and several bandwidth options. France-IX offers the following professional services: Public peering: Unicast & multicast IPv4, unicast IPv6 Interconnections with 5 internet exchange point in France, in Italy and in Luxembourg Private peering NTP Synchronization Routes servers Webportal: private login per member, personal detailed traffic statistics. 24/7 NOC France-IX community comes from all around the world. Any organisation which owns an Autonomous System Number can be connected to France-IX.
The connected members of the internet exchange point have various profiles: Operators / Services Providers / Internet Access Providers CDN Hosting companies Cloud providers Gamers Online media Corporations DNS Search engine France-IX concluded five interconnections with other internet exchanges to foster the exchange of internet traffic in France and Europe. SFINX based in Paris and operated by the French academic network Lyonix based in Lyon and operated by Rezopole LU-CIX based in Luxemburg TouIX based in Toulouse, France TopIX based in Torino, Italy In 2012, France-IX rolled out a reseller program and counts seven resellers as of August 1, 2015. France-IX was the host for the 26th Euro-IX Forum, which took place between 12 April 2015 and 14 April 2015 in Marseille. France-IX led three training sessions to help Comoros and Guinea build their own national internet exchange points. List of Internet exchange points Official website
James "Jimmy the Hat" Lanza was a Sicilian-American mobster and boss of the San Francisco crime family. He was the son of the first known boss of the San Francisco crime family and took over in 1961, it is now extinct. He was first noticed when Life magazine published his photo in the late 1960s, identifying him as boss of the San Francisco crime family. James Lanza was born Mariano Vincenzo Proetto on October 23, 1902 in Castelbuono, Sicily, to Francesco Proetto and Caterina Albanese. In 1905, the family immigrated to New York City, where Francesco adopted the alias "Frank Lanza" and joined a local street gang. In 1920, the family moved to San Francisco. During the 1940s and 1950s, James Lanza was underboss of the San Francisco crime family, working under Michael Abati, he represented the San Francisco LCN family's interest from the early 1940s to 1952 before being convicted of failing to report nearly $1 million in unpaid taxes. In 1957, he attended the infamous Apalachin Meeting, representing San Francisco, when the raid happened he was never caught escaping through the woods with other mobsters.
Following the debacle at Apalachin, J. Edgar Hoover ordered FBI field offices to draft lists of "Top Hoodlums" in their areas of responsibility, and the San Francisco office designated Lanza as their contribution to this effort. Because of the Bureau's failure to cultivate informants close to Lanza or insert anyone into his circle, Hoover approved the use of the FBI's black bag squad to break into Lanza's place of business and install an illegal wiretap which ran from 1959 through 1965. After Michael Abati was indicted and deported back to Italy, Lanza was named boss in 1961, making his underboss, Gaspare "Bill" Sciortino. Lanza soon became the most powerful and successful boss the family had, he started making gambling operations, contract hits, more. Lanza became well connected throughout the country with other mob figures, as well in Las Vegas by his friend William "Bones" Remmer. Remmer started their own casino skim, he became close friends with Joseph Civello, the boss of the Dallas crime family and to Joe Cerrito, the boss of the San Jose crime family.
Lanza's picture was published in an article about Cerrito in 1968. His longtime underboss, Gaspare "Bill" Sciortino was the cousin to the underboss of the Los Angeles crime family Samuel Sciortino, making their connections down south stronger, he had close ties with former mayor of Joseph Alioto. In 1973, Los Angeles crime family member, former caporegime Jimmy Fratianno moved to the Bay Area. Known as "Jimmy The Weasel", for some reason Lanza disliked Fratianno, he did not trust Fratianno, was believed to have put a contract on him because he believed Fratianno was bringing too much police, FBI and media attention to the San Francisco family. The Patriarca Mafia Family wanted an informant hit, Lanza was believed to have given local permission for the murder of a former New England crime family associate; this man turned government witness, Joseph Barboza, was murdered in 1976. As the San Francisco family grew more seasoned, Lanza would lead as his small crime family would grow to include 15-20 made members.
Lanza had the misfortune of being one of the first mob bosses to garner media interest, was linked by Life to Mob boss Carlos Marcello and to Mayor Joseph Alioto. He was considered to be disliked by Jimmy Fratiano. Lanza died peacefully of natural causes on February 14, 2006 in California, he was 103
Bringing the Cold to Poland is Catamenia's first live DVD released by Massacre Records on 27 November, 2006, in Europe and on 16 January, 2007, for the rest of the world. It contains just over 50 minutes of a live show recorded in the Stodola Club in Poland. Metal Mind Productions is licensed to Massacre Records for the release of the live DVD. There is a limited edition version that includes an audio CD. All music and lyrics by Catamenia except "Fuel for Hatred" by Satyricon and "I Wanna Be Somebody" by W. A. S. P."Morning Crimson" − 3:22 "Lost in Bitterness" − 5:18 "Tuhat Vuotta" − 4:10 "My Blood Stained Path" − 4:19 "Coldbound" − 4:49 "Fuel for Hatred" − 3:20 "Verikansa" − 4:00 "Closed Gates of Hope" − 4:46 "The Day When the Sun Faded Away" − 4:40 "Eskhata" − 3:52 "I Wanna Be Somebody" − 2:54 "Location:COLD" − 5:10 Animated menus Biography Discography Web links Interview Cataventures Part 1 and 2 "Tuhat Vuotta" promotional video Audio tracks from both demos Desktop images Photo gallery 5.1 Dolby Digital Surround Sound Olli Mustonen − vocals Kari Vähäkuopus − vocals Riku Hopeakoski − lead guitar, backing vocals Ari Nissilä − rhythm guitar, backing vocals Veikko Jumisko − drums Tero Nevala − keyboards, backing vocals] Toni Kansanoja − bass guitar, backing vocals
The Gerber Baby is the trademark logo of the Gerber Products Company, an American purveyor of baby food and baby products. Drawn by artist Dorothy Hope Smith in 1928, the Gerber Baby was modeled after Ann Turner Cook. Fremont Canning Company and operated by Dan Gerber, was looking for a baby face for its new baby food campaign, to start in the part of 1928. To find a baby face that it believed would best represent the new baby food, the Fremont Canning Company conducted a contest in the summer of 1928. Many drawings and paintings were submitted; some were elaborate baby portraits in oil paint. Dorothy Hope Smith of Westport, Connecticut, an artist specialising in children’s drawings, submitted an unfinished charcoal drawing, closer to a simple sketch than a professional drawing. Smith told the judges that, if the sketch were selected as the winner, she would finish it professionally; the drawing won but, to her surprise, the judges wanted no changes to it. In 1928, the “Gerber Baby” symbol was introduced to help identify the new product.
It was first used in an baby food advertisement in the magazine Good Housekeeping. Within sixty days, Gerber Strained Foods, using the “Gerber Baby” symbol, had gained national recognition, being distributed to various places throughout the United States, it became internationally recognized. The campaign encouraged mothers of newborns to participate directly in a coupon redemption program; the introductory offer gave each consumer six cans of the canning company’s soup and strained vegetables for a dollar in exchange for the name of a favorite grocer. The idea was to stress the nutritional value of Gerber’s baby foods and the time and money saving advantages over buying by prescription; the sketch was so popular that it became the Fremont Canning Company’s official trademark in 1931. The Gerber Baby has since appeared in every Gerber advertisement; the Fremont Canning Company changed its name to Gerber Products Company in 1941. The model for Smith's original sketch, Ann Turner Cook grew up to be a mystery novelist and English teacher.
Although she avoided publicity for many years, Cook more has granted interviews to several Florida newspapers. In the beginning of 2011, the company was in the process of looking for the next Gerber Baby, it chose a toddler named Mary Jane Montoya. Earlier, one poll conducted in the United States showed that many people thought that the Gerber Baby became someone famous, such as Humphrey Bogart, Elizabeth Taylor, or Ernest Borgnine; the trademark of the Gerber Baby has been shown by the United States public to be associated with the highest consumer loyalty, according to one survey in 1998. Of note, in the beginning of February 2018, Gerber selected a baby affected by Downs Syndrome for its advertising campaign, received praise and appreciation from many sources. Avakian, Arlene Voski et al. From Betty Crocker to Feminist Food Studies, Liverpool University Press, ISBN 1-55849-511-8 Belasco, Warren James, Food Nations, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-93076-6 Heim, Exploring America's Highways, Exploring America's Highway, ISBN 0-9744358-2-1 Ingham, John N.
Biographical Dictionary of American Business Leaders: A-G, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-23907-X