Ford Model T
The Ford Model T is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927. It is regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car that opened travel to the common middle-class American; the Ford Model T was named the most influential car of the 20th century in the 1999 Car of the Century competition, ahead of the BMC Mini, Citroën DS, Volkswagen Type 1. Ford's Model T was successful not only because it provided inexpensive transportation on a massive scale, but because the car signified innovation for the rising middle class and became a powerful symbol of America's age of modernization. With 16.5 million sold it stands eighth on the top ten list of most sold cars of all time as of 2012. Although automobiles had existed for decades, they were still scarce and unreliable at the Model T's introduction in 1908. Positioned as reliable maintained, mass-market transportation, it was a runaway success. In a matter of days after the release, 15,000 orders were placed.
The first production Model T was produced on August 12, 1908 and left the factory on September 27, 1908, at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit, Michigan. On May 26, 1927, Henry Ford watched the 15 millionth Model T Ford roll off the assembly line at his factory in Highland Park, Michigan. Henry Ford conceived a series of cars between the founding of the company in 1903 and the introduction the Model T. Ford named his first car the Model A and proceeded through the alphabet up through the Model T, twenty models in all. Not all the models went into production; the production model before the Model T was the Model S, an upgraded version of the company's largest success to that point, the Model N. The follow-up was the Ford Model A; the company publicity said this was because the new car was such a departure from the old that Henry wanted to start all over again with the letter A. The Model T was Ford's first automobile mass-produced on moving assembly lines with interchangeable parts, marketed to the middle class.
Henry Ford said of the vehicle: I will build a motor car for the great multitude. It will be small enough for the individual to run and care for, it will be constructed of the best materials, by the best men to be hired, after the simplest designs that modern engineering can devise. But it will be so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one – and enjoy with his family the blessing of hours of pleasure in God's great open spaces. Although credit for the development of the assembly line belongs to Ransom E. Olds, with the first mass-produced automobile, the Oldsmobile Curved Dash, having begun in 1901, the tremendous advancements in the efficiency of the system over the life of the Model T can be credited entirely to the vision of Ford and his engineers; the Model T was designed by Childe Harold Wills, Hungarian immigrants Joseph A. Galamb and Eugene Farkas. Henry Love, C. J. Smith, Gus Degner and Peter E. Martin were part of the team. Production of the Model T began in the third quarter of 1908.
Collectors today sometimes classify Model Ts by build years and refer to these as "model years", thus labeling the first Model Ts as 1909 models. This is a retroactive classification scheme; the nominal model designation was "Model T", although design revisions did occur during the car's two decades of production. The Model T had a front-mounted 177-cubic-inch inline four-cylinder engine, producing 20 hp, for a top speed of 40–45 mph. According to Ford Motor Company, the Model T had fuel economy on the order of 13–21 mpg‑US; the engine was capable of running on gasoline, kerosene, or ethanol, although the decreasing cost of gasoline and the introduction of Prohibition made ethanol an impractical fuel for most users. The engines of the first 2,447 units were cooled with water pumps; the ignition system used in the Model T was an unusual one, with a low-voltage magneto incorporated in the flywheel, supplying alternating current to trembler coils to drive the spark plugs. This was closer to that used for stationary gas engines than the expensive high-voltage ignition magnetos that were used on some other cars.
This ignition made the Model T more flexible as to the quality or type of fuel it used. The system did not need a starting battery, since proper hand-cranking would generate enough current for starting. Electric lighting powered by the magneto was adopted in 1915, replacing acetylene and oil lamps, but electric starting was not offered until 1919; the Model T engine was produced for replacement needs, as well as stationary and marine applications until 1941, well after production of the Model T had ended. The Fordson Model F tractor engine, designed about a decade was similar to, but larger than, the Model T engine; the Model T was a rear-wheel drive vehicle. Its transmission was a planetary gear type billed as "three speed". In today's terms it would be considered a two-speed; the Model T's transmission was controlled with three floor-mounted pedals and a lever mounted to the road side of the driver's seat. The throttle was controlled with a lever on the steering wheel; the left pedal was used to engage the transmission.
With the floor lever in either the mid position or forward an
Ford Taurus (sixth generation)
The sixth generation of the Ford Taurus is the current generation of the model range of automobiles manufactured by Ford. Introduced for the 2010 model year, the sixth-generation Taurus is the second generation of the model line produced as a full-size car. While sharing its D3 chassis underpinnings with the previous generation, the current generation marked the first North American use of Kinetic Design design language. Coinciding with the withdrawal of the Mercury brand, the sixth-generation Taurus was developed without a Mercury Sable counterpart. While Ford has never announced it as a replacement for the Crown Victoria, the current Taurus is marketed in the full-size segment against many similar vehicles as the preceding sedans; the sixth-generation Taurus marks the return of the Taurus SHO and the introduction of the Police Interceptor Sedan. Both variants are powered by the turbocharged EcoBoost engine family. Alongside the Ford Explorer SUV, the Taurus is assembled at Chicago Assembly in Illinois.
On March 1, 2019, the final Taurus built in the United States rolled off the Chicago assembly line, ending a 34 year run as a sedan in North America. In late 2006, Ford Motor Company named Boeing CEO Alan Mulally to replace William Clay Ford Jr. as its own chief executive. One of his first decisions was to abandon the unpopular "F" model naming scheme for Ford-division cars. A critic of the decision to end the usage of the Ford Taurus/Mercury Sable nameplates, Mullaly redesignated the 2008 model year update of the Ford Five Hundred and Mercury Montego as the fifth-generation Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable before its release to the public. Although the change back to the Taurus addressed several major deficiencies of the Five Hundred, the vehicle itself still drew criticism for bland styling derived from its predecessor and handling rated behind its competitors. Although the Taurus gained 60 hp over the Five Hundred, most of its deficiences were related to its introduction being a mid-cycle refresh of its predecessor under a new nameplate.
In January 2008, Alan Mulally revealed that a sixth generation of the Ford Taurus was in development as a planned 2010 model, calling it "the one we should have built originally". In April 2008, a photograph of a full-scale prototype mockup of the 2010 Ford Taurus was leaked onto the Internet. After the styling of the prototype was seen worldwide, Ford contemplated legal action against web sites which posted the photo and Ford attorneys asked site owners to remove the photo. Towards its launch, the Ford Motor Company website introduced several videos, benchmarking the 2010 Ford Taurus against several production luxury sedans. One test video displayed that the paint coat of the Taurus was more resistant to gravel chips than a Lexus LS460 while another displayed the blind-spot detection sensor system unavailable on an Infiniti M45x; the 2010 Ford Taurus SHO was faster than an Audi A6 4.2 FSI Quattro in straight-line acceleration while the interior of the Ford Taurus was quieter than an Acura RL.
In a major contrast from previous generations of the Ford Taurus, once the highest-selling nameplate in the United States, Ford deliberately aimed for lower sales volumes. Instead of the 1990s peak volumes of nearly 400,000 vehicles a year, the intended sales were closer to 50,000 to 75,000; as a full-size car, the Taurus competed closer to the Toyota Avalon and Nissan Maxima than the Toyota Camry, Honda Accord, Nissan Altima. Additionally, Ford sought to preserve the resale value of the Taurus by avoiding the usage of fleet sales of the vehicles; the 2010 Ford Taurus was unveiled at the 2009 North American International Auto Show at Cobo Hall. In May 2009, the new Taurus debuted at three dealers in the Buffalo and Houston to be put on display and to build anticipation for the release; the first dealer, West Herr Ford in Hamburg, New York, was chosen due to the successful unveiling of the redesigned Ford F-150 earlier that year. The 2009 Taurus's counterparts, the Ford Taurus X and the Mercury Sable, ceased production in spring 2009 at Ford's Chicago Assembly Plant.
The sixth-generation Taurus' production started on June 2009 for the 2010 model year. Unlike previous generations of the Taurus, the sixth-generation Taurus would not have a Sable counterpart since the Mercury brand was in the process of being phased out by the end of 2010. For the first time since 2002, Lincoln dealers sold a Taurus-based sedan, the Lincoln MKS, introduced as a 2009 model; the sixth-generation Ford Taurus is based on the Volvo-derived Ford D3 platform architecture, sharing the 112.9-inch wheelbase of the Lincoln MKS and the previous Ford Taurus. As with its predecessor, the Ford Taurus features a front-wheel drive powertrain as standard with the option of an all-wheel drive configuration; as with all other D3 sedans, the Ford Taurus is configured with four-wheel independent suspension, featuring MacPherson struts and rearward-facing lower L-arms
The Lincoln Continental is a series of mid-sized and full-sized luxury cars produced by Lincoln, a division of the American automaker Ford Motor Company. Introduced in 1939 as a personal vehicle of Edsel Ford, who commissioned a coachbuilt Lincoln-Zephyr convertible as a vacation vehicle to attract potential Lincoln buyers. In what would give the model line its name, the exterior was given European "continental" styling elements, including a rear-mounted spare tire. Produced for 55 years across nearly eight decades, there are ten generations of the Lincoln Continental. Within the Lincoln model line, the Continental has served several roles ranging from its flagship to its base-trim sedan; as part of its entry into full-scale production, the first-generation Continental became the progenitor of an new automotive segment, the personal luxury car. Following World War II, the segment evolved into coupes and convertibles larger than sports cars and grand touring cars with an emphasis on luxury and style over handling.
From 1956 to 1957, the Continental nameplate saw use in the short-lived Continental Division, marketing the 1956–1957 Continental Mark II as the worldwide flagship of Ford Motor Company. Along with the model being the final American factory-produced vehicle with a V12 engine, the Continental is the final example produced as a four-door convertible. Alongside the nationwide suspension of automobile production during World War II, the Continental has gone on hiatus twice. In 1981, the Continental became the Lincoln Town Car to accommodate the 1982 seventh-generation Continental. After 2002, Lincoln withdrew the Continental replacing it with the Lincoln MKS in 2009. For 2017, the Continental was revived as the Lincoln flagship sedan, replacing the MKS; the Lincoln Continental began life as a personal vehicle for Ford Motor Company President Edsel Ford. In 1938, Ford commissioned a one-off design he wanted ready for his March 1939 vacation from company Chief Stylist Eugene T. "Bob" Gregorie. Using the blueprints of the streamlined Lincoln-Zephyr as a starting point, Gregorie sketched a design for a convertible with a redesigned body.
At the time work had begun on the first Continental coupe, Lincoln had cancelled the Lincoln K-series coupes and limousines, produced the limited Lincoln Custom limousine, along with the smaller Lincoln-Zephyr coupes and sedans. Mr. Ford wanted to revive the popularity of the 1929–1932 Lincoln Victoria coupe and convertible but with a more modern approach, reflecting European styling influences for the Continental. By design, the Edsel Ford prototype could be considered a channelled and sectioned Lincoln-Zephyr convertible. With the massive decrease in height, the running boards were deleted entirely. In contrast to the Zephyr, the hood sat nearly level with the fenders. To focus on the styling of the car, the chrome trim on the car was restricted to the grille; as with the Lincoln-Zephyr, the prototype was fitted with a 267 cubic-inch V12 engine. The design would introduce two long-running features used in many American automobile designs; the modified body gave the design new proportions over its Zephyr counterpart.
As a consequence of the smaller trunk space, the spare tire was mounted behind the trunk. The prototype designed by Gregorie was produced on time, making the deadline to be delivered to Edsel Ford in Florida. Interest from well-off friends was high. In reference to its European-inspired design, the Lincoln-based prototype received its name: Continental. Production commenced on the Lincoln Continental, with the majority of production being "Cabriolet" convertibles and a rare number of coupes, they were extensively hand-built. The limited number of 1939 models produced are referred to as'1940 Continentals'. Lincoln Continentals from 1939 to 1941 shared the same body design with each other. For the 1942 model year, all Lincoln models were given squared-up fenders, a revised grille; the result was a boxier, somewhat heavier look in keeping with then-current design trends, but less graceful in retrospect. 1942 production was shortened, following the entry of the United States into World War II. After World War II, the Lincoln division of Ford returned the Continental to production as a 1946 model.
A station wagon called an estate car, estate or wagon, is a car body style which has a two-box design, a large cargo area and a rear tailgate, hinged to open for access to the cargo area. The body style is similar to a hatchback car, however station wagons are longer and are more to have the roofline extended to the rear of the car to maximize the cargo space; the names "station wagon" and "estate car" are a result due to the initial purpose of the car being to transport people and luggage between a country estate and the nearest train station. The first station wagons, produced in the United States around 1910, were wood-bodied conversions of an existing passenger car. During the 1930s, the car manufacturers in the United States, United Kingdom and France began to produce station wagons models, by the 1950s the wood rear bodywork had been replaced by an all-steel body. Station wagon models sold well from the 1950s to the 1970s, however since sales have declined as minivans and SUVs have increased in popularity.
Reflecting the original purpose of transporting people and luggage between country estates and train stations, the body style is called an "estate car" or "estate" in the United Kingdom, "station wagon" in American, New Zealand and African English. In the United States, early models with exposed wooden bodies became known as woodies. In Germany, the term "Kombi" is used, short for Kombinationskraftwagen. Station wagons have been marketed using the French term "break de chasse", which translates as "hunting break", due to shared ancestry with the shooting-brake body style. Manufacturers may designate station wagons across various model lines with a proprietary nameplate. Examples include "Avant", "Caravan", "Kombi", "Sports Tourer", "Sports Wagon, "Tourer", "Touring" and "Variant". Station wagons and hatchbacks have in common a two-box design configuration, a shared interior volume for passengers and cargo and a rear door, hinged at roof level. Folding rear seats are common on both station wagons and hatchbacks.
Distinguishing features between hatchbacks and station wagons are: D-pillar: Station wagons are more to have a D-pillar. Cargo volume: Station wagons prioritize passenger and cargo volume — with windows aside the cargo volume. Of the two body styles, a station wagon roof more extends to the rearmost of the vehicle, enclosing a full-height cargo volume — a hatchback roof might more rake down steeply behind the C-Pillar, prioritizing style over interior volume, with shorter rear overhang and with smaller windows aside the cargo volume. Other differences are more variable and can include: Cargo floor contour: Favoring cargo capacity, a station wagon may prioritize a fold-flat floor, whereas a hatchback would more allow a cargo floor with pronounced contour. Seating: Station wagons may have two or three rows of seats, while hatchbacks may only have one or two; the rearmost row of seating in a station wagon is located in the cargo area and can be either front-facing or rear-facing. Rear suspension: A station wagon may include reconfigured rear suspension for additional load capacity and to minimize intrusion in the cargo volume.
Rear Door: Hatchbacks feature a top-hinged liftgate for cargo access, with variations ranging from a two-part liftgate/tailgates to a complex tailgate that can function either as a full tailgate or as a trunk lid. Station wagons have enjoyed numerous tailgate configurations. Hatchbacks may be called Liftbacks when the opening area is sloped and the door is lifted up to open. A design director from General Motors has described the difference as "Where you break the roofline, at what angle, defines the spirit of the vehicle", he said. "You could have a 90-degree break in the back and have a station wagon."It has become common for station wagons to use a shared platform with other body styles, resulting in many shared components being used for the wagon and hatchback variants of the model range. Many modern station wagons have an upward-swinging, full-width, full-height rear door supported on gas springs — where the rear window can swing up independently. Wagons have employed numerous designs; the earliest common style was an upward-swinging window combined with a downward swinging tailgate.
Both were manually operated. This configuration prevailed from the earliest origins of the wagon body style in the 1920s through the 1940s, it remained in use through 1960 on several models offered by Ford, including the 1957-58 Del Rio two-door wagon. This style was adopted on aftermarket camper shells for pickup trucks, seeing that pickup trucks had a bottom half tailgate as an OEM feature. In the early 1950s, tailgates with hand-cranked roll-down rear windows began to appear. In the decade, electric power was applied to the tailgate window—it could be operated from the driver's seat, as well as by the keyhole in the rear door. By the early 1960s, this arrangement was common on both compact wagons. Side hinge: A side hinged tailgate that opened like a door was offered on three-seat wagons to make it easier for the back row passengers to enter and exit their rear-facing seats; this was supplanted by the dual-hinged tailgate. These have a retractable rear roof section as well as a conventional rear tailgate which folded
The Chevrolet Impala is a full-size car built by Chevrolet for model years 1958 to 1985, 1994 to 1996, since 2000 onwards as a mid-size car. The Impala is Chevrolet's popular flagship passenger car and is among the better selling American made automobiles in the United States. For its debut in 1958, the Impala was distinguished from other models by its symmetrical triple taillights; the Chevrolet Caprice was introduced as a top-line Impala Sport Sedan for model year 1965 becoming a separate series positioned above the Impala in 1966, which, in turn, remained above the Chevrolet Bel Air and the Chevrolet Biscayne. The Impala continued as Chevrolet's most popular full-size model through the mid-1980s. Between 1994–96, the Impala was revised as a 5.7-liter V8–powered version of the Chevrolet Caprice Classic sedan. In 2000, the Impala was reintroduced again; as of February 2014, the 2014 Impala ranked #1 among Affordable Large Cars in U. S. News & World Report's rankings; when the tenth generation of the Impala was introduced for the 2014 model year, the ninth generation was rebadged as the Impala Limited and sold only to fleet customers through 2016.
During that time both versions were sold in the United States and Canada. The current-generation Impala is sold in the Middle East and South Korea; the Impala name was first used for the full-sized 1956 General Motors Motorama show car that bore Corvette-like design cues the grille. Painted emerald green metallic, with a white interior, the Impala concept car featured hardtop styling. Clare MacKichan's design team, along with designers from Pontiac, started to establish basic packaging and dimensions for their shared 1958 General Motors "A" body in June; the first styling sketch that would directly influence the finished Chevrolet automobile was seen by General Motors Styling vice president Harley Earl in October. Seven months the basic design was developed. For 1958, GM was promoting their fiftieth year of production, introduced anniversary models for each brand; the 1958 models shared a common appearance on the top models for each brand. The Impala was introduced for the 1958 model year as top of the line Bel Air hardtops and convertibles.
From the windshield pillar rearward, the 1958 Bel Air Impala differed structurally from the lower-priced Chevrolet models. Hardtops had a shorter greenhouse and longer rear deck; the wheelbase of the Impala was longer than the lower priced models, although the overall length was identical. Interiors held color-keyed door panels with brushed aluminum trim. No other series included a convertible; the 1958 Chevrolet models were longer and wider than its predecessors. The 1958 model year was the first with dual headlamps; the tailfins of the 1957 were replaced by sculptured rear fenders. Impalas had three taillights each side, while lesser models had wagons just one; the Impalas included crossed-flag insignias above the side moldings, as well as bright rocker moldings and dummy rear-fender scoops. The standard perimeter-type frame was abandoned, replaced by a unit with rails laid out in the form of an elongated "X." Chevrolet claimed that the new frame offered increased torsional rigidity and allowed for a lower placement of the passenger compartment.
This was a transitional step between traditional construction and the fully unitized body/chassis, the body structure was strengthened in the rocker panels and firewall. However, this frame was not as effective in protecting the interior structure in a side impact crash, as a traditional perimeter frame. A coil spring suspension replaced the previous year's rear leaf springs, an air ride system was optional. A 283 cu in engine was the standard V8, with ratings. A "W" block 348 cu in Turbo-Thrust V8 was optional, producing 280 hp, or 315 hp; the Ramjet fuel injection was available as an option for the Turbo-Fire 283 V8, not popular in 1958. A total of 55,989 Impala convertibles and 125,480 coupes were built representing 15 percent of Chevrolet production; the 1958 Chevrolet Bel Air Impala helped Chevrolet regain the number one production spot in this recession year. The 1959 Chevrolet Impala was redesigned. Sharing bodyshells with lower-end Buicks and Oldsmobiles as well as with Pontiac, part of a GM economy move, the Chevrolet's wheelbase was 1-1/2 inches longer.
Using a new X-frame chassis, the roof line was three inches lower, bodies were two inches wider, curb weight increased. Its tailfins protruded outward, rather than upward; the taillights were a large "teardrop" design at each side, two slim-wide nonfunctional front air intake scoops were added just above the grille, The Impala became a separate series, adding a four-door hardtop and four-door sedan, to the two-door Sport Coupe and convertible. Sport Coupes featured a shortened roof line and wrap-over back window; the standard engine was an I6. Optional were a 283 cu in with 348 cu in V8 up to 335 hp. Standard were front and rear armrests, an electric clock, dual sliding sun visors, crank-operated front vent windows. A contoured hooded instrument panel held deep-set gauges. A six-way power seat was a new option, as was "Speedminder", for the driver to set a needle at a specific speed and a buzzer would sound if the pre-set was exceeded; the 1960 Impala models reinstated three round taill
Chrysler New Yorker
The Chrysler New Yorker is an automobile model, produced by Chrysler from 1940 to 1996, serving for several years as the brand's flagship model. A trim level named the "New York Special" first appeared in 1938 and the "New Yorker" name debuted in 1939; the New Yorker name helped define the Chrysler brand as a maker of upscale models and equipped above mainstream brands like Ford, Chevrolet/Pontiac, Dodge/Plymouth, but below full luxury brands like Cadillac and Packard. During the New Yorker's tenure, it competed against upper level models from Buick and Mercury; until its discontinuation in 1996, the New Yorker had made its mark as the longest-running American car nameplate. The New York Special model was introduced as a distinct sub-series of the 1938 Chrysler Imperial, it was available in 1938 as a four-door sedan with a 298.7 CID straight-eight engine and a generous amount of comfort and space for the passengers. For 1939 it was expanded with two more coupe versions and a two-door sedan and a larger, more powerful engine.
Now the C23 series, it took on the "New Yorker" name. The first convertibles were introduced with the all-new body-design of the 1940 models. This, the C26 series, was the first New Yorker to be considered a standalone model rather than as an Imperial version, it saw the introduction of Fluid Drive, a fluid coupling between the engine and the clutch. The only transmission available was the basic three-speed manual. There was the "New Yorker Highlander", a special version with tartan seats and other interior elements. Redesigned bodies were introduced for 1941, with the business coupe now being a three window design; the bodies were lower, with increased glass surface. Another new model was the Town Sedan with the rear doors having the hinges at the forward edge of the doors; this year, the Vacamatic was made available, although unlike the version sold on six-cylinder models, the Saratoga/New Yorker version was a three speed transmission with overdrive. With America entering World War II on 7 December 1941, all automobile production came to an end at the beginning of February, 1942.
Thus, the 1942 model year was half the normal length. Cars built after December 1941 had blackout trim; the 1942s were quite modern, of a design, heralding the post-war ponton style with fenders more incorporated into the bodywork. The grille consisted of five horizontal chrome bars which wrapped around the front, reaching all the way to the leading edge of the front wheelhouses; some 12,145 New Yorkers of the C36 series were built this year. Chrysler would produce and experiment with engines for tanks and aircraft during World War II. One post-war application of this would lead to the creation of the first generation Hemi of the 1950s. After the war, the New Yorker became a separate series. Unlike most car companies, Chrysler did not make major changes with each model year from 1946 through 1948, thus models for 1946 through 1948 Chryslers have the same basic appearance, noted for their'harmonica' grille, based on the body introduced with the 1941 models. 1947 saw a minor redesign in tires and instrument panel, while the first 1948s were just 1947s with no visible changes.
Postwar Chryslers continued to offer Fluid Drive, with the New Yorker now offering the true four speed semi-automatic transmission. The 1949 New Yorker used Chrysler Corporation's new postwar body shared by Dodge and DeSoto with ponton, three-box styling; the engine continued to be the 323.5-cid straight eight coupled to Fluid Drive and the Prestomatic four-speed semi-automatic. Body styles were reduced to four-door sedan and convertible. Wheelbase on the New Yorker was increased to 131.5 in from the 127.5 in frame introduced in 1941. The previous design had been carried through early 1949, with the new series having been delayed due to a strike in late 1948. A padded dash board was optional; the 1950 New Yorker was the more deluxe of the regular eight-cylinder Chryslers with cloth upholstery available in several colors, 135 hp Spitfire straight-eight engine and roomy interior featuring "chair height" seats. The "Prestomatic" fluid drive transmission had each with two speeds. In normal driving, high range was engaged using the clutch.
The car could be driven without using the clutch. When the car came to a stop, the lower gear was again engaged; the big news for 1950 was the two-door hardtop, or Special Club coupe as Chrysler called it, in the New Yorker series. The model was called the Newport in sales literature. Chrysler added foam rubber padding on the dashboard for safety. Chrysler introduces the 180 hp FirePower Hemi engine; the engine becomes a popular choice among hot rodders and racers alike, a trend that continues to thrive today with its namesake second generation model. The FirePower Hemi equipped cars could accelerate 0 to 60 mph in 10 seconds, faster than the Oldsmobile 88 Rocket engine of that time; the New Yorker offered Fluid Torque Drive, a true torque converter, in place of Fluid Drive. Cars with Fluid Torque Drive came only with Fluid Matic semi-automatic transmission and had a gear selector quadrant on the steering column. Power steering, an industry first, appeared as an option on Chrysler cars with the Hemi engine.
It was sold under the name Hydraguide. A station wagon was offered with only 251 built, its 131.5 in wheelbase is the longest used on
Tesla Model S
The Tesla Model S is an all-electric five-door liftback car, produced by Tesla, Inc. and introduced on June 22, 2012. The EPA official range for the 2017 Model S 100D, equipped with a 100 kWh battery pack, is 335 miles, higher than any other electric car; the EPA rated the 2017 90D Model S's energy consumption at 3.096 miles per kWh for a combined fuel economy of 104 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent. In 2016, Tesla updated the design of the Model S to match that of the Model X; as of January 2019, the following versions are available: 100D and P100D. In 2013, the Model S became the first electric car to top the monthly new car sales ranking in any country, twice leading in Norway, in September and December 2013 and in Denmark in December 2015. Global Model S sales passed 250,000 units in September 2018; the U. S. is its leading market, with about 140,000 units delivered through December 2018. The Tesla Model S was the top selling plug-in electric car worldwide in 2015 and 2016, by the end of 2018 continued to rank as the second most-sold electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf.
The December 2017 Consumer Reports owner satisfaction survey had the Tesla Model S at the top. The Model S was styled by Franz von Holzhausen, who worked for Mazda North American Operations; the car was codenamed WhiteStar during preliminary development. It was announced in a press release on June 30, 2008; the prototype vehicle was displayed at a press conference on March 26, 2009. Exclusive premier of their Model S electric car was held at their Menlo Park store on April 8, 2009. In February 2008 it was reported that Tesla, Inc. was planning to offer a range-extended version of its Model S. This version would have included a gasoline engine to extend the driving range of the vehicle, but it was removed in revisions. At the GoingGreen conference in September 2008 Tesla's CEO, Elon Musk, announced that Tesla was developing only electric cars. Construction of an assembly factory in Albuquerque, New Mexico was supposed to begin in April 2007, but was cancelled. A factory to be built in San Jose, California was announced.
In May 2010 Tesla announced it would produce the Model S at the former NUMMI assembly plant in Fremont, now known as the Tesla Factory. This third plan was implemented; the Tesla Model S was the 2013 World Green Car of the Year, 2013 Motor Trend Car of the Year, Automobile magazine's 2013 Car of the Year, Time Magazine's Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012, Consumer Reports' top-scoring car in road testing. In 2015, Car and Driver named the Model S the Car of the Century. After not recommending the Model S in 2015 due to poor reliability, one year Consumer Reports added the car to its recommended list. Tesla said that after three years, Model S cars traveled over 1 billion miles, the first plug-in electric car to reach that total. In 2014 the Volt total was 629 million all-electric miles out of a total of 1 billion miles traveled, while Nissan said the Leaf had accumulated 625 million total miles. Tesla said 68 % of Model S travel was in 25 % in Europe and 7 % in Asia-Pacific. Global Model S sales passed the 100,000 units in 2015, the 150,000 mark in November 2016.
The 200,000 milestone was achieved by early in the fourth quarter of 2017. In 2016, the "Electric GT World Series" was promoted in preparation for a 2017 racing season using the P85+ as a race car on certain traditional tracks; the first season is planned to have 20 cars in 10 teams. In April 2016, Tesla made minor changes in the Model S; the front fascia has a similar design as the Model X, adding adaptive LED headlights. A HEPA cabin air filtration system was added; the standard charger increased from 40 to 48 amps. Two ash wood interior options were added. In May 2018 Tesla released source code for the Model S on a github.com repository as part of their software license compliance process in collaboration with the Software Freedom Conservancy. Tesla manufactures the Model S at the 5,400,000 square feet Tesla Factory in California. For the European market, Tesla assembles and distributes from its European Distribution Center in Tilburg, the Netherlands. Cars are tested in Fremont, California; the battery pack, the electric motor and parts are disassembled and shipped separately to Tilburg, where the cars are reassembled.
The center occupies a 203,000 sq ft industrial building that serves as a workshop and spare parts warehouse. Tesla expects the Model S to "pay back" the energy that went into producing the car in fewer than 10,000 miles; the first ten customers received their cars at the Fremont factory on June 22, 2012 at the official launch. Production grew from 15–20 cars completed per week in August 2012 to about 1,000 cars per week in 2015. In October 2015, Tesla announced the company is negotiating with the Chinese government on producing its electric cars domestically. Local production has the potential to reduce the sales prices of Tesla models by a third. Agreement for a production facility with capacity for up to 500,000 vehicles was formally announced in July 2018; the Model S exists in several versions, differing in energy capacity and equipment. It is classified as a full-size luxury car in the US, or as a "Large Car" or "Luxury Sedan" by the EPA; the Euro Car Segment classification is "Oberklasse" in Germany.
The 2012 Tesla Model S Performance model has a three-phase, four-pole AC induction 416