Hessian, burlap in the US and Canada, or crocus in Jamaica, is a woven fabric made from skin of the jute plant or sisal fibres, which may be combined with other vegetable fibres to make rope and similar products. Gunny is similar in construction. Hessian, a dense woven fabric, has been produced as a coarse fabric, but more it is being used in a refined state known as jute as an eco-friendly material for bags and other products; the name "hessian" is attributed to the historic use of the fabric as part of the uniform of soldiers from the former Landgraviate of Hesse and its successors, including the current German state of Hesse, who were called "Hessians". The origin of the word burlap is unknown, though its earliest known appearance is in the late 17th century, its etymology is speculated to derive from the Middle English borel, the Old French burel and/or the Dutch boeren, in the latter case interfused with boer; the second element is the English word lap, "piece of cloth". Hessian was first exported from India in the early 19th century.
It was traditionally used as backing for linoleum and carpet. In Jamaica and certain parts of the Caribbean, many labourers who used to work on the plantations were not given pleasant materials with which to make clothes; some had access to cotton, spun, woven and sewn into serviceable clothing whilst others had to make do with clothing fashioned from hewn sacking. Labourers used their resourcefulness to recycle discarded sacking and fashion them into garments that although uncomfortable by all accounts provided protection from the heat and dust. A traditional costume of Jamaican Maroons uses fabric similar to this material as a way of drawing an affinity and pay homage to the resourcefulness and creativity of their labourers who gained freedom. For the rest of the population, it was used to make bags for carrying loads of coffee and other items, edible or not. Hessian is used to make gunny sacks, to ship goods like coffee beans and rooibos tea, it is associated spoilage of contents. It is durable enough to withstand rough handling in transit.
Hessian is commonly used to make effective sandbags. Hessian is often used for the transportation of unprocessed dry tobacco; this material is used for much the same reasons. Hessian sacks in the tobacco industry hold up to 200 kg of tobacco, due to hessian's toughness, a hessian sack can have a useful life of up to three years. Hessian is used to wrap the exposed roots of trees and shrubs when transplanting and for erosion control on steep slopes. One major advantage of hessian jute fabric is that, because it is made from natural vegetable fibers, it is biodegradable; this property makes it useful in landscaping and agricultural uses that require incorporating fabric support into outdoor projects. Landscape designs that include tree transplantation rely on hessian jute to ensure that young trees arrive at the planting venue intact and unharmed; this is achieved by wrapping hessian jute fabric around the roots and soil of a tree shortly after digging it from its original location. The breathability of the fabric allows sufficient aeration of the soil, the hessian's moisture-resistant properties prevent excess water from accumulating and allowing the growth of mold, mildew, or other types of rot.
Once planted, young trees may require protection from hessian jute to ward off mice and other rodents that might otherwise eat their bark and compromise their structure. To keep rodents at bay, landscapers wrap swathes of hessian jute around the trunks of young trees of all varieties. In addition to protecting from animals, hessian jute has the capacity to protect trees from excessive sun and wind. By building windbreaks from hessian jute, landscapers can exert some control over the environment in which young trees grow, thus maximizing their chances of growing to maturity so that they can withstand more intense weather conditions. For planting grass, on areas that have steep slopes or high levels of soil erosion, a layer of hessian jute tacked on over grass seeds can prevent seeds from being moved by rain, runoff, or wind. Landscapers can use this fabric for many uses due to its strength, moisture resistance, protective properties; the transportation of agricultural products involves bags made from hessian jute fabric.
Hessian jute bags are used to ship wool and cotton, as well as foodstuffs such as coffee, flour and grains. Hessian jute's ability to allow the contents of bags to breathe makes it excellent for preventing or minimizing rotting due to trapped moisture. In some cases, hessian can be specially treated to avoid specific kinds of rot and decay. Due to its coarse texture, it is not used in modern apparel. However, this roughness gave it a use in a religious context for mortification of the flesh, where individuals may wear an abrasive shirt called a cilice or "hair shirt" and in the wearing of "sackcloth" on Ash Wednesday. Owing to its durability, open weave non-shiny refraction and fuzzy texture, ghillie suits for 3D camouflage are made of hessian, it was a popular material for camouflage scrim on co
Georg Andreas Böckler
Georg Andreas Böckler was a German architect and engineer who wrote Architectura Curiosa Nova and Theatrum Machinarum Novum. Born in Cronheim, he was an architect in the city of Nuremberg and specialized in hydraulic architecture. Architectura Curiosa Nova was his most important work, it is a book on theory and application of hydrodynamics for fountains, water-jets, garden fountains and well heads with many designs for free-standing fountains. The fourth part includes designs for grottoes and garden pavilions. In 1661 Böckler wrote Theatrum Machinarum Novum, an important work on windmills and other hydraulic machines. Böckler died in Ansbach, his brother Johann Heinrich Boeckler was a polymath. A webpage with illustrations of fountains from Architecturea Curiosa Nova, Pars Tertia Online text of Theatrum machinarum novum Books on line on the Architectura website: http://architectura.cesr.univ-tours.fr/Traite/Auteur/Bockler.asp?param=en http://www.theatra.de/repertorium/ed000028.pdf
Broadcloth is a dense, plain woven cloth made of wool. The defining characteristic of Broadcloth is not its finished width, but the fact that it was woven much wider and heavily milled in order to shrink it to the required width; the effect of the milling process is to draw the yarns much closer together than could be achieved in the loom and allow the individual fibres of the wool to bind together in a felting process. This results in a dense, blind face cloth with a stiff drape, weather-resistant, hard wearing and capable of taking a cut edge without the need for being hemmed, it was made in several parts of England at the end of the medieval period. The raw material was short staple wool and spun into yarn and woven on a broad loom to produce cloth 1.75 yards wide. It was fulled in a fulling mill; when fulled, the fibres of the cloth would felt together. In the United States, broadcloth can be an alternative name for a specific type of cotton or cotton-blend poplin, first introduced to the States from Britain in the early 1920s, renamed broadcloth for the American market.
Broadcloth was first produced in Flanders throughout the medieval period. After 1400 Leiden in Holland became the most important place for broadcloth industry in Europe. There for the first time the production became industrialised; this means that the production process didn't take place in one single factory anymore but according to a precise task allocation, where in several stages intermediate goods were produced. The entire process was supervised, resulting in a high quality, making Leiden broadcloth popular. In 1417 the Hanseatic League decided. From 1500 competition from other parts of Europe England and Leiden lost its leading role. In Italy Florence was an important center of broadcloth industry. Around 1500, broadcloth was made in a number of districts of England, including Essex and Suffolk in southern East Anglia, the West Country Clothing District, at Worcester, Cranbrook in Kent and some other places; this was the best English cloth, large quantities were exported by the merchants of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, principally to Antwerp as white cloth.
It was finished and dyed in Flanders, marketed throughout northern Europe. The cloths might be long; the raw material for broadcloth from Worcester was wool from the Welsh border counties of Herefordshire and Shropshire, known as Lemster wool. That for the West Country came from the Cotswolds. In both cases, the high quality was the result of the comparatively poor pasture, which led the sheep to grow wool with the desired qualities. English exports of broadcloth reached their highest level in the mid 16th century, after which some regions began producing other kinds of cloth. Difficulties were encountered in export markets in the mid-1610s due to currency difficulties in eastern Europe, to the ill-conceived Cockayne Project. Broadcloth production thus declined in the 17th century. Worcester remained a centre for the production of white broadcloth. Other areas, such as Ludlow and parts of the Cotswolds started to produce similar cloth, known as'Worcesters'; the market suffered major setback in the 18th century, when the trade of the Levant Company with Turkey was obstructed by French competition.
From this time, the production of broadcloth lost its importance. Banat Wool broadcloth made in India. Bridgwater - A lighter weight broadcloth made in England and Wales. Castor - Overcoat-weight woolen broadcloth. Cealtar - thick grey broadcloth dunster - broadcloth made in Somerset Georgian cloth haberjet - A coarse wool broadcloth, made in England during the Medieval period, associated with monks. Habit cloth - British-made fine wool broadcloth used for women's riding habits. Lady's cloth - lighter weight broadcloth made in light shades. Poole cloth - A broadcloth with a clear finish, named after the tailoring establishment Henry Poole & Co. suclat - A European-made cotton broadcloth popular in the East Indian market. Superfine - merino broadcloth used for men's tailoring. Tami - Chinese-made broadcloth. Taunton - Originally made in Taunton, available in medium or coarse grade, with a weight of 11oz. Per yard, fixed by law. Tavestock western dozen - Alternative name for tavestock. Since the early 1920s, the American market has used the term broadcloth to describe a plain-woven mercerised fabric woven with a rib and a heavier filling yarn, used for shirt-making, made from cotton or a polyester-and-cotton blend.
This fabric was introduced in the early 1920s as an import from the United Kingdom, where it was called poplin, but it was arbitrarily renamed broadcloth as it was thought that the British name had connotations of heaviness. Another version of this fabric, woven in rayon or polyester-and-rayon, is called fuji. Wool broadcloth with its felted, velvet-like feel, has been a popular material for many years in furniture and luxury car interiors. Ponting, Kenneth G.. The Woollen Industry of South-West England. Bath: A. M. Kelley. ISBN 0-678-07
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns; these were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont, he encouraged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks colonizing Anatolia. One of Urban's aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the Eastern Mediterranean holy sites that were under Muslim control but scholars disagree as to whether this was the primary motive for Urban or those who heeded his call.
Urban's strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, divided since the East–West Schism of 1054 and to establish himself as head of the unified Church. The initial success of the Crusade established the first four Crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli; the enthusiastic response to Urban's preaching from all classes in Western Europe established a precedent for other Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the Church; some were hoping for a mass ascension into heaven at Jerusalem or God's forgiveness for all their sins. Others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, obtain glory and honour or to seek economic and political gain; the two-century attempt to recover the Holy Land ended in failure. Following the First Crusade there were numerous less significant ones. After the last Catholic outposts fell in 1291, there were no more Crusades.
The Wendish Crusade and those of the Archbishop of Bremen brought all the North-East Baltic and the tribes of Mecklenburg and Lusatia under Catholic control in the late 12th century. In the early 13th century the Teutonic Order created a Crusader state in Prussia and the French monarchy used the Albigensian Crusade to extend the kingdom to the Mediterranean Sea; the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century prompted a Catholic response which led to further defeats at Nicopolis in 1396 and Varna in 1444. Catholic Europe was in chaos and the final pivot of Christian–Islamic relations was marked by two seismic events: the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 and a final conclusive victory for the Spanish over the Moors with the conquest of Granada in 1492; the idea of Crusading continued, not least in the form of the Knights Hospitaller, until the end of the 18th-century but the focus of Western European interest moved to the New World. Modern historians hold varying opinions of the Crusaders.
To some, their conduct was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy, as evidenced by the fact that on occasion the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders pillaged as they travelled, their leaders retained control of captured territory instead of returning it to the Byzantines. During the People's Crusade, thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade. However, the Crusades had a profound impact on Western civilisation: Italian city-states gained considerable concessions in return for assisting the Crusaders and established colonies which allowed trade with the eastern markets in the Ottoman period, allowing Genoa and Venice to flourish; the Crusades reinforced a connection between Western Christendom and militarism. The term crusade used in modern historiography at first referred to the wars in the Holy Land beginning in 1095, but the range of events to which the term has been applied has been extended, so that its use can create a misleading impression of coherence regarding the early Crusades.
The term used for the campaign of the First Crusade was iter "journey" or peregrinatio "pilgrimage". The terminology of crusading remained indistinguishable from that of pilgrimage during the 12th century, reflecting the reality of the first century of crusading where not all armed pilgrims fought, not all who fought had taken the cross, it was not until the late 12th to early 13th centuries that a more specific "language of crusading" emerged. Pope Innocent III used the term negotium crucis "affair of the cross" for the Eastern Mediterranean crusade, but was reluctant to apply crusading terminology to the Albigensian crusade; the Song of the Albigensian Crusade from about 1213 contains the first recorded vernacular use of the Occitan crozada. This term was adopted into French as croisade and in English as crusade; the modern spelling crusade dates to c. 1760. Sinibaldo Fieschi used the terms crux transmarina for crusades in Outremer against Muslims and crux cismarina for crusades in Europe against other enemies of the church.
The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271–72. This conv
Felt is a textile material, produced by matting and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool or animal fur, or from synthetic fibers such as petroleum-based acrylic or acrylonitrile or wood pulp-based rayon. Blended fibers are common. Felt from wool is considered to be the oldest known textile. Many cultures have legends as to the origins of felt making. Sumerian legend claims; the story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters while fleeing from persecution. At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks. Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia, where rugs and clothing are made; some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers. In the Western world, felt is used as a medium for expression in both textile art and contemporary art and design, where it has significance as an ecologically responsible textile and building material.
In the wet felting process, hot water is applied to layers of animal hairs, while repeated agitation and compression causes the fibers to hook together or weave together into a single piece of fabric. Wrapping the properly arranged fiber in a sturdy, textured material, such as a bamboo mat or burlap, will speed up the felting process; the felted material may be finished by fulling. Only certain types of fiber can be wet. Most types of fleece, such as those taken from the alpaca or the Merino sheep, can be put through the wet felting process. One may use mohair, angora, or hair from rodents such as beavers and muskrats; these types of fiber are covered in tiny scales, similar to the scales found on a strand of human hair. Heat and moisture of the fleece causes the scales to open, while agitating them causes them to latch onto each other, creating felt. There is an alternative theory. Plant fibers and synthetic fibers will not wet felt. Needle felting is a method of creating felted objects without using water.
The special needles used to make 3D sculpture, adornments and 2D art have notches along the shaft of the needle that catch fibers and tangle them with other fibers to produce felt. These notches are sometimes erroneously called "barbs", but barbs are protrusions and would be too difficult to thrust into the wool and nearly impossible to pull out. There are many types of notched needles for different uses while working. Needle felting is used in industrial processes as well as in individual crafting. Needles used for crafting are very thin needles, sometimes fitted in holders that allow the user to utilize 2 or more needles at one time to sculpt wool objects and shapes; the single thin needles are used for detail and the multiple needles that are paired together are used for larger areas or to form the base of the project. At any point in time a variety of fiber colors may be added for detail and individuality, using needles to incorporate them into the project; the kawaii style of needle felting was made popular by the Japanese culture.
Kawaii means cute in Japanese and to felt in the kawaii style just means to make the object cute. Most kawaii needle felt sculptures have small, minimal detail and are brightly colored, they are more cute and playful compared to the more traditional needle felt, more rustic and earthy. Ikuyo Fujita（藤田育代 Fujita Ikuyo）is a Japanese artist who works in needle felt painting and mogol art. Needle felting can be used to create realistic 3 dimensional animals. A wire armature can be created to help the process and provide support, around which a needle felted body and coat can be added. Here are some examples; the art of needle felting is becoming popular worldwide. Invented in the mid 17th century and used until the mid-20th centuries, a process called "carroting" was used in the manufacture of good quality felt for making men's hats. Beaver, rabbit or hare skins were treated with a dilute solution of the mercury compound mercuric nitrate; the skins were dried in an oven where the thin fur at the sides turned the color of carrots.
Pelts were stretched over a bar in a cutting machine, the skin was sliced off in thin shreds, with the fleece coming away entirely. The fur was blown onto a cone-shaped colander and treated with hot water to consolidate it; the cone peeled off and passed through wet rollers to cause the fur to felt. These'hoods' were dyed and blocked to make hats; the toxic solutions from the carrot and the vapours it produced resulted in widespread cases of mercury poisoning among hatters. This may be the origin of the phrase "mad as a hatter", used to humorous effect by Lewis Carroll in the chapter "A Mad Tea Party" of the novel Alice in Wonderland. Felt is used in a wide range of industries and manufacturing processes, from the automotive industry and casinos to musical instruments and home construction, as well as in gun wads, either inside cartridges or pushed down the barrel of a muzzleloader. Many musical instruments use, it is used as a damper. On drum cymbal stands, it protects the cymbal from ensures a clean sound.
It is used to wrap bass drum timpani mallets. Felt is used extensively in pianos; the density and springiness of the felt is a major part of. As the felt becomes grooved and "packed" with use and age, the tone suffers. Felt
In sewing, a tuck is a fold or pleat in fabric, sewn in place. Small tucks multiple parallel tucks, may be used to decorate clothing or household linens; when the tucks are narrow, they are called pintucks or Pin-tucking. Tucks are used to shorten a finished garment a child's garment, so that it may be lengthened as the child grows by removing the stitching holding the tuck in place. In Louisa May Alcott's Little Women, Amy says: "My only comfort," she said to Meg, with tears in her eyes, "is that Mother doesn't take tucks in my dresses whenever I'm naughty, as Maria Parks's mother does. My dear, it's dreadful, for sometimes she is so bad her frock is up to her knees, she can't come to school. Tucks, made easy with the invention of the sewing machine, were popular as ornamentation in the latter half of the 19th century in fine linen or cotton fabric for chemisettes, blouses, summer dresses, children's garments. Tucks were used to decorate heavier fabrics: a travelling suit of "rough cheviot" is described as having its skirt "tucked, each tuck two inches wide and two inches apart, eight tucks in all, box-pleating at the bottom".
Cunnington, C. Willett: English Women's Clothing in the Nineteenth Century, Dover Publications reprint 1990, 0486263231 Picken, Mary Brooks: The Fashion Dictionary and Wagnalls, 1957
Beta cloth is a type of fireproof silica fiber cloth used in the manufacture of Apollo/Skylab A7L space suits, the Apollo Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, the McDivitt Purse, in other specialized applications. Beta cloth consists of fine woven silica fiber, similar to fiberglass; the resulting fabric will not burn, will melt only at temperatures exceeding 650 °C. To reduce its tendency to crease or tear when manipulated, to increase durability, the fibers are coated with Teflon. A tight weave of Beta cloth makes it more durable against atomic oxygen exposure, its ability to resist atomic oxygen exposure makes it used as the outer-most layer in multi-layer insulation for space, it was used on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. It was implemented in NASA space suits after the deadly 1967 Apollo 1 launch pad fire, in which the astronauts' nylon suits burned through. After the fire, NASA demanded any flammable materials were to be removed from both the spacecraft and space suits.
Beta cloth was developed by a Manned Spacecraft Center team led by Frederick S. Dawn and including Matthew I. Radnofsky working with the Owens-Corning and DuPont companies. Where additional wear resistance was needed, external patches of Chromel-R metallic cloth were used. Beta cloth was used as the material for the Skylab shower enclosure; the interior of the Space Shuttle payload bay was completely covered with Beta cloth. This helps protect; some Beta cloth is used on MSL's rover Curiosity. Multi-layer insulation Materials for use in vacuum NASA - Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines