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Fulton County, Georgia

Fulton County is a county in the north-central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of 2018 estimates, the population was 1,050,114, making it the state's most populous county and its only one with over 1 million inhabitants, its county seat is the state capital. 90% of the City of Atlanta is located within Fulton County. Fulton County is the principal county of the Atlanta metropolitan area. Fulton County is part of GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Fulton County was created in 1853 from the western half of DeKalb County, it was named in honor of Hamilton Fulton, a railroad official who acted as surveyor for the Western and Atlantic Railroad and as chief engineer of the state. After surveying the area, now Fulton County, Fulton convinced state officials that a railroad, rather than a canal, should be constructed to connect Milledgeville the state capital, to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Building the railroad was a precursor of Fulton County's prominence as a major transportation center. Organized as settlement increased in the Piedmont section of upland Georgia, Fulton County grew after the American Civil War as Atlanta was rebuilt, becoming a center of railroad shipping and business.

After the war, there was considerable violence against freedmen in the county. During the post-Reconstruction period and the number of lynchings of blacks increased in the late 19th century, as whites exercised terrorism to re-establish and maintain white supremacy. Whites lynched 35 African Americans here from 1877-1950; this was the highest total in the state. With a total of 589, Georgia was second to Mississippi in its total number of lynchings in this period. In addition to individual lynchings, during the Atlanta Race Riot of 1906, whites killed at least 25 African Americans. Two white persons died during the riot; the violence affected black residential and business development in the city afterward. The Georgia legislature completed disenfranchisement of African Americans in 1908 constitutional amendments that raised barriers to voter registration and voting, excluding them from the political system. At the beginning of 1932, as an austerity measure to save money during the Great Depression, Fulton County annexed Milton County to the north and Campbell County to the southwest, to centralize administration.

That resulted in the current long shape of the county along 80 miles of the Chattahoochee River. On May 9 of that year, neighboring Cobb County ceded the city of Roswell and lands lying east of Willeo Creek to Fulton County so that it would be more contiguous with the lands ceded from Milton County. In the second half of the 20th century and Fulton county became the location of numerous national and international headquarters for leading companies, attracting skilled employees from around the country; this led to the county becoming more cosmopolitan and diverse. Fulton County is governed by a seven-member board of commissioners, whose members are elected from single-member districts, they serve concurrent four-year terms. The most recent election was held in November 2010; the county has a county manager system of government, in which day-to-day operation of the county is handled by a manager appointed by the board. The chairman of the Board of Commissioners is elected at-large for the county-wide position.

The vice chairman is elected by peers on a yearly basis. Fulton County's budget of $1.2 billion funds an array of resident services. With 34 branches, the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System is one of the largest library systems in Georgia. Human services programs include one of the strongest senior center networks in metro Atlanta, including four multi-purpose senior facilities; the county provides funding to nonprofits with FRESH and Human Services grants. Atlanta is the largest city in Fulton County, occupying the county's narrow center section and thus geographically dividing the county's northern and southern portions. Atlanta's last major annexation in 1952 brought over 118 square miles into the city, including the affluent suburb of Buckhead; the movement to create a city of Sandy Springs, launched in the early 1970s and reaching fruition in 2005, was an effort to prevent additional annexations by the city of Atlanta, to wrest local control from the county commission. Fulton County is one of the most reliably Democratic counties in the entire nation.

It has voted Democratic in every presidential election since 1876, except that of 1928 and again in 1972, when George McGovern could not win a single county in Georgia. The demographic character of the Democratic Party has changed. In Fulton County, Democrats are composed of liberal urbanites of various ethnicities, a growing contingent of suburban voters. Except for a small sliver of Buckhead, the entire county is represented by Democrats in the U. S. House, with John Lewis representing the core of Atlanta, David Scott representing the southern suburbs, Lucy McBath representing most of the northern suburbs, Republican-leaning. Geographically remote from each other, the northern and southern sections of the county have grown at odds over issues related to taxes and distribution of services. Residents of the affluent areas of North Fulton have complained that the Fulton County Board of Commissioners has ignored their needs, taking taxes collected in North Fulton, spending them on programs and serv

Foyn Point

Foyn Point is a point surmounted by a peak 525 metres high, forming the southeast extremity of Blagoevgrad Peninsula and marking the north side of the entrance to Exasperation Inlet, on Oscar II Coast on the east side of Graham Land, Antarctica. Sir Hubert Wilkins on a flight of December 20, 1928 photographed what appeared to be an island off the east coast charting it in 66°30′S 62°30′W. Subsequent comparison of Wilkins' photographs of this feature with those taken by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey, who charted the coast in 1947, indicate that this point, although north of the position reported by Wilkins, is the feature named by him as "Foyn Island"; the name Foyn Point is given to the southeast extremity of this feature. It is named for Svend Foyn; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Foyn Point"


Simutrans is a cross-platform simulation game in which the player strives to run a successful transport system by constructing and managing transportation systems for passengers and goods by land and water between places. Like OpenTTD, Simutrans is an open-source transportation game based on the Transport Tycoon idea. Simutrans was written by Hansjörg Malthaner in 1997. Around 2004 he retired from development, an international community of volunteers took over the development. Simutrans was developed internally as a closed source game until 2007, when the software was relicensed under the Artistic License. Simutrans is ported to Microsoft Windows, Linux, BeOS/Haiku, Mac OS X and AmigaOS 4.x which make use of several graphics libraries such as GDI, SDL or Allegro. It is portable to any architecture using one of the aforementioned libraries. Simutrans has multilingual support; the stable release of Simutrans is version 120.2.2 as of April 1, 2017. There is a popular branch of the code called Simutrans-Extended, which aims to extend the basic game.

Simutrans-Extended was called Simutrans-Experimental, but changed its name to Simutrans-Extended on February 13, 2017 to make clear that it is a distinct fork of Simutrans and not a testing branch. Nightly builds for Simutrans and the main PakSets are released for both standard and Extended versions; the main goal in Simutrans is to provide an efficient transport system for passengers and goods to be transported to their desired destinations fast and with minimal transfers and at the same time making the company grow avoiding bankruptcy or administration. Simutrans has a number of factory chains that are interconnected with other chains, for example, a coal mine produces coal for a coal power plant, an oil rig produces oil for an oil power plant; the goods produced by these factories may be distributed to smaller factories or shops, such as gasoline to a gas station, coming from a gas storage facility, which retrieves the gas from an oil refinery, so on. Supplying a factory with electric power will increase the production and allows for fine-tuning the economy.

Passengers and mail are transported between different cities and tourist attractions, may use several methods of transportation to reach their destinations. The Simutrans executable can run many different paksets, a package containing files called paks. Paks are files with graphic and data files that Simutrans uses to determine the objects in the game, it determines things like their resolution and behaviors. Gaming experience is therefore dependent on the PakSet used. Simutrans features 12 AI players, has an online capability similar to OpenTTD since version 110.0. The terrain in Simutrans is freely-modifiable, different layers like tunnels and bridges can be stacked, allowing for subways or highways to be possible, it has different climates and seasons. Nearly all modes of transportation exist in Simutrans. At least buses/trucks and ships are always provided. If defined in the PakSet, monorails and/or maglevs can be used; the Simutrans executable must load a PakSet. Over the years several PakSets have been created, an overview is given on the official page.

Simutrans can be expanded or modified. Simple modification can be done via editing the personal config file. Since the objects in the game just consist of a simple image and a short description file, it is easy to create a house or add a train, thus many contributed. The user can add height maps and citylists which add city names into the game. Deep modifications of the game mechanics are possible via the config file, like a setting to prevent stockpiling at factories or changing the economic model simulation. GameDaily's Big Download considered Simutrans to be one of the best freeware games, highlighting the logical system of routing passengers and freight to their destinations, decent AI opponents and the support for custom aesthetics or rules-sets. However, the sometimes unreliable vehicle pathfinding was criticized with respect to alternate routes and switches for train lines; the sound effects were deemed to be unengaging, new players may be baffled by the range of transportation possibilities.

Another review from Amiga Future came to similar conclusions. In particular the depth of simulation and the stability were highlighted. Between 2007 and June 2017 Simutrans was downloaded from Sourceforge over 5.6 million times. List of open source games OpenTTD Transport Tycoon RollerCoaster Tycoon SimCity SimCity 4: Rush Hour Lincity Simutrans Homepage Simutrans on SourceForge Simutrans Iron Bite on SourceForge Simutrans-Extended on GitHub


An Electric Green Taxiing System is an electric taxiing system which allows aircraft to taxi and pushback without requiring the use of aircraft engines, is designed to reduce fuel volumes used by aircraft and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during ground operations. EGTS technology enables aircraft to avoid using their main engines during taxiing and instead taxi autonomously under their own electrical power, using the Auxiliary Power Unit generator; the system is designed for single-aisle aircraft, such as the Airbus A320 and the Boeing 737. EGTS is an electric taxiing system, used prior to takeoff and can help airlines reduce costs by eliminating the need to use jet engines which are not efficient on the ground, it can reduce foreign object damage and is environmentally friendly as it reduces carbon and other emissions created during the taxiing phase. The main landing gear is equipped with an electric motor powered by the auxiliary power unit which allows the aircraft to push back from the gate and taxi without a tug or its jet engines.

The system is permanently installed on the aircraft. The system can accelerate the aircraft to 20 knots. With electric motors located on each of the main landing gear driving inboard wheels and powered by the APU generator, the EGTS system allows aircraft to push back from the gate without a tug tractor and taxi without the use of the main engines; the Pilot Interface Unit enables the pilot to switch on the EGTS and select the desired taxi speed or push back speed. The EGTS controller receives and converts the pilot's directives into orders to power the electronics; the wheel actuator applies the required torque and speed proportional to the wheel as per the instructions received from the Wheel Actuator Controller Unit. The WACU converts current into instructions to the electrical motor proportional to the pilot's command as delivered by the EGTS controller. Electric taxiing was invented by Delos Aerospace in 2003, patented in 2006. Honeywell and SAFRAN announced their joint venture EGTS International at the Paris Air Show in 2011.

In 2012, easyJet, in collaboration with Honeywell and Safran, announced that it would be the first airline to support the development and trial of the electric green taxiing system. Following the initial phase of ground testing and first move in April 2013, the system was first demonstrated at the Paris Air Show 2013. In June 2013, Air France announced its support of the development of the EGTS taxiing system. In December 2013, Airbus signed a memorandum of understanding with EGTS International to further develop and evaluate EGTS for the A320 Family. In March 2014, Honeywell and Safran signed a Memorandum of Understanding with GoAir to support the advancement of the EGTS taxiing system. GoAir will test the system and supply operational data to have an accurate projection of fuel saving to potential customers. In April 2014, Mexican airline Interjet became the first North American airline to announce its support for the advancement of the EGTS taxiing system,At Farnborough Air Show in July 2016, while the development was successful and customers were interested, Honeywell terminated its joint venture with Safran with low oil prices sapping its market but Safran will continue to work on taxiing systems as system design was completed while its A320 demonstrator had been decommissioned since 2013.

In July 2017, to promote it in China, Safran signed a Memorandum of Understanding with a subsidiary of China Aviation Supplies. Competitor Taxibot is the only operational alternative taxiing system in the market. Competing products in development by WheelTug are different. In 2011, L-3 Communications trialled a similar main landing gear electric taxiing system on an A320 non-flyable demonstrator with Lufthansa Technik and others, proposed to develop the eTaxi system with Crane Aerospace but abandoned its plans in 2013 due to high investment costs. Another competitor is WheelTug. Wheeltug hopes to enter service in 2018 when it hopes to obtain initial certification on the Boeing 737


Gurjar or Gujjar is an ethnic agricultural and pastoral community of India and Afghanistan. They were known as Gurjaras during the medieval times, a name, believed to have been an ethnonym in the beginning as well as a demonym on. Although traditionally they have been involved in agriculture, Gurjars are a large heterogeneous group, internally differentiated in terms of culture, religion and socio-economic status; the historical role of Gurjars has been quite diverse in society, at one end they are founders of several kingdoms, cities and villages, at the other end, they are nomads with no land of their own. The pivotal point in the history of Gurjar identity is traced back to the emergence of a Gurjara kingdom in present-day Rajasthan during medieval times, it is believed that the Gurjars migrated to different parts of the Indian Subcontinent from the Gurjara kingdom. It was believed that the Gurjars did an earlier migration from Central Asia as well, that view is considered to be speculative.

Historical references speak of Gurjara warriors and commoners in North India in the 7th century CE, mention several Gurjara kingdoms and dynasties. The Gurjaras started fading way from the forefront of history after 10th century CE. Thereafter, several Gurjar chieftains and upstart warriors are mentioned in history, who were rather petty rulers in contrast to their predecessors; the modern forms "Gurjar" and "Gujjar" were quite common during the Mughal era, documents dating from the period mention Gurjars as a "turbulent" people. The Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan were known as Gurjaradesa and Gurjaratra for centuries prior to the arrival of the British power; the Gujrat and Gujranwala districts of Pakistani Punjab have been associated with Gujjars from as early as the 8th century CE, when there existed a Gurjara kingdom in the same area. The Saharanpur district of Uttar Pradesh was known as Gujarat due to the presence of many Gujjar zamindars, or land holding farmer class, in the area.

Gurjars are religiously diverse. Although they are able to speak the language of the region and country where they live, Gurjars have their own language, known as Gujari, they variously follow Hinduism and Sikhism. The Hindu Gurjars are found in Indian states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab Plains and Maharashtra, while the Muslim Gujjars are found in Pakistan and Indian Himalayan regions such as Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Garhwal and Kumaon divisions of Uttarakhand; the Gurjars are classified as Other Backward Class in some of UTs. Hindu Gurjars were assimilated into various varnas in the medieval period. Historians and anthropologists differ on the issue of Gurjar origin. According to one view, the ancient ancestors of Gurjars came from central Asia via Georgia from near the Caspian Sea. According to this view, between 1 BCE and 1 CE, the ancient ancestors of Gurjars came in multiple waves of migration and they were accorded status as high-caste warriors in the Hindu fold in the North-Western regions.

Aydogdy Kurbanov states that some Gurjars, along with people from northwestern India, merged with the Hephthalites to become the Rajput clan. According to scholars such as Baij Nath Puri, the Mount Abu region of present-day Rajasthan had been an abode of the Gurjars during the medieval period; the association of the Gurjars with the mountain is noticed in many inscriptions and epigraphs including Tilakamanjari of Dhanpala. These Gurjars migrated from the Arbuda mountain region and as early as in the 6th century A. D. they set up one or more principalities in Gujarat. The whole or a larger part of Rajasthan and Gujarat had been long known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi for centuries prior to the Mughal period. In Sanskrit texts, the ethnonym has sometimes been interpreted as "destroyer of the enemy": gur meaning "enemy" and ujjar meaning "destroyer"). In its survey of The People of India, the Anthropological Survey of India – a government-sponsored organisation – noted that The Gurjars/Gujjars were no doubt a remarkable people spread from Kashmir to Gujarat and Maharashtra, who gave an identity to Gujarat, established kingdoms, entered the Rajput groups as the dominant lineage of Badgujar, survive today as a pastoral and a tribal group with both Hindu and Muslim segments.

Irawati Karve, the Indologist and historian, believed that the Gurjars position in society and the caste system varied from one linguistic area of India to another. In Maharashtra, Karve thought that they were absorbed by the Rajputs and Marathas but retained some of their distinct identity, she based her theories on analysis of clan names and tradition, noting that while most Rajputs claim their origins to lie in the mythological Chandravansh or Suryavansh dynasties, at least two of the communities in the region claimed instead to be descended from the Agnivansh. A 2009 study conducted by Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation, under the supervision of Gurjar scholar Javaid Rahi, claimed that the word "Gojar" has a Central Asian Turkic origin, written in romanized Turkish as Göçer; the study claimed that according to the new research, the Gurjar race "remained one of the most vibrant identity of Central Asia in BC era and

Ben McAdoo

Benjamin Lee McAdoo is an American football coach, the quarterbacks coach for the Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League. He served as the head coach of the New York Giants from 2016 to 2017, after serving as offensive coordinator the previous two years under former head coach Tom Coughlin, he was fired on December 4, 2017 following a 2–10 start, along with benching longtime starting quarterback Eli Manning. Prior to working for the Giants, McAdoo served as an assistant coach for several college football teams, as well as for the New Orleans Saints, the San Francisco 49ers, the Green Bay Packers. McAdoo was born in Pennsylvania, he graduated from Homer-Center Junior/Senior High School in 1995. McAdoo attended Indiana University of Pennsylvania and earned a degree in health and physical education, he received his master's degree in kinesiology from Michigan State University. While attending Indiana University of Pennsylvania, McAdoo began working as an assistant high school coach in his sophomore year of college.

He returned to his alma mater Homer-Center to be an assistant coach for the 1996 and 1997 seasons he was an assistant at Indiana Area High School from 1998 to 1999. McAdoo graduated from IUP summa cum laude in physical education, he became a graduate assistant for the Michigan State Spartans football team under head coach Bobby Williams while pursuing a master's degree in kinesiology at Michigan State University. In the 2001 season, McAdoo earned his first collegiate coaching position as a graduate assistant for special teams and offense. McAdoo was the offensive line and tight ends coach at Fairfield University for the 2002 season, in what would be the final season for the Fairfield Stags football team. In 2003, McAdoo became a graduate assistant at the University of Pittsburgh under head coach Walt Harris and helped the team in the 2003 Continental Tire Bowl. After accepting an assistant coach position at Akron, McAdoo resigned to become offensive quality control coach for the New Orleans Saints in 2004 under head coach Jim Haslett.

McAdoo interviewed with offensive coordinator Mike McCarthy. McAdoo coached tight ends and offensive tackles at Stanford for the 2005 spring camp resigned to be assistant offensive line and quality control coach for the San Francisco 49ers, reuniting with Mike McCarthy. In 2006, McCarthy became head coach for the Green Bay Packers and added McAdoo to his staff as tight ends coach. McAdoo coached tight ends for the Packers until the 2011 season, coached quarterbacks from 2012 to 2013. McAdoo was a member of the coaching staff of the 2010 Packers team that won Super Bowl XLV. In 2014, McAdoo joined Tom Coughlin’s staff as the offensive coordinator for the New York Giants. In his first season as offensive coordinator, the Giants offense improved from the 28th-highest-scoring offense in 2013 under Kevin Gilbride to 13th in 2014. In 2015, the offense took another leap forward, becoming the sixth-highest-scoring offense despite losing starting left tackle Will Beatty, starting wide receiver Victor Cruz, starting tight end Larry Donnell for most of the season due to injury.

On January 14, 2016, McAdoo was named the Giants’ 17th head coach in franchise history. On September 11, 2016, McAdoo won his first game as head coach when the Giants defeated the Dallas Cowboys 20–19; the Giants finished the 2016 season with an 11–5 record under McAdoo, tying the franchise record held by Dan Reeves for most regular season wins by a first year head coach. The Giants returned to the playoffs for the first time since 2011, but lost to the Green Bay Packers 38–13; the Giants' 2017 season was marred by numerous player injuries and other known controversies, which included some players being suspended for team violations, slumping the Giants to an 0–5 start, the first for the team since 2013 before getting a road victory in Week 6 against the Denver Broncos. On November 28, 2017 McAdoo replaced Eli Manning with Geno Smith prior to the Week 13 game against the Oakland Raiders, which ended Manning's 210-consecutive start streak. After losing 24–17 to the Oakland Raiders and sitting at 2–10, McAdoo was fired by the Giants on December 4, 2017, along with general manager Jerry Reese.

On February 11, 2020, McAdoo was hired by the Jacksonville Jaguars as their quarterbacks coach. McAdoo is married to a fellow native of Homer City, they have a daughter and a son