Yerba Buena Center for the Arts
Yerba Buena Center for the Arts is a multi-disciplinary contemporary arts center in San Francisco, United States. Located in Yerba Buena Gardens, YBCA features visual art and film/video that celebrates local and international artists and the Bay Area's diverse communities. YBCA programs year-round in two landmark buildings—the Galleries and Forum by Japanese architect Fumihiko Maki and Theater by American architect James Stewart Polshek and Todd Schliemann. Betti-Sue Hertz served as Curator from 2008 through 2015; the idea of building a conference center, under the name Yerba Buena Center, in downtown San Francisco was a further development of the idea stemming from the late 1950s to redevelop the city center the industrial areas that were falling into disuse. At the heart of the proposal was the vision of the city transforming from an industrial to a tourist-conventioneering city; the idea of the Yerba Buena Center itself first emerged in the early 1960s. At that time there was a concern about.
The South of Market area offered hundreds of acres of flat land at low land prices and to the corporate eye, expendable people and businesses. Various corporate committees were founded to lobby for the redevelopment, which would include high-rise office buildings, a vast parking garage, a sports center. At the center of operations was the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency first headed by Joseph Alioto, who would go on to become mayor of the city in 1968; the area of the development was regarded as a blighted area of the city referred to by local media, local business and city officials as'skid row'. However, the developers did not figure on the persistence of the local community, the vast majority of which were aged, male, ex-industrial workers who lived alone in the many cheap hotels in the area. Together the latter formed the Tenants and Owners in Opposition to Redevelopment, their demand was to be rehoused in the area in low-rent housing. The case went to court where the judge, Stan Weigel, judged in favor of TOOR.
The working-class community were accused of delaying the Yerba Buena project, yet the SFRA had no interest in fulfilling the court order and used both intimidation to remove the community while playing a waiting game on the start of planning any low-cost housing knowing the aged community were dying off. Things only changed with the election of a new city mayor, George Moscone, in 1976, when the entire project was re-reviewed and cut back in its ambitions, leading to the construction of the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts. Yerba Buena Center for the Arts embraces many musical styles. Not only does the center provide a stage for Bay Area instrumental and vocal musicians and ensembles, it offers a taste of stimulating musical practices from all over the world. Along with solo performances, YBCA has invited various musical projects to use its facilities, such as the tribute to composer Elliott Carter in 2008 and the Long Now Foundation in 2010; the connection between these various musical practices is the intent for social change through education provided by another culture or by creating a community around a purpose.
Although month to month there are not many purely musical performances, music is incorporated with other performing arts, such as dance or theater. In addition to being a venue for musical performances, YBCA acts as a non-collecting museum; the various art exhibits YBCA offers emphasize its celebration of both local and world art. For example, in 2008 the art group Royal Art Lodge presented their psychologically surrealist works, challenging the viewer using simple drawings and more pronounced techniques like cutups. YBCA not only holds specific art shows and exhibits, but is aided by various artists in creating particular atmospheres for its spaces. For instance, Instant Coffee, another artist group, designed a lounge room within YBCA for visitors to sit and listen to records with a chic atmosphere, while Space 1026 created YBCA's mural, a showcase of social and physical dimensions; the YBCA museum has two semi-permanent fine arts exhibitions that will stand until the end of 2017. These exhibitions include Tanis Bruguera's "Talking to Power" and Damon Rich and Jae Shin's "Space Brainz."
Dance at YBCA includes various forms from many various cultures. In October 2008, Israeli choreographers Inbal Pinto and Avshalom Pollak presented their production of "Shaker" by combining ballet, modern dance and acrobatic techniques. In addition to more collaborative art forms, YBCA presents more classical forms of dance, such as ballet. Alonzo King held his company LINES Ballet at YBCA in November 2004, which centered on African American field recordings with various forms of music and film playing in the background. YBCA features all types of cinematic endeavors, including documentaries on a variety of subjects, art-house movies and foreign films. For instance, during the 2009 summer season, it showed documentaries dealing with female masochists, industrial design while presenting obscure movie topics, such as its show Winning Isn't Everything: A Tribute to 1970's Sports Film which included the movie The Cheerleaders; the center has been the site for product launches by Apple Inc. including the iPad.
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
The Danforth Campus is the main campus at Washington University in St. Louis. Known as the Hilltop Campus, it was dedicated as the Danforth Campus on September 17, 2006, in honor of William H. Danforth, the 13th Chancellor of the University, the Danforth family and the Danforth Foundation. Distinguished by its collegiate gothic architecture, the 169-acre campus lies at the western boundary of Forest Park in the City of St. Louis. Most of the campus is in a small enclave of unincorporated St. Louis County, while all the campus area south of Forsyth Boulevard is in suburban Clayton. To the north across Forest Park Parkway is University City; the construction of Danforth Campus was accelerated through a profitable lease of several buildings to the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. During the fair, Brookings Hall, Busch Hall, Cupples I & II Halls, Francis Field & Gymnasium, Ridgley Hall, Eads Hall, Prince Hall were used as administrative and exhibition spaces. At the fair's conclusion, the newly constructed buildings assumed their original functions as classrooms and administrative offices.
Additionally, Francis Field and Gymnasium were converted for use by the Washington University athletic department. The landscape design of the Danforth Campus was created in 1895 by Olmsted, Olmsted, & Eliot, a firm best known for designing New York City's Central Park. In 1899, after holding a national design competition, Washington University's administrators selected the Philadelphia firm Cope & Stewardson to design the entire campus. Cope & Stewardson, a firm known for its mastery of Collegiate Gothic, designed Brookings Hall as a centerpiece of a new campus plan; the plan, modeled after the distinctive quadrangles of Oxford and Cambridge Universities, has guided the construction and expansion of the Danforth Campus to the present day. A large portion of the Danforth Campus is recognized as the Washington University Hilltop Campus Historic District, which achieved National Historic Landmark status in 1987. Most of the buildings built between 1902 and the 1950s were designed by Cope & Stewardson and Jamieson and Spearl.
James P. Jamieson was the chief architect for those built before 1940. Adolphus Busch Hall - Named for Adolphus Busch, co-founder of Anheuser-Busch, the building was the first to go under construction on the Danforth Campus, its cornerstone being laid in 1900. Busch Hall served as the Chemistry Building from 1902 until 1950, it was remodeled into a humanities building, which it serves as today. Busch Hall was renovated and reopened June 15, 2009. Beaumont Pavilion - An outdoor stage that sits in front of Cupples I, it was named after Louis D. Beaumont; the stage is used for annual commencement ceremonies, the semesterly W. I. L. D. Concert, as well as other outdoor theater productions and concerts. Brookings Hall - The hallmark of Washington University. Named after Robert S. Brookings, it was completed in 1902 and served as the administrative center for the 1904 World's Fair. Today, it serves as the University's administrative center. South Brookings houses the Admissions Office and the Administrative offices for the College of Arts and Sciences.
North Brookings houses the office of Student Financial Services, the office of the Chancellor, the graduate school of Arts and Sciences. Busch Laboratory - Completed in 1959, the lab was built as an extension of Rebstock Hall, it is only 11,000 square feet and three stories high, helping to house the Biology Department. Compton Laboratory of Physics - A 65,000-square-foot, 5 level structure, the Compton Lab was dedicated in 1966, it house the department of the Physics Library. Crow Hall - Dedicated in 1934, it is named for Wayman Crow, a founding member of the University; the building is not subject to the Earth's natural vibrations and contains a shaft that expands the full height of the building. It houses the department of physics, as well as the historic Crow Observatory. Cupples I Hall - This is the first building donate to the University by Samuel Cupples in 1900, it houses the math department Duncker Hall - Dedicated in 1923, Duncker Hall housed the School of Commerce and Finance. It is one of the three buildings to.
Duncker Hall now houses the English Department. Eads Hall - This building was the site of the experimental work that Arthur Holly Compton conducted to win the Nobel Prize in 1927, it went through an extensive renovation in 1998 and today houses the Arts and Sciences Computing Center, the Language and Instructional Media Center, the Teaching Center, the Writing Center. Earth and Planetary Sciences Building - Dedicated in 2004, this building is the new home of the Earth and Planetary Sciences Department. Eliot Hall - A concrete building, dedicated in April 1974. Eliot Hall houses the departments of History and Religious Studies, along with the Richard A. Gephardt Institute for Public Service. Goldfarb Plant Growth Facility - Completed in 1988, the facility expands the Biology Department, it contains office and labs space for biology students and professors, as well as a equipped greenhouse for experimental plant growth and research. January Hall - Completed in the mid-1920s, January housed the School of Law until the early 70s.
It contains an elegant wooden-paneled room. Today, January houses the Department of Classics, the Office of the University College, the Religious Studies Committee and the Arts and Sciences Summer School Office. Laboratory Sciences Building - Dedicated
Kenzō Tange was a Japanese architect, winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for architecture. He was one of the most significant architects of the 20th century, combining traditional Japanese styles with modernism, designed major buildings on five continents. Tange was an influential patron of the Metabolist movement, he said: "It was, I believe, around 1959 or at the beginning of the sixties that I began to think about what I was to call structuralism", a reference to the architectural movement known as Dutch Structuralism. Influenced from an early age by the Swiss modernist, Le Corbusier, Tange gained international recognition in 1949 when he won the competition for the design of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, he was a member of CIAM in the 1950s. He did not join the group of younger CIAM architects known as Team X, though his 1960 Tokyo Bay plan was influential for Team 10 in the 1960s, as well as the group that became Metabolism, his university studies on urbanism put him in an ideal position to handle redevelopment projects after the Second World War.
His ideas were explored in designs for Skopje. Tange's work influenced a generation of architects across the world. Born on 4 September 1913 in Osaka, Tange spent his early life in the Chinese cities of Hankow and Shanghai. In contrast to the green lawns and red bricks in their Shanghai abode, the Tange family took up residence in a thatched roof farmhouse in Imabari on the island of Shikoku. After finishing middle school, Tange moved to Hiroshima in 1930 to attend high school, it was here that he first encountered the works of Le Corbusier. His discovery of the drawings of the Palace of the Soviets in a foreign art journal convinced him to become an architect. Although he graduated from high school, Tange's poor results in mathematics and physics meant that he had to pass entrance exams to qualify for admission to the prestigious universities, he spent two years doing so and during that time, he read extensively about western philosophy. Tange enrolled in the film division at Nihon University's art department to dodge Japan's drafting of young men to its military and attended classes.
In 1935 Tange began the tertiary studies he desired at University of Tokyo's architecture department. He studied under Shozo Uchida. Although Tange was fascinated by the photographs of Katsura villa that sat on Kishida's desk, his work was inspired by Le Corbusier, his graduation project was a seventeen-hectare development set in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. After graduating from the university, Tange started to work as an architect at the office of Kunio Maekawa. During his employment, he travelled to Manchuria, participating in an architectural design competition for a bank, toured Japanese-occupied Jehol on his return; when the Second World War started, he left Maekawa to rejoin the University of Tokyo as a postgraduate student. He developed an interest in urban design, referencing only the resources available in the university library, he embarked on a study of Greek and Roman marketplaces. In 1942, Tange entered a competition for the design of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall.
He was awarded first prize for a design. The design was not realised. In 1946, Tange opened Tange Laboratory. In 1963, he was promoted to professor of the Department of Urban Engineering, his students included Kisho Kurokawa, Arata Isozaki, Hajime Yatsuka and Fumihiko Maki. Tange's interest in urban studies put him in a good position to handle post war reconstruction. In the summer of 1946 he was invited by the War Damage Rehabilitation Board to put forward a proposal for certain war damaged cities, he submitted plans for Maebashi. His design for an airport in Kanon, Hiroshima was accepted and built, but a seaside park in Ujina was not; the Hiroshima authorities took advice about the city's reconstruction from foreign consultants, in 1947 Tam Deling, an American park planner, suggested they build a Peace Memorial and preserve buildings situated near ground zero, that point directly below the explosion of the atomic bomb. In 1949 the authorities enacted the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Reconstruction Act, which gave the city access to special grant aid, in August 1949, an international competition was announced for the design of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park.
Tange was awarded first prize for a design that proposed a museum whose axis runs through the park, intersecting Peace Boulevard and the atomic bomb dome. The building is raised on massive columns; the Centro Direzionale is a service center in Italy. The district is devoted to business; the project of the Centro Direzionale dates back to 1964. It was designed in 1982 by Tange; the layout includes 18 blocks of buildings, with high-rises up to 100 meters. There are office buildings as well as residential flats; the Center is meant to accommodate most, if not all, of the administrative offices of the city of Naples, such as the new Hall of Justice. It includes a pedestrian zone at ground level with shops and hotels. There is an underground parking facility with escalators running up into the middle of the large pedestrian concourse, an area adorned with fountains, greenery and a church; the Centro Direzionale is home to the tallest building in souther
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County and part of the Boston metropolitan area. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College, a college for women until it merged with Harvard on October 1, 1999. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162; as of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester and Lowell. Cambridge was one of two seats of Middlesex County until the county government was abolished in Massachusetts in 1997. In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers.
The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was referred to as "the newe towne". Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, as Newtowne by 1638. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop, its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony. The original village site is now within Harvard Square; the marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets; the town comprised a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village in 1688, Cambridge Farms in 1712 or 1713, Little or South Cambridge and Menotomy or West Cambridge in 1807.
In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected. In 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court for its proximity to the popular and respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638, The settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Newtowne's ministers and Shepard, the college's first president, major benefactor, the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College. Cambridge grew as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the colony's capital.
By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates and trade, lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown". Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775, now reckoned the birthplace of the U. S. Army. Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel eight miles through the Boston Neck and Brookline to cross the Charles River.
A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, it was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes—were popular and influential in their day. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike, the Middlesex Turnpike, what are today's Cambridge and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the rural parts of Charlestown. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846 despite persistent tensions between East Cambridge and Old Cambridge stemming from differences in culture, sources of income, the national origins of the resident
TV Asahi Corporation known as EX and Tele-Asa, is a Japanese television network with its headquarters in Roppongi, Tokyo, Japan. The company owns All-Nippon News Network. In 2003, the company headquarters moved to a new building designed by Fumihiko Maki; the address is: 6-9-1 Roppongi, Tokyo, Japan. Some of TV Asahi's departments and subsidiaries such as TV Asahi Productions and Take Systems are still located at TV Asahi Center, TV Asahi's former headquarters between 1986 and 2003, it is located at Ark Hills, not far from its headquarters. TV Asahi began as "Nihon Educational Television Co. Ltd." on November 1, 1957. It was established as a for-profit educational television channel. At the time, its broadcasting license dictates that the network is required to devote at least 50% of its airtime to educational programming, at least 30% of its airtime to children's educational programming; the station was owned by Asahi Shimbun, Toei Company, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Obunsha. However, the for-profit educational television model proved to be a failure.
In 1960, NET began its transformation into a general-purpose television station. It began to broadcast foreign movies. So as not to run afoul of the educational TV license requirements, NET justified the airing of these programs under the pretext of "nurturing a child's emotional range" and "introduction of foreign cultures". At the same time, NET changed its common name from "Nihon Educational Television" to "NET TV". Seven years in 1967, NET aired its first colour broadcast programme. Part of its transformation into a general TV channel would be the April 1971 premiere of the Kamen Rider Series by the Toei Company and creator Shotaro Ishinomori, the tokusatsu superhero series that would make the channel a national hit, it has been its home since, joined by yet another toku series, Super Sentai, in the spring of 1975. Aside from these two live action programs, which would become part of its flagship programming, due in part by the work done by Toei's animation branch, the 70s were marked on NET with great animation classics of national fame, which aired one after the other in the channel and were exported to other countries, many of these would be part of daily life and culture and helped introduce the world to the anime genre.
Such animations put the channel in direct competition with other stations which broadcast similar programming. NET's transformation into a general-purpose television station was complete by November 1973, when NET, along with educational channel "Tokyo Channel 12" in Tokyo applied and received a general purpose television station license. At the same time, NET renamed itself as NET General Television, which subsequently became the "Asahi National Broadcasting Company, Limited" on April 1, 1977. Five years TV Asahi became the official network, until 1999, for yet another Toei live action franchise, the Metal Hero Series. In 1996, TV Asahi established the All-Nippon News Network, began a number of reforms, including the unification of all presentation styles on its regional networks and the creation of a new logo to give Asahi the look and feel of a national television network. On October 1, 2003, TV Asahi moved its head office from its Ark Hills Studio to Roppongi Hills, the station was renamed "TV Asahi Corporation", with the name presented as "tv asahi" on-screen.
The transmission of international aquatics competitions, World Cup football matches, creation of popular late-night TV programs contributed to a rise in ratings for TV Asahi, lifted the TV station from its popularly ridiculed "perpetual fourth place" finish into second place, right behind Fuji TV, by 2005. The station launched its own mascot, Gō EX Panda known as Gō-chan Gō-chan is seen on TV Asahi's opening sign-on ID. TV Asahi's current branding were created by UK design collective Tomato along with TV Asahi's in-house design department in 2003, it comprises a set of computer-generated "sticks" in white background, which changes in colour and movement along with the background music that accompanies the idents. TV Asahi uses a brief eyecatch of its sticks animation at the top-left of the screen after commercial breaks; the background music used for TV Asahi's sign-on and sign-off videos are Underworld's Born Slippy. NUXX 2003 and Rez. TV Asahi updated its sign-on and sign-off video in 2008 with a revised version of computer-generated "sticks" animation and new background music.
TV Asahi's slogan New Air, On Air appears at the top of its name. It can be seen on TV Asahi's YouTube channel, which in 2011-12, was replaced by Go-Chan; the company writes its name in tv asahi, in its logo and public-image materials. The station branding on-screen appears as either "/tv asahi" or "tv asahi\"; the station's watermark appearance is the stick at the top with the station's name at the bottom. The fonts used by TV Asahi for the written parts are Akzidenz Grotesk Bold and Hiragino Kaku Gothic W8. Since 2004, the funding of this station is through sponsorship. JOEX-TV – TV Asahi Analog Television Tokyo Tower – VHF Channel 10Tokyo Hachiōji – Ch
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized