New England town
The New England town is the basic unit of local government and local division of state authority in each of the six New England states. Without a direct counterpart in most other U. S, New England towns are often governed by a town meeting legislative body. County government in New England states is typically weak at best, for example, has no county governments, nor does Rhode Island. Both of those states retain counties only as geographic subdivisions with no governmental authority, with few exceptions, counties serve mostly as dividing lines for the states judicial systems. Towns are laid out so that all land within the boundaries of a state is allocated to a town or other corporate municipality. Except in some sparsely populated areas of the three northern New England states, all land is incorporated into the bounds of a municipal corporations territory. Towns are municipal corporations, with their powers defined by a combination of municipal charter, state statutes. In most of New England, the laws regarding their authority have historically been very broadly construed.
In practice, most New England towns have significant autonomy in managing their own affairs, New Hampshire and Vermont follow Dillons Rule, which holds that local governments are largely creatures of the state. Traditionally, a legislative body is the open town meeting. Only several Swiss cantons with Landsgemeinde remain as democratic as the small New England town meetings, a town almost always contains a built-up populated place with the same name as the town. Additional built-up places with different names are found within towns, along with a mixture of additional urban. There is no territory that is not part of a town between each town, leaving one town means entering another town or other municipality, in most parts of New England, towns are irregular in shape and size and are not laid out on a grid. The town center contains a town common, often used today as a small park. In Connecticut, Rhode Island and most of Massachusetts, county government has been completely abolished, in other areas, some counties provide judicial and other limited administrative services.
In many cases, the numbers on rural roads in New England reset to zero upon crossing a town line. Residents usually identify with their town for purposes of identity, thinking of the town in its entirety as a single. There are some cases where residents identify more strongly with villages or sections of a town than with the town itself, particularly in Rhode Island, more than 90% of the municipalities in the six New England states are towns
Connecticut Supreme Court
The Connecticut Supreme Court, formerly known as the Connecticut Supreme Court of Errors, is the highest court in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It consists of a Chief Justice and six Associate Justices, the seven justices sit in Hartford, across the street from the Connecticut State Capitol. It generally holds eight sessions of two to three weeks per year, with one session each September through November and January through May, Justices are appointed by the governor and approved by the Connecticut General Assembly. They may continue to hear cases as Judge Trial Referees in the Superior Court or the Appellate Court, Justices may assume Senior Status before attaining age 70 and continue to sit with the Supreme Court, as needed. Multiple Justices have availed themselves of this option, for example, Justice Ellen Ash Peters took Senior Status in 1996, continuing to sit until 2000 and Justice Angelo Santaniello assumed senior status in 1987 and continued to sit as needed until 1994. Justice Armentano assumed Senior Status in 1983 but continued to sit with the Court as needed, Chief Justice Callahan assumed senior status in 1999 but served for approximately another year as a Senior Justice.
Chief Justice Sullivan assumed senior status in 2006 but continued to sit until 2009, Justice Vertefeuille assumed senior status in 2010 but has remained active with the Court. In the event of a recusal or absence, a Judge of the Appellate or Superior Court may be called to sit with the Supreme Court, Judge Francis X. Hennessy frequently served by designation on the Court. Notable former justices include, Anthony J. Armentano, Served as lieutenant governor, raymond E. Baldwin, Only person to serve as Governor of Connecticut and Chief Justice. Still active as a Judge Trial Referee in New Haven, joseph W. Bogdanski - Modernized Connecticut jurisprudence, an outspoken dissenter like Robert Berdon, served briefly as Chief Justice, part of the majority in Horton v. Messkill. Anthony Grillo After nearly 20 prolific years as a Trial Judge, capped off his career on the Supreme Court and wrote 56 opinions, Robert Glass, First African-American named to the Supreme Court, the Waterbury Juvenile Matters Courthouse is now named for him.
Lubbie Harper, Jr. Komisarjevsky, and State v. Santiago, capped off his 15-year career as a member of the Supreme Court. Still active as a Judge Trial Referee designated to the Appellate Court, Arthur Healey, Also served with Ellen Ash Peters and David Shea and innovated State Constitutional Law, former Chief Judge of the Superior Court before the major judicial reorganization of 1978. T. Clark Hull, Former State Senator and Lieutenant Governor, Joette Katz, Retired from the court to serve as the Commissioner of the Department of Children and Families of Connecticut C. Ian McLachlan, Retired from the court and entered private practice, William M. Maltbie Francis M. McDonald, Jr. Still active as a Judge Trial Referee and sitting with the Appellate Court, Ellen Ash Peters First woman to serve on the court, innovated Connecticut Constitutional Law. Still active as a Judge Trial Referee, leo Parskey, Scholar who served with Ellen Ash Peters, Arthur Healey, and David Shea. Tapping Reeve, Succeeded Stephen Mix Mitchell, founded Litchfield Law School, Angelo Santaniello Innovated the Pre-Argument Conference program for settling appeals before oral arguments, ran the Supreme Court on Circuit program taking the Court throughout Connecticut
Puritanism in this sense was founded as an activist movement within the Church of England. The founders, clergy exiled under Mary I, returned to England shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, Puritanism played a significant role in English history during the first half of the 17th century. One of the most effective stokers of anti-Catholic feeling was John Pym, Puritans were blocked from changing the established church from within and were severely restricted in England by laws controlling the practice of religion. They took on distinctive beliefs about clerical dress and in opposition to the episcopal system and they largely adopted Sabbatarianism in the 17th century, and were influenced by millennialism. Consequently, they became a political force in England and came to power as a result of the First English Civil War. Almost all Puritan clergy left the Church of England after the Restoration of 1660, the nature of the movement in England changed radically, although it retained its character for a much longer period in New England.
Puritans by definition were dissatisfied with the extent of the English Reformation. They formed and identified with various groups advocating greater purity of worship and doctrine, as well as personal. Puritans adopted a Reformed theology and, in sense, were Calvinists. In church polity, some advocated separation from all other established Christian denominations in favor of autonomous gathered churches. The Puritans were never a formally defined sect or religious division within Protestantism, the Congregationalist tradition, widely considered to be a part of the Reformed tradition, claims descent from the Puritans. Historically, the word Puritan was considered a term that characterized Protestant groups as extremists. According to Thomas Fuller in his Church History, the dates to 1564. Archbishop Matthew Parker of that used it and precisian with the sense of the modern stickler. In modern times, the word puritan is often used to mean against pleasure, in this sense, the term Puritan was coined in the 1560s, when it first appeared as a term of abuse for those who found the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559 inadequate.
The term Puritan, was not intended to refer to strict morality, a common modern misunderstanding, the word Puritan was applied unevenly to a number of Protestant churches from the late 16th century onwards. Puritans did not originally use the term for themselves, the practitioners knew themselves as members of particular churches or movements, and not by a single term. Precise men and Precisians were other early derogatory terms for Puritans, seventeenth century English Puritan preacher Thomas Watson used the godly to describe Puritans in the title of one of his more famous works The Godly Mans Picture
Wethersfield is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, USA, immediately south of Hartford along the Connecticut River. Many records from colonial times spell the name Weathersfield, while Native Americans called it Pyquag, the towns motto is Ye Most Auncient Towne in Connecticut, and its population was 26,668 in the 2010 census. The town is served by Interstate 91. The neighborhood known as Old Wethersfield is the states largest historic district, along with Windsor and Hartford, Wethersfield is represented by one of the three grapevines on the Flag of Connecticut, signifying the states three oldest European settlements. The town took its name from Wethersfield, a village in the English county of Essex, during the Pequot War, on April 23,1637, Wongunk chief Sequin attacked Wethersfield with Pequot help. They killed six men and three women, a number of cattle and horses, and took two young girls captive and they were daughters of Abraham Swain or William Swaine and were ransomed by Dutch traders.
Four witch trials and three executions for witchcraft occurred in the town in the 17th century, mary Johnson was convicted of witchcraft and executed in 1648, Joan and John Carrington in 1651. Landowner Katherine Harrison was convicted, and although her conviction was reversed, she was banished, silas Deane, commissioner to France during the American Revolutionary War, lived in the town. His house is now part of the Webb-Deane-Stevens Museum, Wethersfield was for a century at least, the centre of the onion trade in New England, during the late 1700s and early to middle 1800s. Outsiders dubbed the Connecticut village Oniontown, with a crosshatch of affection and derision, in addition, the town was home to William G. Comstock, a well-known 19th century gardening expert and author of the eras most prominent gardening book, Order of Spring Work. Other nationally prominent seed companies in and around the town are the offspring of this agricultural past, a meteorite fell on Wethersfield on November 8,1982.
It was the meteorite to fall in the town in the span of 11 years. The 1971 meteorite was sold to the Smithsonian, and the 1982 meteorite was taken up as part of a collection at the Yale Peabody Museum, Wethersfield is located at 41°4243 North, 72°3948 West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 13.1 square miles, of which 12.3 square miles is land and 0.81 square miles. Wethersfield is bordered by Hartford on the north, Rocky Hill on the south, Newington on the west, as of the 2000 census, there were 26,268 people,11,214 households, and 7,412 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,119.9 people per square mile, there were 11,454 housing units at an average density of 924.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93. 19% White,2. 09% Black or African American,0. 08% Native American,1. 58% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,1. 82% from other races, and 1. 22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4. 19% of the population,30. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15. 9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older
Hartford is the capital of the U. S. state of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960, as of the 2010 Census, Hartfords population was 124,775, making it Connecticuts third-largest city after the coastal cities of Bridgeport and New Haven. Census Bureau estimates since have indicated Hartfords subsequent fall to fourth place statewide as a result of sustained growth in the coastal city of Stamford. Nicknamed the Insurance Capital of the World, Hartford houses many insurance company headquarters, founded in 1635, Hartford is among the oldest cities in the United States. In 1868, resident Mark Twain wrote, Of all the towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief. Following the American Civil War, Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades, Hartford is one of the poorest cities in the nation with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty line. In sharp contrast, the Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production, various tribes, all part of the loose Algonquin confederation, lived in or around present-day Hartford.
The area was referred to as Suckiaug, meaning Black Fertile River-Enhanced Earth, the first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch, under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614. Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam returned in 1623 with a mission to establish a trading post, the original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood. This fort was called Fort Hoop, or the House of Hope, in 1633, Jacob Van Curler formally bought the land around Fort Hoop from the Pequot chief for a small sum. It was home to perhaps a couple families and a few dozen soldiers, the area today is known as Dutch Point, and the name of the Dutch fort, House of Hope, is reflected in the name of Huyshope Avenue. The fort was abandoned by 1654, but its neighborhood in Hartford is still known as Dutch Point, the Dutch outpost, and the tiny contingent of Dutch soldiers that were stationed there, did little to check the English migration.
The Dutch soon realized they were vastly outnumbered, the House of Hope remained an outpost, but it was steadily swallowed up by waves of English settlers. The English began to arrive 1637, settling upstream from Fort Hoop near the present-day Downtown, the settlement was originally called Newtown, but was changed to Hartford in 1637 in honor of Stones hometown of Hertford, England. Hooker created the town of Windsor. The etymology of Hartford is the ford where harts cross, the Seal of the City of Hartford features a male deer, which in full maturity was referred to by the medieval hunting term hart. The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River had issues with the authority by which it was to be governed because it was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colonys charter. Historians suggest that Hookers conception of self-rule embodied in the Fundamental Orders went on to inspire the Connecticut Constitution, one of Connecticuts nicknames is the Constitution State
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i. e. constitute, some constitutions are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from states to companies. A treaty which establishes an international organization is its constitution, within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom. Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions, act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a states rulers cannot cross, the term constitution comes through French from the Latin word constitutio, used for regulations and orders, such as the imperial enactments. Later, the term was used in canon law for an important determination, especially a decree issued by the Pope. The Latin term ultra vires describes activities of officials within an organization or polity that fall outside the constitutional or statutory authority of those officials.
Ultra vires gives a justification for the forced cessation of such action. A violation of rights by an official would be ultra vires because a right is a restriction on the powers of government, and therefore that official would be exercising powers they do not have. It was never law, even though, if it had been a statute or statutory provision, in such a case, only the application may be ruled unconstitutional. Historically, the remedy for such violations have been petitions for common law writs, excavations in modern-day Iraq by Ernest de Sarzec in 1877 found evidence of the earliest known code of justice, issued by the Sumerian king Urukagina of Lagash ca 2300 BC. Perhaps the earliest prototype for a law of government, this document itself has not yet been discovered, for example, it is known that it relieved tax for widows and orphans, and protected the poor from the usury of the rich. After that, many governments ruled by codes of written laws. The oldest such document still known to exist seems to be the Code of Ur-Nammu of Ur, some of the better-known ancient law codes include the code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, the code of Hammurabi of Babylonia, the Hittite code, the Assyrian code and Mosaic law.
In 621 BC a scribe named Draco codified the cruel oral laws of the city-state of Athens, in 594 BC Solon, the ruler of Athens, created the new Solonian Constitution. It eased the burden of the workers, and determined that membership of the class was to be based on wealth. Cleisthenes again reformed the Athenian constitution and set it on a footing in 508 BC. The most basic definition he used to describe a constitution in general terms was the arrangement of the offices in a state
Massachusetts General Court
The Massachusetts General Court is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The name General Court is a hold-over from the earliest days of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, before the adoption of the state constitution in 1780, it was called the Great and General Court, but the official title was shortened by John Adams, author of the state constitution. The upper house is the Massachusetts Senate which is composed of 40 members, the lower body, the Massachusetts House of Representatives, has 160 members. It meets in the Massachusetts State House on Beacon Hill in Boston, the current President of the Senate is Stan Rosenberg, and the Speaker of the House is Robert DeLeo. Democrats hold super-majorities in both chambers, State Senators and Representatives both serve two-year terms. Each Representative represents about 40,000 residents, Representative districts are named for the primary county in which they are located, and tend to stay within one county, although some districts contain portions of adjacent counties.
The current composition of the House is 126 Democrats and 34 Republicans, there are 40 senatorial districts in Massachusetts, named for the counties in which they are located. The current composition of the Senate is 34 Democrats and 6 Republicans, the General Court is responsible for enacting laws in the state. The two legislative branches work concurrently on pending laws brought before them, lawmaking begins in the House or Senate Clerks office where petitions and resolves are filed and recorded in a docket book. The clerks number the bills and assign them to appropriate joint committees, there are 26 of these committees, each responsible for studying the bills which pertain to a specific area. Each committee is composed of six senators and eleven representatives, the standing committees schedule public hearings for the individual bills, which afford citizens and lobbyists the opportunity to express their views. Note that the public may still observe executive sessions, but may not participate in these meetings, the committee issues its report, recommending that a bill ought to pass or ought not to pass and the report is submitted to the Clerks office.
The first reading of a favorably reported bill is automatic and occurs when the report appears in the Journal of the House or Senate Clerk. If a bill affects the finances of the Commonwealth, it is referred to the Senate or House Committee on Ways, if it affects county finances, the bill is read and referred to the Committee on Counties of the House. Adverse reports are referred to the Committee on Steering and Policy in the Senate or placed without debate in the Orders of the Day for the session of the House. Acceptance by either branch of a report is considered the final rejection. However, a report can be overturned. After a bill takes its second reading, it is open to debate on amendments and motions
Windsor is a town in Hartford County, United States, and was the first English settlement in the state. It lies on the border of Connecticuts capital, Hartford. The population of Windsor was 29,044 at the 2010 census, Poquonock /pəˈkwɒnək/ is a northern area of Windsor that has its own zip code for post-office box purposes. Other unincorporated areas in Windsor include Rainbow and Hayden Station in the north, the coastal areas and riverways were traditional areas of settlement by various cultures of indigenous peoples, who had been in the region for thousands of years. They relied on the rivers for fishing and transportation, before European contact, the historic Pequot and Mohegan tribes had been one Algonquian-speaking people. After they separated, they became competitors and traditional enemies in the Connecticut region, during the first part of the 17th century, the Pequot and Mohegan nations had been at war. The Podunk were forced to pay tribute to the more powerful Pequot, the Podunk invited a small party of settlers from Plymouth, Massachusetts, to settle as a mediating force between the other tribes.
In exchange they granted them a plot of land at the confluence of the Farmington River, after Edward Winslow came from Plymouth to inspect the land, William Holmes led a small party, arriving at the site on September 26,1633, where they founded a trading post. Native Americans referred to the area as Matianuck, in 1634, a party of around 30 people, sponsored by Sir Richard Saltonstall, and led by the Stiles brothers, Francis and Henry, settled in the Windsor area. Governor John Winthrop of the Massachusetts Bay Company acknowledged in a letter to Saltonstall that the Stiles party was the group to settle Connecticut. In 1635,60 or more people, led by the Reverends John Maverick and John Warham, having trekked overland from Dorchester and they had arrived in the New World five years earlier on the ship Mary and John from Plymouth and settled in Dorchester. Reverend Warham promptly renamed the Connecticut settlement Dorchester, during the next few years, more settlers arrived from Dorchester and soon displacing the original Plymouth contingent, who mostly returned to Plymouth.
In 1637, the colonys General Court changed the name of the settlement from Dorchester to Windsor, named after the town of Windsor, Berkshire, on the River Thames in England. Several towns that border Windsor were once entirely or partially part of Windsor, including Windsor Locks, South Windsor, East Windsor, the first highway in the Connecticut Colony opened in 1638 between Windsor and Hartford. In 1648, an event took place that would change the boundaries of the Connecticut River Valley. During a grain famine, the founder of Springfield, William Pynchon, was given authority by Windsor, the natives refused to sell grain at the usual market price, and refused to sell it at a reasonable price. Pynchon refused to buy it, attempting to teach the natives a peaceful lesson about integrity and reliability, Windsors cattle were starving and the citizens of Hartford were furious. The natives capitulated and ultimately sold their grain, after negotiating the trade, Mason refused to share the grain with Springfield, and, to add further insult, insisted that Springfield pay a tax when sailing ships passed Windsor
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections. The right to run for office is sometimes called candidate eligibility, in many languages, the right to vote is called the active right to vote and the right to run for office is called the passive right to vote. In English, these are called active suffrage and passive suffrage. Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives, suffrage applies equally to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage describes not only the right to vote, but the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally by elected or non-elected representatives, in most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may be available, for example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. The United States federal government does not offer any initiatives at all, Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens once they have reached the voting age.
What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the governments decision, resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of closely linked countries. The word suffrage comes from Latin suffragium, meaning vote, political support, and the right to vote. The etymology of the Latin word is uncertain, with sources citing Latin suffragari lend support, vote for someone, from sub under + fragor crash, shouts. Other sources say that attempts to connect suffragium with fragor cannot be taken seriously, some etymologists think the word may be related to suffrago and may have originally meant an ankle bone or knuckle bone. Universal suffrage consists of the right to vote without restriction due to sex, social status, education level, or wealth. It typically does not extend the right to vote to all residents of a region, distinctions are made in regard to citizenship, age. The short-lived Corsican Republic was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage to all citizens over the age of 25 and this was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republic of Franceville.
The 1840 constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii granted universal suffrage to all male and female adults, so Finland was the first country in the world to give all citizens full suffrage, in other words the right to vote and to run for office. New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all citizens the right to vote, Womens suffrage is, by definition, the right of women to vote. This was the goal of the suffragists in the United States, short-lived suffrage equity was drafted into provisions of the State of New Jerseys first,1776 Constitution, which extended the Right to Vote to unwed female landholders & black land owners
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate. They were, and are still, used to establish significant organisations such as cities or universities, Charters should be distinguished from warrants and letters of appointment, as they have perpetual effect. Typically, a Royal Charter is produced as a high-quality work of calligraphy on vellum, the British monarchy has issued over 980 royal charters. Of these about 750 remain in existence, the earliest was to the town of Tain in 1066, making it the oldest Royal Burgh in Scotland, followed by the University of Cambridge in 1231. Charters continue to be issued by the British Crown, a recent example being that awarded to the Chartered Institute for the Management of Sport and Physical Activity, Charters have been used in Europe since medieval times to create cities. The date that such a charter is granted is considered to be when a city is founded, at one time, a royal charter was the sole means by which an incorporated body could be formed, but other means are generally used nowadays instead.
In the period before 1958,32 higher education institutes had been created by royal charter and these were typically engineering or technical institutions rather than universities. Royal decrees can therefore no longer grant higher education status or university status. A Royal Charter is granted by Order in Council, either creating an incorporated body and this is an exercise of the Royal Prerogative, and, in Canada, there are hundreds of organisations under Royal Charters. Such organisations include charities, colleges, today, it is mostly charities and professional institutions who receive Royal Charters. Application for a charter is a petition to the Queen-in-Council, meeting these benchmarks does not guarantee the issuance of a Royal Charter. Companies and societies in Canada founded under or augmented by a Royal Charter include, Royal Charter was issued in August 1826 to purchase and develop lands. Purchased the Crown Reserve of 1,384,413 acres, cities under Royal Charter are not subject to municipal Acts of Parliament applied generally to other municipalities, and instead are governed by legislation applicable to each city individually.
The Royal Charter codifies the laws applied to the particular city, the Universitys Pontifical Charter was granted by Pope Leo XIII in 1889. Several Canadian private schools were founded or reconstituted under Royal Charter, the Royal Gibraltar Post Office was granted Royal Charter in 2005. The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club obtained Royal Charter in 1959 and it is one of the three banknote-issuing banks in Hong Kong. The Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch Chartered originally in 1847, disbanded 1859, the Institution of Engineers was incorporated by royal charter in 1935. A number of Irish institutions retain the Royal prefix, even though Republic of Ireland severed all remaining connections between the state and the British monarch in 1949, the University of South Africa received a Royal Charter in 1877
John Winthrop the Younger
John Winthrop the Younger was governor of Connecticut. Winthrop was born in Groton, the son of John Winthrop, founding governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was educated at the Bury St. Edmunds grammar school, King Edward VI School, and Trinity College, and he studied law for a short time after 1624 at the Inner Temple, London. He accompanied the expedition of the Duke of Buckingham for the relief of the Protestants of La Rochelle, and travelled in Italy. In 1631, he followed his father to Massachusetts Bay and was one of the assistants of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635,1640, and 1641 and from 1644 to 1649. He lived for a time in Massachusetts, where he devoted himself to the study of science and he was again in England in 1641–1643 and, on his return, established iron works at Lynn and Braintree, Massachusetts. In 1645, he obtained a title to lands in southeastern Connecticut and founded what is now New London in 1646 and he built a grist mill in the town and was granted a monopoly on the trade for as long as he or his heirs maintained the mill.
This was one of the first monopolies granted in New England and he became one of the magistrates of the Connecticut Colony in 1651, was governor of the colony in 1657–1658, and again became governor in 1659, being annually re-elected until his death. During his tenure as Governor of Connecticut, he oversaw the acceptance of Quakers who were banned from Massachusetts, in 1662, he obtained the charter in England by which the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven were united. Besides being Governor of Connecticut, he was one of the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England in 1675. While in England, he was elected as a Fellow of the newly organized Royal Society and he died on 6 April 1676 in Boston, where he had gone to attend a meeting of the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England. Winthrop contributed two papers to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, of which he was a Fellow, Some Natural Curiosities from New England and Description and Use of Maize.
His correspondence with the Royal Society was published in series I, winthrops second wife was Elizabeth Reade. Their eldest son Fitz-John Winthrop served as major-general in the army, an agent in London for Connecticut, married Ann Dudley, daughter of Joseph Dudley and granddaughter of Thomas Dudley, both governors of Massachusetts. This was one of a number of unions between the two families and Anns daughter Katharine Winthrop first married Samuel Browne of Salem, Epes Sargent of Gloucester. Her eldest child by Sargent was Paul Dudley Sargent, a colonel in the American War of Independence, daughter Mary Winthrop married Gurdon Saltonstall, Jr. son of Governor of Connecticut Gurdon Saltonstall of the Massachusetts Nathaniel Saltonstall family. Gurdon and Mary were the parents of Dudley Saltonstall, a Revolutionary War naval commander most notable for his involvement in the ill-fated Penobscot Expedition, Epes Sargent of Gloucester and his Descendants. A sketch of the life of John Winthrop, the Younger and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.