GAZ or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod is a Russian automotive manufacturer located in Nizhny Novgorod. It is the core subsidiary of GAZ Group Holding, itself part of the Basic Element business group. JSC Russian Machines Corporation is the controlling shareholder in OAO GAZ. In May 1929 the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the American Ford Motor Company. Under its terms, the Soviets agreed to purchase $13 million worth of automobiles and parts, while Ford agreed to give technical assistance until 1938 to construct an integrated automobile-manufacturing plant at Nizhny Novgorod. Production started on 1 January 1932, the factory and the first marque was titled Nizhegorodsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or NAZ, but displayed the "Ford" sign, its first vehicle was the medium-priced Ford Model A, sold as the NAZ-A, a light truck, the Ford Model AA. NAZ-A production commenced in 1932 and lasted until 1936, during which time over 100,000 examples were built. In 1933, the factory's name changed to Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or GAZ, when the city was renamed after Maxim Gorky.
From 1935 to 1956, the official name was augmented with imeni Molotova. The GAZ-A was succeeded by the more modern GAZ-M1, produced from 1936 to 1942; the M letter stands for Molotovets, it was the origin of M'ka. During the war, GAZ assembled Chevrolet G7107 and G7117 from parts shipped from the USA under Lend Lease. Experience with the A and the M1 allowed the GAZ engineers to develop their own car model independently of Ford. Called the GAZ-11, this more upscale model entered production in 1942 and remained in limited wartime production until 1946; the M2's bodyshell entered limited production in 1941, mounted on a four-wheel drive chassis and sold in small quantities as the GAZ-61. At that time, GAZ engineers worked to develop an all-new car model to enter production once hostilities ended. Called the GAZ-M20 Pobeda, this affordably-priced sedan with streamlined, fastback styling, entered production in 1946 and was produced by GAZ until 1958.. It was the first Soviet car with electric windshield wipers.
It had four-wheel hydraulic brakes. The GAZ-72, a four-wheel drive version, was produced in low volume. GAZ made GAZ-12 ZIM, GAZ-21 and GAZ-24 Volga and the luxury cars GAZ-13 and GAZ-14 Chaika; the ZIM was the first GAZ car to feature the leaping deer hood ornament. The GAZ-21 made its public debut in 1955, with a three cars on a demonstration drive from Moscow to the Crimea, two automatic models and a manual, it became a symbol of the whole Soviet epoch. The car offered front seats able to fold flat and came standard with cigarette lighter and a radio at a time when most American-built cars did not have a radio. A small number of Volgas with the 195 hp Chaika engine, automatic transmission, power steering were built for the KGB as the M23, 603 were built in 1962-1970; as the car's leading engineer Boris Dekhtyar recalled, the new version of the Volga had improved brake pads and reached a higher top speed of over 170 km/h. The new engine produced 195 h.p. at 4,400 rpm. The production of Chaika started in 1959.
Over the years several modifications of Volga and Chaika were produced. In the 1960s GAZ plant renewed its truck range by launching such models as GAZ-52, GAZ-53А and GAZ-66. In the 1960s and 1970s, the plant was updated. In 1994 the plant started production of GAZelle light commercial vehicles. GAZelle gained popularity in Russia. There are over 300 modifications of these vehicles for various applications. GAZelle gave a huge impetus to development of small and medium businesses in Russia. GAZ plant launched production of the related Valdai medium-duty truck and the Sobol light commercial vehicle; the plant became AvtoGAZ, with the integration of its various subcontractors, on 24 August 1971. GAZ produced its ten millionth vehicle in March 1981. In the late 1990s GAZ was deemed to be the best managed Russian automotive manufacturer. In November 2000 GAZ was acquired in a hostile takeover by SibAl. In March 2003 GAZ declared that the production of passenger cars was no longer a priority for the company, plans to release a new GAZ-3115 model had been abandoned.
In 2006, GAZ made a move on the LDV company based in Birmingham and acquired the van maker from the venture capital group Sun European Partners, LLP in July of that year. GAZ said that they planned to market the MAXUS into the rest of Asia. GAZ proposed to increase production in the LDV plant in England, while commencing production of the MAXUS in a new plant in Russia. However, due to the recession, the production at the LDV plant was halted and the plant was sold to a Chinese company called ECO Concept in 2009; as DaimlerChrysler modernized its Sterling Heights Assembly plant in 2006, the old Chrysler Sebring / Dodge Stratus assembly line and tooling was sold to GAZ and was shipped to Nizhny Novgorod in Russia. To produce the vehicle in Nizhny Novgorod, GAZ built a modern production facility with a high degree of automation. GAZ designed a similar vehicle as the Volga Siber from 2008 until the end of 2010 when it was phased out due to the glo
Whitney Houston is one of the most successful female singers of all time. Her accomplishments have been recognized with six competitive Grammy Awards, two Grammy Hall of Fame Award, giving her a total of eight Grammy Awards, though she has been nominated twenty-six times, she earned her first Grammy, Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female, in 1986, was honored with two general field Grammys: Album of the Year for The Bodyguard Soundtrack and Record of the Year for "I Will Always Love You" at its 36th ceremonies in 1994. Below is a list of awards for which she has been nominated and those that she won
The Phoebe Hall Knipling Outdoor Laboratory is a 225-acre outdoor facility located in Fauquier County, Virginia. It is owned and operated by Arlington Outdoor Education Association, Inc. with funding from Arlington Public Schools with the aim of teaching urban students in Arlington County, Virginia science, outdoor skills and humanities in a natural setting. Its mascot is a spotted salamander; the Lab features a large pond, two small mountains, streams, a meadow, forested areas. There is a main building for administration and meals, a classroom building for displaying local wildlife and teaching, bathroom facilities with running water, an observatory for stargazing. There are several wooden tent platforms and well established trails with bridges over streams. In 2010, the classroom building qualified for LEED Silver status; the Lab hosts four classes of Arlington County students a week, amounting to over 9,000 students a year. Activities vary by grade. Third graders will set up pulley mechanisms to hoist their classmates to study simple machines while seventh graders will collect specimens and test water quality in the Lab's streams.
Fifth graders traditionally stay overnight at the lab in tents they erect themselves between hiking and lessons on ecology and biology utilizing local flora and fauna. During the summer, the Lab hosts three week long summer camps. Throughout the year, the Lab will periodically host open houses where Arlington students and families can drive out and enjoy the amenities of the lab free of charge; the Lab provides Eagle Scout projects for Arlington Boy Scouts. The Outdoor Lab is owned and operated by Arlington Outdoor Education Association, Inc. a public charity formed in 1967 for the purpose of maintaining the lab. Arlington Public Schools directly funds costs related to educational programs and the full-time staff are APS employees; the most significant activity was in June 1863 when Confederate General JEB Stuart led 4,200 troops through Glasscock Gap, on the Lab property, en route to Gettysburg. Stuart ended up arriving on the second day of the battle, too late to affect the Union victory. Evidence of the Civil War activity has been seen through artifacts found on the Lab property including: bullets, Union belt buckle, Confederate buttons and various other metal objects.
The Arlington Outdoor Lab was founded in 1967. Arlington Outdoor Education Association Arlington Public Schools- Science Program- Outdoor Lab page