Nizhny Novgorod, colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. From 1932 to 1990, it was known as Gorky, after the writer Maxim Gorky, born there; the city is an important economic, scientific and cultural center in Russia and the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, is the main center of river tourism in Russia. In the historic part of the city there are many universities, theaters and churches. Nizhny Novgorod is located about 400 km east of Moscow. Population: 1,250,619 ; the city was founded in 4 February 1221 by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir. In 1612 Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky organized an army for the liberation of Moscow from the Poles. In 1817 Nizhny Novgorod became a great trade center of the Russian Empire. In 1896 at a fair, an All-Russia Exhibition was organized. During the Soviet period, the city turned into an important industrial center. In particular, the Gorky Automobile Plant was constructed in this period.
The city was given the nickname "Russian Detroit". During World War II, Gorky became the biggest provider of military equipment to the Eastern Front. Due to this, the Luftwaffe bombed the city from the air; the majority of the German bombs fell in the area of the Gorky Automobile Plant. Although all the production sites of the plant were destroyed, the citizens of Gorky reconstructed the factory after 100 days. After the war, Gorky became a "closed city" and remained one until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990. At that time, the city was renamed Nizhny Novgorod once again. In 1985, the Nizhny Novgorod Metro was opened. In 2016, Vladimir Putin opened the new 70th Anniversary of Victory Plant, part of the Almaz-Antey Air and Space Defence Corporation; the Kremlin – the main center of the city – contains the main government agencies of the city and the Volga Federal District. The demonym for a Nizhny Novgorod resident is "нижегородец" for male or "нижегородка" for female, rendered in English as Nizhegorodian.
Novgorodian is inappropriate. The name was just Novgorod, but to distinguish it from the other and well-known Novgorod to the west, the city was called "Novgorod of the Lower lands", or "Lower Newtown"; this land was named "lower" though it is higher in altitude than Veliky Novgorod, because it is situated downstream of other Russian cities such as Moscow and Murom. The city traces its origin from a small Russian wooden hillfort, founded by Grand Duke Yuri II in 1221 at the confluence of two of the most important rivers in his principality, the Volga and Oka rivers, it marked the eastern extreme of East Slavic settlement until the end of the medieval period, with Russian expansion eastward delayed until the capture of Kazan in 1552. Its independent existence of the medieval fort was threatened by the continuous Mordvin attacks against it. A major stronghold for border protection, Nizhny Novgorod fortress took advantage of a natural moat formed by the two rivers. Along with Moscow and Tver, Nizhny Novgorod was among several newly founded towns that escaped Mongol devastation on account of their insignificance, but grew into centers in vassalic Russian political life during the period of the Tatar Yoke.
With the agreement of the Mongol Khan, Nizhny Novgorod was incorporated into the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality in 1264. After 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in 1350. Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow; the earliest extant manuscript of the Russian Primary Chronicle, the Laurentian Codex, was written for him by the local monk Laurentius in 1377. After the city's incorporation into the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1392, the local princes took the name Shuisky and settled in Moscow, where they were prominent at the court and ascended the throne in the person of Vasily IV. After being burnt by the powerful Crimean Tatar chief Edigu in 1408, Nizhny Novgorod was restored and regarded by the Muscovites as a great stronghold in their wars against the Tatars of Kazan; the enormous red-brick kremlin, one of the strongest and earliest preserved citadels in Russia, was built in 1508–1511 under the supervision of Peter the Italian.
The fortress was strong enough to withstand Tatar sieges in 1520 and 1536. In 1612, the so-called "national militia", gathered by a local merchant, Kuzma Minin, commanded by Knyaz Dmitry Pozharsky expelled the Polish troops from Moscow, thus putting an end to the "Time of Troubles" and establishing the rule of the Romanov dynasty; the main square in front of the Kremlin is named after Minin and Pozharsky, although it is locally known as Minin Square. Minin's remains are buried in the citadel. In the cours
Pete "Guitar" Lewis was an American rhythm and blues guitarist and occasional harmonica player, best known as a session musician and performer with Johnny Otis in the late 1940s and 1950s. Though details of his life are uncertain, researchers Bob Eagle and Eric LeBlanc state that he was born Carl Lewis in Oklahoma City. Influenced in his guitar playing by T-Bone Walker, he was discovered by Johnny Otis performing in an amateur hour event at the Barrelhouse Club in Los Angeles in 1947, he was recruited to Otis' band, performed and recorded with him until about 1956. One reviewer says of Lewis: took the electric guitar to new heights, offering sophisticated turns of phrase that bordered on jazz-inflected, to low-down gut bucket riffs that were unceremoniously wrenched out of his instrument — sometimes, all in the same song, or if need be, in the short space of a twelve-bar solo, his playing is at once, crisp and gritty — not to mention endlessly inventive — the perfect complement to Otis' rocking big band.
His guitar features prominently on such tracks as "Boogie Guitar" and "Good Old Blues", on which Lewis plays licks adopted by Chuck Berry, recorded with saxophonist Ben Webster in Otis' band in 1951. Lewis recorded as a session musician for Don Robey's Duke and Peacock labels, backing such musicians as Johnny Ace, Little Esther Phillips, Big Mama Thornton on her original 1952 recording of "Hound Dog". Songwriters Leiber and Stoller stated that the original arrangement of "Hound Dog" was based on a riff that Lewis developed in the recording studio, he recorded several tracks under his own name for Federal Records in 1952, for Peacock the following year. Lewis left Otis' band in 1956 after an argument related to Lewis' alcoholism, he was replaced in the band by Jimmy Nolen. Lewis' only recording was accompanying singer Willie Egan, he is believed to have still been performing in Los Angeles nightclubs in the early 1960s. However, Otis reported, he is believed to have died in Los Angeles in 1970
Galerix kostakii is a fossil erinaceid mammal from the early Miocene of Greece. It is known from the site of Karydia, assigned to the biostratigraphical zone MN 4. With characters like the presence of a hypocone on the upper third premolar, the presence of a connection between the protocone and metaconule cusps on the second upper molar in only a few specimens, this species is intermediate between the older Galerix symeonidisi and the younger Parasorex pristinus, it may form part of the lineage leading from the genus Galerix to the younger genus Parasorex. Galerix kostakii was first described in 2006 by Greek and Dutch paleontologists Constantin Doukas and Lars van den Hoek Ostende from the Greek paleontological site of Karydia; the specific name, honors Constantin "Kostaki" Theocharopoulos, who studied the cricetid rodents found at Karydia. Karydia is dated to the mammal zone MN 4. Galerix kostakii dominates the insectivore fauna of Karydia. In contrast, at Aliveri, a older Greek site assigned to MN 4, Galerix forms only about 25% of the insectivore fauna.
The reason for this difference is unknown. In Komotini, a younger site near Karydia, a single first upper molar of an unidentified Galerix species similar to G. kostakii has been found. In the Czech region of Mokrá, at a site known as "Mokrá – 1/2001 Turtle Joint", a few fossils of a Galerix similar to G. kostakii have been found. Unlike most species of the genus Galerix, G. kostakii has a fourth cusp, the hypocone, on its upper third premolar. Galerix symeonidisi and Galerix iliensis have this cusp, but are smaller and larger than G. kostakii. In addition, G. kostakii differs from G. symeonidisi in that a connection between the protocone and metaconule cusps of M2 is more present and the back arm of the metaconule always reaches the back corner of the tooth. Members of the related genus Parasorex are similar, but never have a protocone-metaconule connection, still present in G. kostakii. The primitive Parasorex species Parasorex pristinus is about as large as G. kostakii, but its molars are narrower, the first lower premolar is smaller, the metacone cusp on M2 has a straight anterior arm.
Furthermore, Galerix kostakii lacks the paralophid on p4, a crest that connects the paraconid and protoconid cusps. Galerix kostakii shares some of the features present in Parasorex and Schizogalerix, both derived descendants of Galerix, including the presence of a hypocone on P3, a partitioned posterior cingulum on m1 and m2, the absence of the protocone-metaconule connection in most M1 and M2. However, it retains primitive, Galerix-like features, including the condition of p4 and the presence of a protocone-metaconule connection in some specimens. Galerix kostakii may be part of a lineage that led from the more primitive G. symeonidisi through G. kostakii to Parasorex pristinus, the oldest species of its genus, to the other Parasorex species. This lineage may have evolved these traits, which may be adaptations to a herbivorous diet, convergently with Schizogalerix, which appears earlier in the fossil record. Doukas, C. S.. W.. "Insectivores from Karydia and Komotini". Beiträge zur Paläontologie.
30: 109–131. Sabol, M.. "The Early Miocene micromammalian assemblage from Mokrá - 1/2001 Turtle Joint site – preliminary results". Scripta Facultatis Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Masarykianae Brunensis, Geology. 36: 57–64