George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death on 6 February 1952. He was the first Head of the Commonwealth. Known publicly as Albert until his accession, "Bertie" among his family and close friends, George VI was born in the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, was named after his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort; as the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his early life in the shadow of his elder brother, Edward. He attended naval college as a teenager, served in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during the First World War. In 1920, he was made Duke of York, he married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923 and they had two daughters and Margaret. In the mid-1920s, he had speech therapy for a stammer, which he never overcame. George's elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII upon the death of their father in 1936; however that year Edward revealed his desire to marry divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson.
British prime minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry a divorced woman and remain king. Edward abdicated to marry Simpson, George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor. During George's reign, the break-up of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations accelerated; the parliament of the Irish Free State removed direct mention of the monarch from the country's constitution on the day of his accession. The following year, a new Irish constitution changed the name of the state to Ireland and established the office of President. From 1939, the Empire and Commonwealth – except Ireland – was at war with Nazi Germany. War with Italy and Japan followed in 1941, respectively. Though Britain and its allies were victorious in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union rose as pre-eminent world powers and the British Empire declined. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, George remained king of both countries, but relinquished the title of Emperor of India in June 1948.
Ireland formally declared itself a republic and left the Commonwealth in 1949, India became a republic within the Commonwealth the following year. George adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth, he was beset by smoking-related health problems in the years of his reign. He was succeeded by his elder daughter, Elizabeth II. George was born at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, his father was Prince George, Duke of York, the second and eldest-surviving son of the Prince and Princess of Wales. His mother was the Duchess of York, the eldest child and only daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Teck, his birthday, 14 December 1895, was the 34th anniversary of the death of his great-grandfather, Prince Consort. Uncertain of how the Prince Consort's widow, Queen Victoria, would take the news of the birth, the Prince of Wales wrote to the Duke of York that the Queen had been "rather distressed". Two days he wrote again: "I think it would gratify her if you yourself proposed the name Albert to her".
Queen Victoria was mollified by the proposal to name the new baby Albert, wrote to the Duchess of York: "I am all impatience to see the new one, born on such a sad day but rather more dear to me as he will be called by that dear name, a byword for all, great and good". He was baptised "Albert Frederick Arthur George" at St. Mary Magdalene's Church near Sandringham three months later. Within the family, he was known informally as "Bertie", his maternal grandmother, the Duchess of Teck, did not like the first name the baby had been given, she wrote prophetically that she hoped the last name "may supplant the less favoured one". Albert was fourth in line to the throne at birth, after his grandfather and elder brother, Edward, he suffered from ill health and was described as "easily frightened and somewhat prone to tears". His parents were removed from their children's day-to-day upbringing, as was the norm in aristocratic families of that era, he had a stammer. Although left-handed, he was forced to write with his right hand, as was common practice at the time.
He suffered from chronic stomach problems as well as knock knees, for which he was forced to wear painful corrective splints. Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901, the Prince of Wales succeeded her as King Edward VII. Prince Albert moved up to third in line after his father and elder brother. From 1909, Albert attended Osborne, as a naval cadet. In 1911 he came bottom of the class in the final examination, but despite this he progressed to the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth; when his grandfather, Edward VII, died in 1910, Albert's father became King George V. Edward became Prince of Wales, with Albert second in line to the throne. Albert spent the first six months of 1913 on the training ship HMS Cumberland in the West Indies and on the east coast of Canada, he was rated as a midshipman aboard HMS Collingwood on 15 September 1913, spent three months in the Mediterranean. His fellow officers gave him the nickname "Mr. Johnson"; the First World War broke out a year after his commission. Three weeks after the outbreak of war he was medically evacuated from the ship to Aberdeen where his appendix was removed by Sir John Marnoch.
He was mentioned in despatches for his action as a turret officer aboard Collingwood i
Manchester Central railway station
Manchester Central railway station is a former railway station in Manchester city centre, England. One of Manchester's main railway terminals between 1880 and 1969, it has been converted into an exhibition and conference centre known as G-MEX, but now named Manchester Central; the structure is a Grade II* listed building. The station was built between 1875 and 1880 by the Cheshire Lines Committee, was opened on 1 July 1880; the architect was Sir John Fowler and the engineers were Richard Johnson, Andrew Johnston and Charles Sacré for the three companies which formed the CLC. While it was being built, a temporary facility, Manchester Free Trade Hall Station was in use from 9 September 1877, it had two wooden platforms serving four tracks. When the station opened, the temporary station became Manchester Central Goods. In 1963 building was Grade II * listed for historic interest; the station's roof is a single span wrought iron truss structure 550 feet long with a span of 210 feet, was 90 feet high at its apex above the railtracks.
Glass covered the middle section and slate covered the outer quarters. The end screens were glazed with timber boarding surrounding the outer edges, it was constructed by Andrew Co.. The substructure and masonry partition were provided by Robert Sons of Manchester. Underneath the train shed is a large brick undercroft with intersecting tunnel vaults, above which were six platforms above street level which exited the station onto viaducts and bridges; the undercroft was connected to the adjacent goods sidings by a carriage lift. The station's two-storey south wall has 15 bays separated by brick pilasters. At ground-floor level the bays have three round-headed windows and at first-floor level three square-headed. In the 20th century a glazed canopy was erected at the entrance at north end. A temporary wooden building, erected at the front of the station to house ticket offices and waiting rooms was planned to be replaced by a grander edifice, for example a hotel and railway offices as at London St Pancras, but remained in use until the station closed.
The Midland Hotel was built by the Midland Railway in 1898-1903 on an adjacent site. The Midland Railway, one of the CLC's partners, used Manchester Central as its terminus for services including express trains to London St Pancras. Beginning in 1938, the London and Scottish Railway ran two prestige expresses, The Peaks and the Palatine, stopping en route at Chinley, Millers Dale, Matlock and Leicester. Between 1960 and 15 April 1966, during the electrification of the West Coast Main Line, Central Station was the terminus for the Midland Pullman, a streamlined blue six-coach diesel multiple unit; this stopped before running fast to St Pancras. Services through Millers Dale finished in July 1968; the station provided local services to Chester and Liverpool but closed to passengers on 5 May 1969, when the remaining services were switched to Manchester Oxford Road and Manchester Piccadilly stations. On 8 June 1939, a passenger train departed against a danger signal and was in collision with another passenger train.
Several people were injured. In October 1965, detectives who had arrested Ian Brady for the murder of 17-year-old Edward Evans in Hattersley discovered evidence in a left luggage locker at the station which connected them to the disappearances of two missing children, who were soon discovered to have been murdered by Brady and his accomplice Myra Hindley in the reported Moors murders, in which at least five children and teenagers were murdered. Over a decade Central Station fell into a dilapidated state, was damaged by fire, was used as a car park; the property was acquired by Greater Manchester Council and in 1982, work began on converting it into an exhibition centre, which opened in 1986 as the Greater Manchester Exhibition and Conference Centre or G-Mex. It was subsequently renamed Manchester Central in honour of its railway history; the undercroft was converted into a car park, serving Bridgewater Hall. The opening in 1992 of the Metrolink light rail system has seen the conversion of suburban heavy rail lines such as the former Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway to Altrincham, the disused Cheshire Lines Committee route via Didsbury.
With the introduction of Metrolink, rail services from south Manchester run once more to Central Station. However, instead of trains running into the Central Station arch, light rail vehicles now cross the railway viaduct and stop at Deansgate-Castlefield tram stop, they run down a ramp which runs parallel to Lower Mosley Street, alongside the south-eastern side of the former train shed, before reaching street level where they operate as trams and head towards St Peter's Square. The Great Northern Warehouse A former railway building nearby, now a leisure/shopping complex Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester A Guide to Civil Engineering in Manchester The Lincolnshire & East Yorkshire Transport Review. Mitchell, Vic. Chester Northgate to Manchester. Middleton Press. Figs. 106-118. ISBN 9781908174512. OCLC 892704846. Ellis, Chris. "What happened to England's forgotten railway stations?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015
4-4-0 is a locomotive type with a classification that uses the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives by wheel arrangement and represents the arrangement: four leading wheels on two axles, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles, a lack of trailing wheels. Due to the large number of the type that were produced and used in the United States, the 4-4-0 is most known as the American type, but the type subsequently became popular in the United Kingdom, where large numbers were produced; every major railroad that operated in North America in the first half of the 19th century owned and operated locomotives of this type. The first use of the name American to describe locomotives of this wheel arrangement was made by Railroad Gazette in April 1872. Prior to that, this wheel arrangement was known as a eight-wheeler; this locomotive type was so successful on railroads in the United States of America that many earlier 4-2-0 and 2-4-0 locomotives were rebuilt as 4-4-0s by the middle of the 19th century.
Several 4-4-0 tank locomotives were built, but the vast majority of locomotives of this wheel arrangement were tender engines. Five years after new locomotive construction had begun at the West Point Foundry in the United States with the 0-4-0 Best Friend of Charleston in 1831, the first 4-4-0 locomotive was designed by Henry R. Campbell, at the time the chief engineer for the Philadelphia and Norristown Railway. Campbell received a patent for the design in February 1836 and soon set to work building the first 4-4-0. At the time, Campbell's 4-4-0 was a giant among locomotives, its cylinders had a 14 inches bore with a 16 inches piston stroke, it boasted 54 inches diameter driving wheels, could maintain 90 pounds per square inch of steam pressure and weighed 12 short tons. Campbell's locomotive was estimated to be able to pull a train of 450 short tons at 15 miles per hour on level track, outperforming the strongest of Baldwin's 4-2-0s in tractive effort by about 63%. However, the frame and driving gear of his locomotive proved to be too rigid for the railroads of the time, which caused Campbell's prototype to be derailment-prone.
The most obvious cause was the lack of a weight equalizing system for the drivers. At about the same time as Campbell was building his 4-4-0, the company of Eastwick and Harrison was building its own version of the 4-4-0; this locomotive, named Hercules, was completed in 1837 for the Beaver Meadow Railroad. It was built with a leading bogie, separate from the locomotive frame, making it much more suitable for the tight curves and quick grade changes of early railroads; the Hercules suffered from poor tracking, corrected by giving it an effective springing system when returned to its builder for remodeling. Though the Hercules and its successors from Eastwick and Harrison proved the viability of the new wheel arrangement, the company remained the sole builders of this type of locomotive for another two years. Norris Locomotive Works built that company's first 4-4-0 in 1839, followed by Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works, the Locks and Canals Machine Shop and the Newcastle Manufacturing Company in 1840.
After Henry Campbell sued other manufacturers and railroads for infringing on his patent, Baldwin settled with him in 1845 by purchasing a license to build 4-4-0s. As the 1840s progressed, the design of the 4-4-0 changed little, but the dimensions of a typical example of this type increased; the boiler was lengthened, drivers grew in diameter and the firegrate was increased in area. Early 4-4-0s were short enough that it was most practical to connect the pistons to the rear drivers, but as the boiler was lengthened, the connecting rods were more connected to the front drivers. In the 1850s, locomotive manufacturers began extending the wheelbase of the leading bogie and the drivers as well as the tender bogies. By placing the axles farther apart, manufacturers were able to mount a wider boiler above the wheels that extended beyond the sides of the wheels; this gave newer locomotives increased heating and steaming capacity, which translated to higher tractive effort. It was in this decade that 4-4-0 locomotives had assumed the appearance for which they would be most recognized by railways and people around the world.
The design and subsequent improvements of the 4-4-0 configuration proved so successful that, by 1872, 60% of Baldwin's locomotive construction was of this type and it is estimated that 85% of all locomotives in operation in the United States were 4-4-0s. However, the 4-4-0 was soon supplanted by bigger designs, like the 2-6-0 and 2-8-0 though the 4-4-0 wheel arrangement was still favored for express services; the widespread adoption of the 4-6-0 and larger locomotives helped seal its fate as a product of the past. Although superseded in North American service by the early 20th century, Baldwin Locomotive Works produced two examples for the narrow gauge Ferrocarriles Unidos de Yucatán in early 1946 the last engines of this wheel arrangement intended for general use. A number of individual engines have been custom-built for Theme Parks in recent years, resembling early designs in appearance; the first British locomotives to use this wheel arrangement were the 7 ft 1⁄4 in broad gauge 4-4-0 tank engine designs which appeared from 1849.
The first British tender locomotive class, although of limited success, was the broad gauge Waverley class of the Great Western Railway, designed by Daniel Gooch and built by Robert Stephenson & Co. in 1855. The first American-style British 4-4-0 tender locomotive on 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge, desi
Piston valve (steam engine)
Piston valves are one form of valve used to control the flow of steam within a steam engine or locomotive. They control the admission of steam into the cylinders and its subsequent exhausting, enabling a locomotive to move under its own power; the valve consists of two piston heads on a common spindle moving inside a steam chest, a mini-cylinder located either above or below the main cylinders of the locomotive. In the 19th century, steam locomotives used slide valves to control the flow of steam into and out of the cylinders. In the 20th century, slide valves were superseded by piston valves in engines using superheated steam. There were two reasons for this: It is difficult to lubricate slide valves adequately in the presence of superheated steam With piston valves, the steam passages can be made shorter; this following the work of André Chapelon, reduces resistance to the flow of steam and improves efficiencyThe usual locomotive valve gears such as Stephenson and Baker valve gear, can be used with either slide valves or piston valves.
Where poppet valves are used, a different gear, such as Caprotti valve gear may be used, though standard gears as mentioned above were used as well, by Chapelon and others. Most piston valves are of the "inside admission" type, where fresh steam is introduced from the boiler via the space between the two piston heads of the valve, exhaust steam leaves via the space between a piston head and the end of the steam chest; the advantage of this arrangement is that leakage, via the gland which seals the steam chest from the operating rod of the valve gear, is much less of a problem when the gland is subjected to low exhaust pressure rather than full boiler pressure. However, some locomotives, like Bulleid's SR Merchant Navy class, used "outside admission" where the reverse was true, in Bulleid's case because of the unusual chain-driven valve gear arrangement; the Swannington incline winding engine on the Leicester and Swannington Railway, manufactured by The Horsely Coal & Iron Company in 1833, shows a early use of the piston valve.
Piston valves had been used a year or two in the horizontal engines manufactured by Taylor & Martineau of London, but did not become general for stationary or locomotive engines until the end of the 19th century. When on the move, a steam locomotive requires steam to enter the cylinder at a controlled rate; this entails controlling the exhaustion of steam to and from the cylinders. Steam enters and leaves the valve through a steam port at the middle position of the piston valve. Where the valve is in contact with the steam ports, a consideration of the "lap" and "lead" is required. Lap is the amount. However, there are two different types of lap; the first kind is the steam lap, the amount by which the valve overlaps the port on the live steam side of the valve piston. Secondly, there is the exhaust lap, the amount by which the valve overlaps the port on the exhaust side of the valve piston. Exhaust lap is given to slow-running locomotives; this is because it allows the steam to remain in the cylinder for the longest possible amount of time before being expended as exhaust, therefore increasing efficiency.
Shunter locomotives tended to be equipped with this addition. Negative exhaust lap commonly known as exhaust clearance, is the amount the port is open to exhaust when the valve is in mid-position, this is used on many fast-running locomotives to give a free exhaust; the amount exceeds 1/16 in. When exhaust clearance is given. Lead is the amount by which the steam port is open when the piston is static at front or back dead centre. Pre-admission of steam fills the clearance space between the cylinder and piston and ensures maximum cylinder pressure at the commencement of the stroke; the design criteria is to both cushion or assist the mass of the piston slow down and change direction and to reach a maximum pressure of the same value as the incoming steam. At slow speeds no lead is ideal. For piston diameters and strokes of 75mm lead is not needed to cushion the pistol mass when speeds are less than 200 rpm. Engines with pistons of 24 inches plus and masses of over 5 kilos and pressures under 500 psi cushioning is beneficial.
Source P Pellandine. Lead is necessary on locomotives designed for high speeds, under which conditions the valve events are taking place in rapid succession. Long-travel piston valves allow the use of large steam ports to ease the flow of steam into, out of, the cylinder. Given the valve's lap and travel, at what point in the piston's stroke does the valve open and close, to steam and to exhaust? Calculating an exact answer to that question before computers was too much work; the easy approximation is to pretend that both the piston have a sine-wave motion. For instance, to calculate the percent of the piston's stroke at which steam admission is cut off: Calculate the angle whose cosine is twice the lap divided by the valve travel Calculate the angle whose cosine is twice the, divided by the valve travelAdd the two angles and take the cosine of their sum; as built the Pennsylvania's I1s 2-10-0 had lap 2 inches, lead 1/4 inch and valve travel 6 inches in full gea
Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, surplus materials. Unlike waste, scrap has monetary value recovered metals, non-metallic materials are recovered for recycling. Scrap metal originates both in business and residential environments. A "scrapper" will advertise their services to conveniently remove scrap metal for people who don't need it. Scrap is taken to a wrecking yard, where it is processed for melting into new products. A wrecking yard, depending on its location, may allow customers to browse their lot and purchase items before they are sent to the smelters, although many scrap yards that deal in large quantities of scrap do not selling entire units such as engines or machinery by weight with no regard to their functional status. Customers are required to supply all of their own tools and labor to extract parts, some scrapyards may first require waiving liability for personal injury before entering.
Many scrapyards sell bulk metals by weight at prices below the retail purchasing costs of similar pieces. A scrap metal shredder is used to recycle items containing a variety of other materials in combination with steel. Examples are automobiles and white goods such as refrigerators, clothes washers, etc; these items are labor-intensive to manually sort things like plastic, copper and brass. By shredding into small pieces, the steel can be separated out magnetically; the non-ferrous waste stream requires other techniques to sort. In contrast to wrecking yards, scrapyards sell everything by weight, instead of by item. To the scrapyard, the primary value of the scrap is what the smelter will give them for it, rather than the value of whatever shape the metal may be in. An auto wrecker, on the other hand, would price the same scrap based on what the item does, regardless of what it weighs. If a wrecker cannot sell something above the value of the metal in it, they would take it to the scrapyard and sell it by weight.
Equipment containing parts of various metals can be purchased at a price below that of either of the metals, due to saving the scrapyard the labor of separating the metals before shipping them to be recycled. Scrap prices may vary markedly over time and in different locations. Prices are negotiated among buyers and sellers directly or indirectly over the Internet. Prices displayed. Other prices are not updated frequently; some scrap yards' websites have updated scrap prices. In the US, scrap prices are reported in a handful of publications, including American Metal Market, based on confirmed sales as well as reference sites such as Scrap Metal Prices and Auctions. Non-US domiciled publications, such as The Steel Index report on the US scrap price, which has become important to global export markets. Scrap yards directories are used by recyclers to find facilities in the US and Canada, allowing users to get in contact with yards. With resources online for recyclers to look at for scrapping tips, like web sites and search engines, scrapping is referred to as a hands and labor-intensive job.
Taking apart and separating metals is important to making more money on scrap, for tips like using a magnet to determine ferrous and non-ferrous materials, that can help recyclers make more money on their metal recycling. When a magnet sticks to the metal, it will be a ferrous material, like iron; this is a less expensive item, recycled but is recycled in larger quantities of thousands of pounds. Non-ferrous metals like copper and brass do not stick to a magnet; some cheaper grades of stainless steel are other grades are not. These items are higher priced commodities for metal recycling and are important to separate when recycling them; the prices of non-ferrous metals tend to fluctuate more than ferrous metals so it is important for recyclers to pay attention to these sources and the overall markets. Great potential exists in the scrap metal industry for accidents in which a hazardous material present in scrap causes death, injury, or environmental damage. A classic example is radioactivity in scrap.
Toxic materials such as asbestos, toxic metals such as beryllium and mercury may pose dangers to personnel, as well as contaminating materials intended for metal smelters. Many specialized tools used in scrapyards are hazardous, such as the alligator shear, which cuts metal using hydraulic force and scrap metal shredders. According to research conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency, recycling scrap metals can be quite beneficial to the environment. Using recycled scrap metal in place of virgin iron ore can yield: 75% savings in energy. 90% savings in raw materials used. 86% reduction in air pollution. 40% reduction in water use. 76% reduction in water pollution. 97% reduction in mining wastes. Every ton of new steel made from scrap steel saves: 1,115 kg of iron ore. 625 kg of coal. 53 kg of limestone. Energy savings from other metals include: Aluminium savings of 95% energy. Copper savings of 85% energy. Lead savings of 65% energy. Zinc savings of 60% energy; the metal recycling industry encompasses a wide range of metals.
The more recycled metals are scrap steel, lead, copper, stainless steel and zinc. There are two main categories of metals: ferrous and