GO Transit

GO Transit is a regional public transit system serving the Greater Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario, Canada. With its hub at Union Station in Toronto, GO Transit's distinctive green and white commuter rail trains and coach-style buses serve a population of more than seven million across an area over 11,000 square kilometres stretching from Brantford and Kitchener in the west to Newcastle and Peterborough in the east, from Barrie in the north to Niagara Falls in the south. GO Transit carried 68.5 million passengers in 2017, its ridership continues to grow. GO Transit operates diesel-powered double-decker trains and coach buses, on routes that connect with all local transit systems in its service area, as well as Via Rail, Canada's national rail system. Canada's first regional public transit system, GO Transit began regular passenger service on May 23, 1967 as a part of the Ontario Ministry of Transportation. Since it has grown from a single train line to seven, expanded to include complementary bus service.

GO Transit has been constituted in a variety of public-sector configurations, today existing as an operating division of Metrolinx, a provincial Crown agency with overall responsibility for integrative transportation planning within the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. Cities in and around the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area expanded during the 1950s, influenced by growth in immigration and industrialization. Much of the existing commuter service was provided by the Canadian National Railway, which faced mounting pressure to expand its service beyond Lakeshore trains it ran between Hamilton in the west and Danforth in the east, to Toronto. Real improved commuter service was not considered until the 1962 Metropolitan Toronto and Region Transportation Study, which examined land use and traffic in the newly created Metropolitan Toronto; the idea of GO Transit was created out of fear of becoming lost in years of planning. In May 1965, the Government of Ontario granted permission to proceed with the launch of Canada's first specially-designed commuter rail service, at a cost of $9.2 million.

Government of Ontario Transit started as a three-year long experiment on May 23, 1967 running single-deck trains powered by diesel locomotives in push-pull configuration on a single rail line along Lake Ontario's shoreline. GO Train service ran throughout the day from Oakville to Pickering with limited rush hour train service to Hamilton; the experiment proved to be popular. This line, now divided as the Lakeshore East and Lakeshore West lines, is the keystone corridor of GO Transit. Expansion of rail service continued in the 1970s and 1980s, aimed at developing ridership in with the introduction of the Georgetown line in 1974 and the Richmond Hill line in 1978; the Milton GO Train line opened in 1981, followed by the Bradford and Stouffville lines a year establishing GO Transit's present-day service of seven rail corridors. Other than establishing new rail corridors, GO Transit introduced the Bi-Level coaches in 1979, in order to increase the number of passengers carried per train; these unique rail cars were developed in partnership with Bombardier Transportation.

In that same year, the current GO concourse at Union Station was built to accommodate these additional passengers. GO Bus service started on September 8, 1970, extending the original Lakeshore line to Hamilton and Oshawa, as well as providing service north to Newmarket and Barrie, it became a full-fledged network in its own right after 1989, feeding rail service and serving communities beyond the reach of existing trains. Near the end of 1982, Ontario Minister of Transportation and Communications James W. Snow announced the launching of GO-ALRT, an interregional light rail transit program providing $2.6 billion of infrastructure. Although this plan did not come to fruition, certain key objectives from it were established in other ways: additional stations were built, all-day service to Whitby and Burlington was established and networks of buses and trains interconnected the network. GO extended limited rush hour train service on the Bradford and both Lakeshore lines and began offering off-peak service on the Milton line in 1990.

Train service was extended to Burlington on the Lakeshore West line in 1992. In a series of cost-cutting measures, then-Ontario Premier Bob Rae announced a "temporary" reduction in spending on services, causing all of the expansions of the 1990s to be reduced or eliminated. All day train service was restored from Burlington to Whitby, peak service was brought to Oshawa in 2000, but this would be only one indicator of things to come. A large initiative to expand the GO Transit network in the mid-2000s under the GO Transit Rail Improvement Plan, or GO TRIP. $1 billion was invested in multiple rail and bus projects, making it the largest commuter rail project in Canadian history. This was dwarfed by a further slate of new GO infrastructure proposed in MoveOntario 2020, the provincial transit plan announced by Premier Dalton McGuinty in the leadup to the 2007 provincial election. With significant re-investment in regional transit, GO experienced significant growth in its train network: all day service was restored to Oshawa in 2006 and Aldershot in 2007.

Realistic job preview

Realistic job preview is a tool companies and organizations use as a way to communicate the good and the bad characteristics of the job during the hiring process of new employees, or as a tool to reestablish job specificity for existing employees. Realistic job previews should provide the individuals with a well-rounded description that details what obligations the individual can expect to perform while working for that specific company. Descriptions may include, but are not limited to, work environment and Company policies. At the heart of realistic job previews are the employee exchange or psychological contract between employer and employee. By being hired after use of the RJP, the employee enters the contract aware of what the organization will provide to them as well as what will be expected from them. Realistic job preview is a psychological contract between an employer. A realistic job preview/RJP is a job description that lets potential candidates know the details of the job they have applied for regarding pay, schedule flexibility, culture.

The purpose of a hiring manager giving a realistic job preview is to make sure a new candidate/employee is aware of what the job entails. Realistic job previews help form bonds and build mutual trust with candidates, which leads to a lower turnover ratio, high with new hires. High turnover of new hires can occur when they are unpleasantly surprised by an aspect of their job if that aspect is important to them. For example, if a new employee started a new job with an understanding that they wouldn't have to work weekends and are scheduled for a Saturday night, it undermines that trust and the psychological contract is breached. Better informed candidates who continue the application process are more to know what to expect and have the job to be a good fit while the ones who choose not to continue, save themselves time pursuing a job or company that wasn't right for them. Realistic job previews can save $300,000 over a five year period if it decreases turnover of one senior staff and one lower-level employee during the span of that five years, though the savings could be much greater depending on the size of the company.

Receiving a detailed RJP plays a important role in the socialization of new employees. RJPs help influence the behaviors and attitudes of new hires, is crucial when a new employee is starting in a new organization. A quality realistic job preview has a bigger psychological purpose. If the expectations and promises aren't met to the employee, it can cause dissatisfaction and lead to dysfunctional organizational outcomes. For example, if a company continuously overemphasizes its benefits, job outlooks etc. it will not meet up to the expectations it had set for itself, thus lowering trust, which can lead to turnover. The idea behind realistic job preview is to interchange unrealistic expectations about a job with realistic expectations; this is overall beneficial because it can lower the initial expectations the individual has for the job, enhances the ability to cope with the new job. By creating a realistic job preview, individuals indirectly develop an impression of the organization being honest and open to their new employees.

In turn, this improves the commitment of new employees as well as their initial job satisfaction. Thus, the hiring organization saves time by interviewing only the candidates with a strong chance of success. Although many studies show that realistic job previews can increase the drop-out rate for new candidates, other studies have shown that the effect they have on job acceptance is swayed by their job alternatives. An increased drop out rate is a good sign because it means that the realistic job preview gave them a reliable perspective on the position, revealed that it would not have been something important enough for them to commit to. Yet, it has been shown that these effects are influenced by other job alternatives, which do not help predict job acceptance and commitment rates. Another criticism of realistic job preview is that it should not be used as a selection tool, but as a device for self-evaluation. Research has pointed out that the nature of "realistic" information shared is unclear.

There are no specific outlines or rules that one needs to follow in order to create a realistic job preview. One will keep in mind the positive and negative aspects of that job as well as the basic overview. A realistic job preview can include concepts of the job that inform the future employee about things like goals and salary as well as being informative on the information and expectations of what that future employee is unlikely to know. Examples of this could include, but are not limited to, why. Since an RJP informs the employee about details of a specific job, communicating the challenging or messy possibilities may be included. Balancing out the pros and cons of the job to keep the employee interested in the position without giving them false expectations can help prevent any miscommunication. RJP information is focused on the things that matter most to the candidate's demographic and parts of the job or culture that correlate with engagement and turnover. Concluding the RJP with an overall image of the company's values, while including details will give the future employee something to think about and consider, such as

Bonneville, Haute-Savoie

Bonneville is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. Bonneville is on the A40 autoroute halfway between Geneva and Chamonix; the urban centre is on the north bank of the Arve river, with urban development reaching to the foot of the mountains to both the north and south. Bonneville sits at the juncture between the Swiss Voralpen and the French Prealps. to the west, the Arve valley is a wide and fertile outwash plain, while to the east, it is a classical glacial valley. Bonneville is twinned with: Staufen im Breisgau, Germany Racconigi, Italy Communes of the Haute-Savoie department INSEE Official site