The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: Georgia, Ukraine and Moldova. GUAM's charter was signed during a summit in Yalta on 6 to 7 June 2001 by the four current members and Uzbekistan, which withdrew. According to the former Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko the charter set objectives for cooperation, such as promoting democratic values, ensuring stable development, enhancing international and regional security and stepping up European integration. Moldova's 2000 elections were won by the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova who subsequently realigned their foreign policy towards Europe shortly before the parliamentary election held in March 2005. In June 2007, GUAM nations agreed to form a 500-personnel joint peacekeeping force to battle separatism. Given the existence of the Russian-led Commonwealth of Independent States, GUAM is sometimes seen in Russia as a way of countering the Russian influence in the area and as part of a strategy backed by the United States.
However, GUAM leaders and dismiss such claims and declare their strong willingness to develop close friendly relations with Russia. Moreover, the group's main energy power, has managed to avoid any conflicts with Russia in recent years. In 2014, the group moved to use English instead of Russian as a working language at its meetings. Current Georgia Ukraine Azerbaijan Moldova Former Uzbekistan Council of heads of states Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs Council of National Coordinators Council of Permanent Representatives Parliamentary Assembly Business Council Secretariat There are seven working groups and a ruling committee as well as an economical forum that responsible to the Summit and Secretariat: transport. Project on cooperation in trade and transportation Cooperation with other countries and international organizations GUAM - USA Virtual law enforcement center Project on cooperation in trade and transportation GUAM - Japan GUAM - Poland GUAM - Czech Republic United Nations OSCE others Cooperation between Georgia, Ukraine and Moldova started with the GUAM consultative forum, established on 10 October 1997, in Strasbourg and named after the initial letters of each of those countries.
In 1999, the organisation adopted. A summit in Yalta on 6 to 7 June 2001, was accompanied by the signing of GUUAM's charter which formalized the organization. However, in 2002, Uzbekistan announced that it planned to withdraw from the organization, following this announcement started to ignore GUUAM summits and meetings. On 24 May 2005, shortly after the Andijan massacre, Uzbekistan gave an official notice of withdrawal from the organization to the Moldovan presidency, thus changing the group's name back to GUAM. In the years following the signing of its charter the grouping was considered to have stagnated: for example, only two of the five leaders attended the 2004 meeting in Yalta, while the GUUAM official website still showed the old Georgian flag and listed Uzbekistan as a member. A summit of GUUAM took place in Chişinău, Moldova, on 22 April 2005; the president of Uzbekistan, Islam Karimov failed to attend, as did the president of Poland, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, invited as an observer.
The presidents of Romania, Traian Băsescu, of Lithuania, Valdas Adamkus, both participated as observers, as did the US Department of State special representative for Eurasian conflicts, Steven Mann, the OSCE Secretary General Ján Kubiš. The Russian ambassador in Chişinău criticized the fact. Ilham Aliyev, the president of Azerbaijan, said after the summit: "Our organization is emerging as a powerful force, participating in resolving problems in the Caspian-Black Sea region" while the president of Ukraine, Viktor Yushchenko, said that a new page had been written in the history of the organization. From 22 to 23 May 2006, Ukraine and Azerbaijan announced plans to further increase the GUAM member relations by renaming the organization GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development and establishing its headquarters in the Ukrainian capital; the other members said this was development. The summit participants were expected to adopt GUAM by-laws, a declaration and a communiqué. On 30 May 2006 the Ukrainian Defense Ministry announced plans to establish GUAM peacekeeping forces.
On 19 June 2007, presidents of Lithuania and Romania joined the leaders of GUAM member states at the GUAM summit in Baku, Azerbaijan. Participating at the summit were the Vice-President of Bulgaria, the Vice-Speaker of the Estonian parliament, the Minister of Economy of Latvia, the high-level representatives of the United States, Japan, OSCE, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, UNESCO, heads of diplomatic missions accredited in Azerbaijan. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Pavlo Klimkin said on December 5, 2014 that at a session in Basel, Switzerland, he proposed that participants speak English instead of Russian, the main language used in official gatherings in the Soviet Union, he said. On 21 April 2005, the GUAM countries formed a common front on several issues in the CIS Foreign Ministers Council, held at that time in Moscow. Ukraine, Georgia
Aeronautical earth station is – according to Article 1.82 of the International Telecommunication Union´s ITU Radio Regulations – defined as «An earth station in the fixed-satellite service, or, in some cases, in the aeronautical mobile-satellite service, located at a specified fixed point on land to provide a feeder link for the aeronautical mobile-satellite service.» Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. See In accordance with ITU Radio Regulations this type of radio station might be classified as follows: Earth station Mobile earth station of the mobile-satellite service Land earth station of the fixed-satellite service or mobile-satellite service Land mobile earth station of the land mobile-satellite service Base earth station of the fixed-satellite service Coast earth station of the fixed-satellite service / mobile-satellite service Ship earth station of the mobile-satellite service Aeronautical earth station Aircraft earth station of the aeronautical mobile-satellite service International Telecommunication Union
The Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Book of a Musical is an annual award presented by Drama Desk in recognition of achievements in the theatre among Broadway, Off Broadway and Off-Off Broadway productions. For two years, in addition to the award for Outstanding Book, an award was presented to the writers of the Most Promising Book. Recipients of this honor were Melvin Van Peebles for Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death in 1972 and Ron House and Diz White for El Grande de Coco-Cola in 1973. † – indicates the book won the Tony Award ‡ – indicates the book was nominated for the Tony Award Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical "Drama Desk Award for Book of a Musical". Internet Broadway Database. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-21. Drama Desk official website