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Gabriel Bethlen

Gabriel Bethlen was Prince of Transylvania from 1613 to 1629 and Duke of Opole from 1622 to 1625. He was King-elect of Hungary from 1620 to 1621, but he never took control of the whole kingdom. Bethlen, supported by the Ottomans, led his Calvinist principality against the Habsburgs and their Catholic allies. Gabriel was the elder of the two sons of Druzsiána Lázár de Szárhegy. Gabriel was born in his father's estate, Marosillye, on 15 November 1580. Farkas Bethlen was a Hungarian nobleman who lost his ancestral estate, Iktár, due to the Ottoman occupation of the central territories of the Kingdom of Hungary. Stephen Báthory, Prince of Transylvania, granted Marosillye to him and made him captain-general of the principality. Druzsiána Lázár was descended from a Székely noble family. Both Farkas Bethlen and his wife died in 1591, leaving their two sons and Stephen, orphaned; the brothers were put under the guardianship of András Lázár de Szárhegy. They lived in the Lázár Castle in Szárhegy in Székely Land for years.

Gabriel's court historian, Gáspár Bojti Veres, described Lázár as a "grumpy and fierce" soldier who did not care much about their formal education. According Gabriel's first extant letter, Sigismund Báthory, Prince of Transylvania, seized the brothers' estates "at the word of many coaxing people" without paying a compensation to them in 1591 or 1592, but a "few primary kinsmen" convinced the prince to offer restitution or other landed property to them. Gabriel mentioned in the letter that he decided to visit the prince's court in Gyulafehérvár. Modern historians try to reconstruct the major events of Gabriel's youth based on sources completed decades because only two documents written between 1593 and 1602 mentioned him. One of the sources is Gabriel's own letter from 1628, in which he stated that Stephen Bocskai had raised him and "placed great credence" in him. Gabriel stated that Bocskai was his "kin". Another important source was written by Gabriel's retainer, Pál Háportoni Forró, who stated that Gabriel had held "great and honorable offices" and performed "the laborious duties of emissary" in his youth.

Based on these sources, modern historians assume that Bocskai boosted Gabriel's career in Sigismund Báthory's court, but no contemporaneous document mentioned his presence in the prince's retinue. Sigismund Báthory joined the anti-Ottoman Holy League of Pope Clement VIII and broke into Ottoman territory in the summer of 1595. According to historian József Barcza, Gabriel gained his first direct experience of warfare fighting against the Ottomans in the Battle of Giurgiu in Wallachia in 1595. After a series of Ottoman victories, Báthory abdicated in return for the Silesian duchies of Opole and Racibórz in 1597, enabling the commissioners of the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph to take possession of Transylvania. Sigismund Báthory regretted his abdication and returned to Transylvania in August 1598, he sent Bocskai to Prague to start negotiations with Rudolph in January 1599. According to a scholarly theory, Gabriel Bethlen accompanied Bocskai to Prague. Historian József Barcza says, Gabriel must have realized around that time that the Habsburg monarchs were unable to defend Transylvania against the Ottomans.

Gabriel himself stated that he visited Prague in the retinue of Sigismund Báthory at an unspecified date. Gabriel supported Andrew Báthory, who mounted the throne with Polish assistance after Sigismund again abdicated in 1599. Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, broke into Transylvania and defeated Andrew in the Battle of Sellenberk on 8 October 1599. Gabriel received wounds in his wounds healed slowly. Michael the Brave was expelled from Transylvania by Giorgio Basta. During the following years, Transylvania was pillaged both by Basta's unpaid mercenaries, by Ottoman and Crimean Tatar troops. Gabriel and his brother, divided their inherited estates, with Gabriel receiving Marosillye, their agreement refers to the anarchic situation, mentioning the possibility that "either pagan or some godless prince or the governor" would seize Gabriel's property. Gabriel joined the Transylvanian noblemen. Sigismund Báthory granted Gabriel and his brother landed property in Arad County in June 1602; the army of the rebellious noblemen was annihilated near Tövis on 2 July 1602.

After the battle, he fled to Temesvár in the Ottoman Empire. He forged letters which suggested that the leading Transylvanian noblemen supported Moses Székely to persuade the Ottomans to support Székely, according to the contemporaneous Ambrus Somogyi; when Székely broke into Transylvania in March 1603, Gabriel was the commander of his vanguard. Székelys' troops laid siege to Gyulafehérvár. During the siege, the princely palace burned. Székely was installed as prince in May, but Radu Șerban, Prince of Wallachia, annihilated his army near Barcarozsnyó on 17 July. Székely was killed in the battlefield, his supporters fled to the Ottoman Empire; the Transylvanian refugees started to regard Gabriel as their leader. They sent a delegation to Constantinople in August, asking the permission of the Ottoman grand vizier to elect Gabriel prince and seeking Ottoman assistance to their return to Transylvania; the grand vizier granted the permission, but

15460 Manca

15460 Manca, provisional designation 1998 YD10, is a Koronian asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt 5 kilometers in diameter. The asteroid was discovered on 25 December 1998, by Italian astronomers Andrea Boattini and Luciano Tesi at Pistoia Mountains Astronomical Observatory in San Marcello Pistoiese, central Italy, it was named for Italian amateur astronomer Francesco Manca. Manca belongs to the Koronis family, a family of stony asteroids in the outer main-belt with nearly ecliptical orbits, it orbits the Sun at a distance of 2.6 -- 3.2 AU once 12 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 3 ° with respect to the ecliptic; the asteroid's observation arc begins 48 years prior to its official discovery observation, with a precovery taken at the Palomar Observatory in March 1950. Manca has been characterized as a X-type asteroid by Pan-STARRS' photometric survey. In August 2012, a rotational lightcurve was obtained for Manca from photometric observations made at the Palomar Transient Factory, California.

It gave it a rotation period of 7.2723 hours with a brightness variation of 0.22 magnitude. According to the survey carried out by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Manca measures 5.35 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.295. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a stony standard albedo for members of the Koronis family of 0.24, calculates a diameter of 5.17 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 13.6. This minor planet was named for Italian amateur astronomer Francesco Manca, member of the "Gruppo Astrofili Brianza" and an active observer of near-Earth objects, hazardous asteroids in particular, at Sormano Astronomical Observatory in northern Italy; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 13 October 2000. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Minor Planet Manca, animation of CCD images Sormano Astronomical Observatory, IAU code 587 Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 15460 Manca at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 15460 Manca at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters


Koromľa is a small village and municipality in the Sobrance District in the Košice Region of east Slovakia. The village lies at an altitude of 280 metres and covers an area of 13.035 km². It has a population of about 520 people; the village has a gym, a football pitch, two stores, a pub and a post office. There is one Greek Catholic church. A creek runs through the center of the village with a linear park between two roads; the records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Presov, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1837-1931 Greek Catholic church records: 1834-1902 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia Surnames of living people in Koromla


The Reichsflotte was the first navy for all of Germany, established by the revolutionary German Empire to provide a naval force in the First Schleswig War against Denmark. The decision was made on 14 June 1848 by the Frankfurt Parliament, considered by the modern German Navy as its birthday. In December 1849 the imperial government was replaced by a federal commission. In 1851 the German Confederation was re-established; the German states such as Prussia and Austria had a quarrel regarding the ships and the costs to sustain a fleet. In 1852 the Confederation decided to sell the ships; the German Confederation, founded in 1815, was not in need of a navy, as it could rely on three members who commanded large fleets: The Grand Duke of Luxembourg as commander of the Royal Dutch Navy, the Duke of Holstein as the commander of the Danish Navy, last but not least, the King of Hanover as commander of the British Royal Navy. This had changed by the late 1830s, as the Kings of the Netherlands and Great Britain ceased to be members of the German Confederation, in early 1848 Denmark turned against Germany in the First Schleswig War.

Soon, the Danish Navy stopped all German trade in the Baltic Sea. This newly created provisional government was headed by Archduke John of Austria as regent, i.e. as a temporary head of state, he named August von Jochmus as Foreign Minister and Navy minister. The parliament first met in Frankfurt on 18 May 1848, on 12 June 1848 the diet of the German Confederation turned over its budget to the parliament. Only two days the parliament decided to spend six million Reichsthaler on a navy to be under the command of Prince Adalbert of Prussia; when he had to resign due to an order by the King of Prussia, Konteradmiral Karl Rudolf Brommy took over. In the Battle of Heligoland of 4 June 1849, the fleet under Brommy saw its only sea battle, which remains the first and only naval combat under the black-red-gold flag of Germany; the battle, involving five vessels altogether, was inconclusive, with no losses on either side, but after it the Danish blockade was restored. Until 1852, the fleet had Two sail frigates: SMS Deutschland SMS Eckernförde Three steam frigates: SMS Barbarossa SMS Erzherzog Johann SMS Hansa One sail corvette: Franklin Six steam corvettes: SMS Der Königliche Ernst August SMS Großherzog von Oldenburg SMS Frankfurt SMS Bremen SMS Hamburg SMS Lübeck 27 gunboats One submarine: BrandtaucherThe ships became the property of the re-established German Confederation, via the Bundeszentralkommission of 1849-1851 that dealt with the tasks of the former Central Power of the Imperial Regent.

An argument arose as to whether the fleet was an'organic institution' of the Confederation or a property. The majority of the Bundestag argued that it was just a property so that a decision about it did not need unanimity. On 2 April 1852, the Reichsflotte was dissolved. While most ships were sold off, two of the steam frigates were given to the Prussian Navy, which evolved into the North German Federal Navy and that became the Imperial German Navy. Several names are used for this Navy; the resolution of 14 June 1848 just calls it "Deutsche Marine", while navy minister Arnold Duckwitz in 1849 reported about the "Deutsche Kriegsmarine" and when Karl Rudolf Brommy was promoted to its first Admiral, the name used was Reichsmarine, used within the Navy, too. To avoid confusion with incarnations, historians settled for Reichsflotte; the term Bundesflotte is used, but this is misleading, as it was not operated by the German Confederation in its first years. Bundesflotte was the name of an Austrian-Prussian naval project in 1865.

The modern German navy since 1956 now uses the name Deutsche Marine. The "Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs", article III § 19, states: The naval forces are the exclusive affair of the Reich, it is not allowed for any single state to hire privateers. The crews of the war navy are a part of the new German defence force, they are independent of the land forces. The size of the crews to be provided for the war navy from each state, is to be calculated from the number of land forces to be maintained by it. Details on this matter, as well as the balancing of costs between the Reich government and the individual states, will be determined by law; the commissioning of officers and officials of the naval forces are under the sole authority of the Reich. The care for equipping and maintaining a war fleet and the creation and maintenance of military harbours and arsenals falls under the authority of the Reich; the matters pertaining on the appropriations necessary for the establishment of military harbours and naval installations, as well as on the responsibilities of the corresponding Reich services will be determined by Reich laws.

Guntram Schulze-Wegener: Deutschland zur See. 150 Jahre Marinegeschichte. Mittler, Hamburg 1998. ISBN 3-8132-0551-7 Jörg Duppler: Germania auf dem Meere / Bilder und Dokumente zur Deutschen Marinegeschichte 1848 –1998. Mittler, Hamburg 1998. ISBN 3-8132-0564-9 Walther Hubatsch: Die erste deutsche Flotte, 1848 - 1853, Herford 1981. L. Arenhold: Vor 50 Jahren: Die Deutsche Reichsflotte 1848 - 1852 in zwölf Bildern, Media Verlag, Berlin 1995. Media related to Reichsflotte at Wikimedia Commons Deutsche Marine, History SMS Barbaros

Foster Child (2007 film)

Foster Child known as John John, is a Filipino indie pregnancy drama film produced by Seiko Films, which stars Cherry Pie Picache as a temporary foster parent to an abandoned child. The film is directed by Brillante Mendoza. Foster Child is Brillante Mendoza's fourth feature film, following Manoro. Mendoza is the fourth Filipino director whose work was screened in the Directors' Fortnight of the Cannes film fest. Thelma, together with her husband Dado and teenage sons Gerald and Yuri, are an urban poor family hired by a local foster care facility to provide temporary home and care to abandoned babies pending the latter's formal adoption; the inevitable separation is heart-rending for the foster family. Thelma's foster child John-John is to be turned over to his adoptive American parents; every moment with the 3-year-old John-John becomes more precious as Thelma goes through the day fulfilling her motherly duties for the last time—bathing John-John, feeding him, bringing him to school where the boy participates in a school presentation.

Cherry Pie Picache as Thelma Kier Segundo as John-John Eugene Domingo as Bianca Jiro Manio as Yuri Alwyn Uytingco as Gerald Dan Alvaro as Dado Best Actress: Cherry Pie Picache Best Film: Seiko Films Best Story: Ralston Jover Best Actress: Cherry Pie Picache Best Supporting Actress: Eugene Domingo Best Directors: Dante Mendoza Best Film: Seiko Films Best Screenplay: Ralston Jover Best Performance by an Actress in a Lead Role: Cherry Pie Picache Pinakapasadong Pelikula: Foster Child Pinkapasadong Istorya: Ralston Jover Natatanging Bituin ng Pelikulang Pilipino sa Taong 2007: Cherry Pie Picache Natatanging Direktor ng Pelikulang Pilipino sa Taong 2007: Dante “Brillante” Mendoza Best Actress: Cherry Pie Picache Best Child Actor: Keir Segismundo Best Film: Seiko Films Best Film Actress: Cherry Pie Picache Best Film Child Performer: Keir Segismundo Best Film Screenwriter: Ralston Jover Best Film Story: Ralston Jover International-Excellence Awardee: Cherry Pie Picache Outstanding Genio Awardee: Seiko Films NETPAC Award Foster Child on IMDb

Final-obstruent devoicing

Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, Dutch, Russian and Wolof. In such languages, voiced obstruents become voiceless in pausa; the process can be written as *C > C/__#. Most modern continental West Germanic languages developed final devoicing, the earliest evidence appearing in Old Dutch around the 9th or 10th century. However, Yiddish notably does not alter final voiced sounds. Afrikaans Dutch Old and Middle Dutch German Middle High German Gothic Limburgish Low German Middle Low German Luxembourgish Old English West Frisian. In contrast, North Frisian does not have final devoicing. Of the North Germanic languages, Norwegian and Danish do not have final devoicing; as in Danish, Icelandic stops are voiceless, but it has voiced fricatives which may occur word-finally. Gothic developed final devoicing independently. Among the Romance languages, word-final devoicing is common in the Gallo-Romance languages, some of which tend to exhibit strong Frankish influence.

Catalan Old French and Middle French Lombard Occitan RomanshRomanian does not have it. Other Romance languages such as French and Italian have words with final voiced consonants for different reasons in their phonological histories, but borrowings from English into French or Italian that have a voiced final consonant are not devoiced. Most Slavic languages exhibit final devoicing, but notably standard Serbo-Croatian and Ukrainian do not. Belarusian Bulgarian Czech Macedonian Polish Russian Serbo-Croatian Slovak Slovene Sorbian Albanian – certain dialects, notably the dialects of certain areas of the Berati and Korça counties Armenian Azerbaijani Breton Cypriot Greek as opposed to Standard Modern Greek Georgian Korean Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Tok Pisin Turkish YaghnobiNote: Hungarian, which lies geographically between Germanic- and Slavic- speaking areas, does not have it. Terminal devoicing is indicated in the orthography in Turkish. For example, the personal name Məhməd is pronounced in Azeri, with a final though it is spelled with a final ⟨d⟩.

Meanwhile, the Turkish version of this name is pronounced with a final, but is spelled with a more phonetically accurate Mehmet. In Dutch and Afrikaans, terminal devoicing results in homophones such as hard'hard' and hart'heart' as well as differences in consonant sounds between the singular and plural forms of nouns, for example golf–golven and golf–golwe for'wave–waves'; the history of the devoicing phenomenon within the West Germanic languages is not clear, but the discovery of a runic inscription from the early fifth century suggests that this terminal devoicing originated in Frankish. Of the old West Germanic languages, Old Dutch, a descendant of Frankish, is the earliest to show any kind of devoicing, final devoicing occurred in Frankish-influenced Old French. English does not have phonological final-obstruent devoicing of the type that neutralizes phonemic contrasts. Voiced obstruents are devoiced to some extent in final position in English when phrase-final or when followed by a voiceless consonant.

Old English had final devoicing of / v /. It can be inferred from the modern pronunciation of half with a voiceless /f/, from an voiced fricative in Proto-Germanic *halbaz. There was final devoicing of to evidenced by spellings like burh alongside burg. Final-obstruents devoicing occurs in the varieties from Northern Germany; the German contrast between homorganic obstruents is more properly described as a fortis and lenis opposition than an opposition of voiceless and voiced sounds. Therefore, the term devoicing may be misleading, since voice is only an optional feature of German lenis obstruents. By contrast, the German term for the phenomenon, Auslautverhärtung, refers to fortition rather than devoicing. However, the German phenomenon is similar to the final devoicing in other languages in that the opposition between two different kinds of obstruents disappears at the ends of words, making homophones of such pairs as Rad and Rat, both pronounced; the German varieties of the north, many pronunciations of Standard German, optionally involve voice in the distinction between fortis and lenis obstruents however.

Some examples from Northern German include: Final-obstruent devoicing can lead to the neutralization of phonemic contrasts in certain environments. For example, Russian бес and без are pronounced identically in isolation as; the presence of this process in Russian is the source of the variant transliterations of Russian names into -off by the French, as well as older English transcriptions. In compounds, the behaviour varies between languages: In some languages, devo