Canadian Journey Series
The Canadian Journey series is the sixth series of banknotes of the Canadian dollar designed and circulated by the Bank of Canada. It succeeded the Birds of Canada banknote series; the first of the banknotes issued into circulation was the $10 banknote on 17 January 2001, the last to be issued was the $50 banknote on 17 November 2004. The series was succeeded by the Frontier Series, banknotes of which were first issued into circulation from 2011 to 2013; this series introduced new security features, discontinued the use of planchettes, a security feature common since the earliest Canadian banknote series. All banknotes have tactile features to assist people who have visual impairments to identify the notes. Designs on the reverse of each banknote in the series were based on themes of fundamental Canadian values and achievements; the $20 banknote was awarded 2004 Banknote of the Year by the International Bank Note Society. The Bank of Canada began the process for a banknote series to replace Birds of Canada in 1997 by establishing a currency development team.
It faced several constraints, including the use of a more secure substrate, addressing increased counterfeiting, improving accessibility for those with visual impairments, ensuring a financially feasible production because of budgetary constraints. The Ministry of Finance was involved in the design process, providing ideas for banknote themes for the series; the formal design of the banknotes began in 1998 and was performed by a team led by art director Jorge Peral at the Canadian Bank Note Company, which had members from the British American Bank Note Company. The team created model designs; the Bank of Canada had considered using portraits of famous Canadian artists and inventors, instead of those of the Queen of Canada and former prime ministers, but rejected the idea at the request of Jean Chrétien, who preferred the familiar portraits. Early prototype designs included prominent portraits and vignettes of parliamentary buildings similar to those of the final design; the reverse of each denomination featured an animal indigenous to Canada in vertical portrait orientation.
The set of themes that would be chosen had to adhere to modern banknote security design principles, "reflect fundamental values recognized and cherished across the country". These values included Canadian culture and achievements, that the concepts could be rendered artistically. Two elements of the design would not be changed: the portraits featured on each denomination, the dominant colour for each denomination, both of which were to be the same as those for the respective denomination in the Birds of Canada series, it was the first time the Bank of Canada involved the public in the design process for a banknote series, conducting telephone surveys in 1997 to obtain public opinion about design themes, selecting individuals to participate in focus groups to review design selections. Children throughout Canada submitted designs to the Bank of Canada via their elementary schools, over 4,000 Canadians participated in the design process. All banknotes in the series feature a stylised Flag of Canada in the upper right-hand corner of the obverse, measured 152.4 by 69.85 millimetres.
Each banknote included an excerpt from literary works reflecting the denomination's theme. Because of the increasing proliferation of affordable consumer colour photocopiers, inkjet printers, scanners, the security features of Birds of Canada was becoming easier to circumvent; as a result, the Bank of Canada undertook development of the Canadian Journey Series, during which time it developed a new anti-counterfeiting strategy. In addition to improving the security of the substrate and the integration of security features in the banknote designs, the Bank of Canada launched a public education campaign deterred counterfeiting by closer collaboration with law enforcement, accelerated the removal and destruction of banknotes from older series from circulation. Moreover, it discourages financial transactions using banknotes from older series. In the mid 1990s, the Bank of Canada tested a new substrate, named "Luminus" and produced by Domtar, for use in printing banknotes, it printed 100,000 experimental $5 banknotes, using the Birds of Canada design, having a substrate of polymer core between two layers of cotton paper.
The notes were issued into circulation, the test found "no major problems" with the substrate. It was chosen as the substrate for the $5 and $10 banknotes in June 1998, for all other denominations in September 1999. In December 1999, the manufacturer withdrew its offer to supply the substrate because of technical production issues and its market viability; the Bank of Canada found a cotton fibre substrate with "characteristics similar to those of Luminus" on which to print the $10 banknote it would issue in January 2001, for the $5 banknote issued in March 2002. The similarity of the substrate to Luminus would enable a transition to it once production issues were resolved, as the Bank of Canada had acquired Canada-wide rights to the substrate and continued to develop it, but the project was discontinued in 2002; as a result, the Bank of Canada chose to use the standard watermarked paper, but required suppliers to include a "windowed metallic thread" in the substrate. Incorporating the desired security features into the design was a "challenging aspect of the design process".
These features included: intaglio printing, such as the raised ink in some numerals.
Wind, Sand and Stars
Wind and Stars is a memoir by the French aristocrat aviator-writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, a winner of several literary awards. It deals with themes such as friendship, death and solidarity among colleagues, illustrates the author's opinions of what makes life worth living, it was first published in France in February 1939, was translated by Lewis Galantière and published in English by Reynal and Hitchcock in the United States the same year. In his autobiographical work Saint-Exupéry, an early pioneering aviator, evokes a series of events in his life, principally his work for the airmail carrier Aéropostale, he does so by recounting several episodes from his years flying treacherous mail routes across the African Sahara and the South American Andes. The book's themes deal with friendship, heroism and solidarity among colleagues and the search for meaning in life; the book illustrates the author's view of the world and his opinions of what makes life worth living. The central incident he wrote of detailed his 1935 plane crash in the Sahara Desert between Benghazi and Cairo, which he survived along with his mechanic-navigator, André Prévot.
Saint-Exupéry and his navigator were left completely without water and food, as the chances of finding an oasis or help from the air decreased, the two men nearly died of thirst before they were saved by a Bedouin on a camel. The book was first published in France in February 1939, was translated by Lewis Galantière and published in English by Reynal and Hitchcock in the United States the same year; the French and English versions of this book differed significantly. S. audience, added new material written for them, Lewis Galantière translated the revised book into English. Although it did not appear in the earliest editions of its English translation, "An Appreciation" was added to printings, contributed by Anne Morrow Lindbergh and earlier published in The Saturday Review of Literature on 14 October 1939. Saint-Exupéry struggled to find a title for his book, he promised 100 francs to André de Fonscolombe, his cousin, if André could come up with'the perfect title'. His cousin returned the day after with a list of 30 suggestions, Saint-Exupéry chose one of them: "Terre des Humains", which became'Terre des hommes'.
Lewis Galantière came up with the English title, approved by Saint-Exupéry. Saint-Exupéry dedicated the book to his friend Henri Guillaumet of Aéropostale; the charity Terre des hommes took its name from this book in 1959. The charitable international federation of humanitarian societies concentrates on children's rights, is based in Lausanne, Switzerland; the book's title was subsequently used to create the central theme of the most successful world's fair of the 20th century, Expo 67, in Montreal, Canada. In 1963, a group of prominent Canadians met for three days at the Seigneury Club in Montebello, Quebec. In an introduction to the Expo 67 Corporation's book entitled "Terre des Hommes/Man and His World", Gabrielle Roy wrote: In Terre des Hommes, his haunting book, so filled with dreams and hopes for the future, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry writes of how moved he was when, flying for the first time by night alone over Argentina, he happened to notice a few flickering lights scattered below him across an empty plain.
They "twinkled here and there, alone like stars.".... In truth, being made aware of our own solitude can give us insight into the solitude of others, it can cause us to gravitate towards one another as if to lessen our distress. Without this inevitable solitude, would there be any fusion at all, any tenderness between human beings. Moved as he was by a heightened awareness of the solitude of all creation and by the human need for solidarity, Saint-Exupéry found a phrase to express his anguish and his hope, as simple as it was rich in meaning. Pascal Gélinas & Pierre Harel's short film Taire des hommes has a title homophonic to the book's title, but is instead about the censorship and repression at the riot of the national holiday of June 24, 1968, in downtown Montréal, one day before the federal election. Winner of the Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française, 1939, one of France's oldest and most prestigious literary awards. Winner of the U. S. National Book Award for 1939 Nonfiction. Saint-Exupéry only received the prize in early 1942, as he had been flying as a reconnaissance pilot during the Battle of France when the award was announced earlier.
The National Geographic ADVENTURE voted the novel No. 3 in its all-time list of 100 best adventure-exploration books. Outside magazine voted the novel No. 1 in its all-time list of 25 adventure-explorer books. Outside Magazine, "The 25 Books for the Well-Read Explorer". National Geographic ADVENTURE: 100 Best Adventure Books Review by Bobby Matherne; the Expo 67 symbol as it relates to Man and His World Complete text of Terre des hommes
Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books and poems that are enjoyed by children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's literature can be traced to stories and songs, part of a wider oral tradition, that adults shared with children before publishing existed; the development of early children's literature, before printing was invented, is difficult to trace. After printing became widespread, many classic "children's" tales were created for adults and adapted for a younger audience. Since the fifteenth century much literature has been aimed at children with a moral or religious message; the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is known as the "Golden Age of Children's Literature", because many classic children's books were published then. There is no single or used definition of children's literature, it can be broadly defined as anything that children read or more defined as fiction, non-fiction, poetry, or drama intended for and used by children and young people.
One writer on children's literature defines it as "all books written for children, excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, non-fiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries and other reference materials". However, others would argue that comics should be included: "Children's Literature studies has traditionally treated comics fitfully and superficially despite the importance of comics as a global phenomenon associated with children"; the International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature notes that "the boundaries of genre... are not fixed but blurred". Sometimes, no agreement can be reached about whether a given work is best categorized as literature for adults or children; some works defy easy categorization. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was written and marketed for young adults, but it is popular among adults; the series' extreme popularity led The New York Times to create a separate best-seller list for children's books.
Despite the widespread association of children's literature with picture books, spoken narratives existed before printing, the root of many children's tales go back to ancient storytellers. Seth Lerer, in the opening of Children's Literature: A Reader's History from Aesop to Harry Potter, says, "This book presents a history of what children have heard and read... The history I write of is a history of reception." Early children's literature consisted of spoken stories and poems that were used to educate and entertain children. It was only in the eighteenth century, with the development of the concept of childhood, that a separate genre of children's literature began to emerge, with its own divisions and canon; the earliest of these books were educational books, books on conduct, simple ABCs—often decorated with animals and anthropomorphic letters. In 1962, French historian Philippe Ariès argues in his book Centuries of Childhood that the modern concept of childhood only emerged in recent times.
He explains that children were in the past not considered as different from adults and were not given different treatment. As evidence for this position, he notes that, apart from instructional and didactic texts for children written by clerics like the Venerable Bede and Ælfric of Eynsham, there was a lack of any genuine literature aimed at children before the 18th century. Other scholars have qualified this viewpoint by noting that there was a literature designed to convey the values and information necessary for children within their cultures, such as the Play of Daniel from the 12th century. Pre-modern children's literature, tended to be of a didactic and moralistic nature, with the purpose of conveying conduct-related and religious lessons. During the 17th century, the concept of childhood began to emerge in Europe. Adults saw children as separate beings, innocent and in need of protection and training by the adults around them; the English philosopher John Locke developed his theory of the tabula rasa in his 1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
In Locke's philosophy, tabula rasa was the theory that the mind is at birth a "blank slate" without rules for processing data, that data is added and rules for processing are formed by one's sensory experiences. A corollary of this doctrine was that the mind of the child was born blank and that it was the duty of the parents to imbue the child with correct notions. Locke himself emphasized the importance of providing children with "easy pleasant books" to develop their minds rather than using force to compel them, he suggested that picture books be created for children. In the nineteenth century, a few children's titles became famous as classroom reading texts. Among these were the fables of Aesop and Jean de la Fontaine and Charles Perraults's 1697 Tales of Mother Goose; the popularity of these texts led to the creation of a number of nineteenth-century fantasy and fairy tales for children which featured magic objects and talking animals. Another influence on this shift in attitudes came from Puritanism, which stressed the importance of individual salvation.
Puritans were concerned with the spiritual welfare of their children, there was a large growth in the publication of "good godly books" aimed squarely at children. Some of the most popular works were by James Janeway, but the most enduring book from this movement, still read toda
The Tin Flute
The Tin Flute, Gabrielle Roy’s first novel, is a classic of Canadian fiction. Imbued with Roy’s brand of compassion and understanding, this story focuses on a family in the Saint-Henri slums of Montreal, its struggles to overcome poverty and ignorance, its search for love. A story of familial tenderness and survival during World War II, The Tin Flute won both the Governor General's Award and the Prix Femina of France; the novel was made into a critically acclaimed motion picture in 1983. It was published in French as Bonheur d'occasion, which represents the character's sense of rebound love in the novel. Roy's first novel, Bonheur d'occasion gave a starkly realistic portrait of the lives of people in Saint-Henri, a working-class neighbourhood of Montreal; the novel caused many Quebecers to take a hard look at themselves and is regarded as the novel that helped lay the foundation for Quebec's Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. The original French version won Roy the prestigious Prix Femina in 1947.
Published in English as The Tin Flute, the book won the 1947 Governor General's Award for fiction as well as the Royal Society of Canada's Lorne Pierce Medal. Distributed in the United States, where it sold more than three-quarters of a million copies, the Literary Guild of America made The Tin Flute a featured book of the month in 1947; the book garnered so much attention. There are two French versions of Bonheur d'occasion; the first was published in 1945 by Société des Éditions Pascal in two volumes. This version was translated in 1947 by Hannah Josephson, who removed several short passages from the English version. In 1965, Librairie Beauchemin published an abridged French version eliminating a number of passages; this second version was translated by Alan Brown in 1980. As a result, there has never been an unabridged version of The Tin Flute published in English; the story takes place in Montreal, principally in the poor neighbourhood of Saint-Henri, between February 1940 and May 1940, during the Second World War, when Quebec is still suffering from the Great Depression.
Florentine Lacasse, a young waitress at the "Five and Ten" restaurant who dreams of a better life and is helping her parents get by, falls in love with Jean Lévesque, an ambitious machinist-electrician. Wanting to satisfy his withered ego, he agrees to date Florentine. Tiring of the relationship, Jean introduces her to a friend, Emmanuel Létourneau, a soldier on leave. Emmanuel falls in love with Florentine. Despite this, Florentine's attraction towards Jean will have important consequences in her life. A parallel thread in the novel is the Lacasse family life, made difficult by their poverty; the Tin Flute was declared a historical event in Quebecois heritage by the Ministry of Culture and Communications in August 2017. Culture minister Luc Fortin argued that Roy's novel marks a break in Quebecois literature from a tradition of working-class novels and literature celebrating rural life and the "beginning of a protest literature that emerges in a period of profound social transformations" The novel details the loss of many things in the lives of several characters.
For Rose-Anna, it is the loss of her children: Eugene to the army, Florentine to marriage, Daniel to death. For Azarius, it is the loss of his vocation and subsequently his identity as a "man". Despite being about a family, the novel demonstrates the solitude of the various characters. For Rose-Anna, best seen at the end of the novel, when she gives birth alone, she feels alone and Azarius is not there when she calls for him. The condition of the woman is treated throughout the novel both on the individual level and universally when Rose-Anna identifies with women across the world who are affected by the senselessness of war. Feminist undertones can be found in the way. Rose-Anna is, in some ways, a victim of circumstance with a husband who has no work, poverty that causes her to go searching for new lodging every spring, her Catholic faith that does not allow her to use birth control and results in many pregnancies which take their toll on her both physically and emotionally. Roy shows many opinions on the war by various characters, but there is a strong sense of war being senseless.
Emmanuel is one character who questions the motive behind going to war. He struggles with his own motivations and concludes that the purpose for going to war must be to end it one day. Florentine Lacasse: A young waitress at the Five and Ten restaurant, she finds her current life to be one of drudgery and longs to find something better, she supports her siblings financially. Azarius Lacasse: Florentine's father, a construction worker by trade who has fallen on hard times because of the depressed economy and is now working as a taxi driver to get by. Rose-Anna Lacasse: Florentine's mother, a central character in the novel who takes on the role of the head of the family when Azarius fails to provide leadership. Jean Lévesque: an arrogant and ambitious machinist-electrician who believes himself to be better than others in Saint-Henri and is concerned with reaching a higher status and social class. Emmanuel Létourneau: a friend of Jean Lévesque and a soldier who meets and falls in love with Florentine.
Emma Philibert: nicknamed "Fat Emma" or "Ma Philibert", the jovial owner of a combination restaurant and store Sam Latour: the owner of The Two Records restaurant/store, loves to discuss current affairs Eugene Lacasse: Florentine's brother, who joined the army Jenny: Da
École Gabrielle-Roy (Surrey)
École Gabrielle-Roy is a French first language elementary and high school located in Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. It serves the francophone population of the Greater Vancouver Regional District; the school was built at the new location after the previous one burned down due to a fire started by fireworks in the school's library. The school is named in honour of French Canadian author Gabrielle Roy. École Gabrielle-Roy now has the International Baccalaureate Intermediate and Diploma programs for grades 7 to 12. École Gabrielle-Roy de Surrey http://www.csf.bc.ca/, Le Conseil scolaire francophone, BC Francophone School Division
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint-Exupéry was a French writer, aristocrat and pioneering aviator. He became a laureate of several of France's highest literary awards and won the U. S. National Book Award, he is best remembered for his novella The Little Prince and for his lyrical aviation writings, including Wind and Stars and Night Flight. Saint-Exupéry was a successful commercial pilot before World War II, working airmail routes in Europe and South America. At the outbreak of war, he joined the French Air Force, flying reconnaissance missions until France's armistice with Germany in 1940. After being demobilised from the French Air Force, he travelled to the United States to help persuade its government to enter the war against Nazi Germany. Following a 27-month hiatus in North America, during which he wrote three of his most important works, he joined the Free French Air Force in North Africa, although he was far past the maximum age for such pilots and in declining health.
He disappeared over the Mediterranean on a reconnaissance mission in July 1944, is believed to have died at that time. Prior to the war, Saint-Exupéry had achieved fame in France as an aviator, his literary works – among them The Little Prince, translated into 300 languages and dialects – posthumously boosted his stature to national hero status in France. He earned further widespread recognition with international translations of his other works, his 1939 philosophical memoir Wind and Stars became the name of an international humanitarian group, was used to create the central theme of the most successful world's fair of the 20th century, Expo 67 in Montreal, Canada. Saint-Exupéry was born in Lyon to an aristocratic Catholic family that could trace its lineage back several centuries, he was the third of five children of the Viscountess Marie de Fonscolombe and Viscount Jean de Saint Exupéry. His father, an executive of the Le Soleil insurance brokerage, died of a stroke in Lyon's La Foux train station before his son's fourth birthday.
His father's death affected the entire family, transforming their status to that of'impoverished aristocrats'. Saint-Exupéry had three sisters and a younger blond-haired brother, François, who at age 15 died of rheumatic fever contracted while both were attending the Marianist College Villa St. Jean in Fribourg, during World War I. Saint-Exupéry attended to his brother, his closest confidant, beside François' death bed, wrote that François "...remained motionless for an instant. He did not cry out, he fell as as a tree falls", imagery which would much be recrafted into the climactic ending of The Little Prince. At the age of 17, now the only man in the family following the death of his brother, the young author was left as distraught as his mother and sisters, but he soon assumed the mantle of a protector and took to consoling them. After twice failing his final exams at a preparatory Naval Academy, Saint-Exupéry entered the École des Beaux-Arts as an auditor to study architecture for 15 months, again without graduating, fell into the habit of accepting odd jobs.
In 1921, Saint-Exupéry began his military service as a basic-rank soldier with the 2e Régiment de chasseurs à cheval and was sent to Neuhof, near Strasbourg. While there he took private flying lessons and the following year was offered a transfer from the French Army to the French Air Force, he received his pilot's wings after being posted to the 37th Fighter Regiment in Casablanca, Morocco. Being reposted to the 34th Aviation Regiment at Le Bourget on the outskirts of Paris, experiencing the first of his many aircraft crashes, Saint-Exupéry bowed to the objections of the family of his fiancée, future novelist Louise Lévêque de Vilmorin, left the air force to take an office job; the couple broke off their engagement and he worked at several more odd jobs without success over the next few years. By 1926, Saint-Exupéry was flying again, he became one of the pioneers of international postal flight, in the days when aircraft had few instruments. He complained that those who flew the more advanced aircraft had become more like accountants than pilots.
He worked for Aéropostale between Toulouse and Dakar, also became the airline stopover manager for the Cape Juby airfield in the Spanish zone of South Morocco, in the Sahara desert. His duties included negotiating the safe release of downed fliers taken hostage by Saharan tribes, a perilous task which earned him his first Légion d'honneur from the French Government. In 1929, Saint-Exupéry was transferred to Argentina, where he was appointed director of the Aeroposta Argentina airline, he surveyed new air routes across South America, negotiated agreements, occasionally flew the airmail as well as search missions looking for downed fliers. This period of his life is explored in Wings of Courage, an IMAX film by French director Jean-Jacques Annaud. Saint-Exupéry's first novella, L'Aviateur, was published in a short-lived literary magazine Le Navire d'Argent. In 1929, his first book, Courrier Sud was published; that same year, Saint-Exupéry flew the Casablanca—Dakar route. The 1931 publication of Vol de nuit established Saint-Exupéry as a rising star in the literary world.
It won the prix Femina. The novel mirrored his experiences as a mail pilot and director of the Aeroposta Argentina airline, based in Buenos Aires, Argentina; that same