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Gaetano Donizetti

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti was an Italian composer. Along with Gioachino Rossini and Vincenzo Bellini, Donizetti was a leading composer of the bel canto opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century. Donizetti's close association with the bel canto style was undoubtedly an influence on other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi. Donizetti was born in Bergamo in Lombardy. Although he did not come from a musical background, at an early age he was taken under the wing of composer Simon Mayr who had enrolled him by means of a full scholarship in a school which he had set up. There he received detailed training in the arts of counterpoint. Mayr was instrumental in obtaining a place for the young man at the Bologna Academy, where, at the age of 19, he wrote his first one-act opera, the comedy Il Pigmalione, which may never have been performed during his lifetime. Over the course of his career, Donizetti wrote 70 operas. An offer in 1822 from Domenico Barbaja, the impresario of the Teatro di San Carlo in Naples, which followed the composer's ninth opera, led to his move to that city and his residency there which lasted until the production of Caterina Cornaro in January 1844.

In all, Naples presented 51 of Donizetti's operas. Before 1830, success came with his comic operas, the serious ones failing to attract significant audiences. However, his first notable success came with an opera seria, Zoraida di Granata, presented in 1822 in Rome. In 1830, when Anna Bolena was premiered, Donizetti made a major impact on the Italian and international opera scene and this shifted the balance of success away from comedic operas, although after that date, his best-known works included comedies such as L'elisir d'amore and Don Pasquale. Significant historical dramas did succeed. Up to that point, all of his operas had been set to Italian libretti. Donizetti found himself chafing against the censorship limitations which existed in Italy. From about 1836, he became interested in working in Paris, where he saw much greater freedom to choose subject matter, in addition to receiving larger fees and greater prestige. Starting in 1838 with an offer from the Paris Opéra for two new works, he spent a considerable part of the following ten years in that city, set several operas to French texts as well as overseeing staging of his Italian works.

The first opera was a French version of the then-unperformed Poliuto which, in April 1840, was revised to become Les martyrs. Two new operas were given in Paris at that time; as the 1840s progressed, Donizetti moved between Naples, Rome and Vienna, continuing to compose and stage his own operas as well as those of other composers. But from around 1843, severe illness began to limit his activities. By early 1846 he was obliged to be confined to an institution for the mentally ill and, by late 1847, friends had him moved back to Bergamo, where he died in April 1848; the youngest of three sons, Donizetti was born in 1797 in Bergamo's Borgo Canale quarter, located just outside the city walls. His family was poor and had no tradition of music, his father Andrea being the caretaker of the town pawnshop. Simone Mayr, a German composer of internationally successful operas, had become maestro di cappella at Bergamo's principal church in 1802, he founded the Lezioni Caritatevoli school in Bergamo in 1805 for the purpose of providing musical training, including classes in literature, beyond what choirboys ordinarily received up until the time that their voices broke.

In 1807, Andrea Donizetti attempted to enroll both his sons, but the elder, was considered too old. Gaetano was accepted. While not successful as a choirboy during the first three trial months of 1807, Mayr was soon reporting that Gaetano "surpasses all the others in musical progress" and he was able to persuade the authorities that the young boy's talents were worthy of keeping him in the school, he remained there for nine years, until 1815. However, as Donizetti scholar William Ashbrook notes, in 1809 he was threatened with having to leave because his voice was changing. In 1810 he applied for and was accepted by the local art school, the Academia Carrara, but it is not known whether he attended classes. In 1811, Mayr once again intervened. Having written both libretto and music for a "pasticcio-farsa", Il piccolo compositore di musica, as the final concert of the academic year, Mayr cast five young students, among them his young pupil Donizetti as "the little composer"; as Ashbrook states, this "was nothing less than Mayr's argument that Donizetti be allowed to continue his musical studies".

The piece was performed on 13 September 1811 and included the composer character stating the following: Ah, by Bacchus, with this aria / I'll have universal applause. / They'll say to me, "Bravo, Maestro! / I, with a sufficiently modest air, / Will go around with my head bent... / I’ll have eulogies in the newspaper / I know how to make myself immortal. In reply to the chiding which comes from the other four characters in the piece after the "little composer"'s boasts, in the drama the "composer" responds with: I have a vast mind, swift talent, ready fantasy—and I'm a thunderbolt at composing; the performance included a waltz which Donizetti played and for which he received credit in the libretto. In singing this piece

Giza Solar boat museum

The Giza Solar boat museum is located in Egypt. It is dedicated to display the reconstructed Khufu solar ship; when the Egyptian antiquities inspector responsible for the area of Giza, Mohamed Zaky Nour, the civil engineer, in charge of cleaning up the area of the Pyramids of Giza, Kamal el Malakh, the supervisor of the cleaning process of the area, Doctor Abdel Men'em Aboubakr were finishing their work at the pyramids, they found out what seemed to be a wall made out of limestone. After a lot of digging in the ground, they reached the bottom of the wall and found 42 pieces of rock that were divided into two groups to protect them against any outer dangers or harm. On the 26th of May 1954, the nozzle of the hole where the pieces of the solar boat were opened and everybody, there smelled the distinctive scent of the cedar wood; the museum lies just a few meters from. It was constructed next to the Great Pyramid of Khufu; the museum is equipped with modern technologies in order to preserve the solar boat.

Reassembled Khufu ship. The museum is constructed so as to enable viewing the boat from three different levels in three floors. In the ground floor, one can view the bottom of the boat. A maquette Khufu Solar ship. Photos of the discovery & reassembling of the ship. Ancient Egyptian solar ships Abydos boats Solar barge Ancient Egyptian technology Ships preserved in museums Khufu ship Web archive backup: Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia – "Cheops ship" A Visitors Perspective of the Khufu Boat Museum Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt: Khufu Boat Museum

2016 Atlanta Braves season

The 2016 Atlanta Braves season was the Braves' 20th and last season of home games at Turner Field before moving to SunTrust Park, 51st season in Atlanta and 146th season overall. They finished in last place in the National League East Division; the Braves played 22 extra-inning games during the season, the most of any MLB team in 2016. The 2016 season was the Braves' final season at Turner Field, before moving to their new home at SunTrust Park; the stadium was built as a venue for the 1996 Summer Olympics before being converted for use by the Braves for the 1997 season. The team scheduled a number of special events and limited-edition giveaways in honor of its final season at Turner and the players wore a commemorative sleeve patch on their uniforms for the entire season; the patch showed an outline of the stadium with the words "Turner Field. The Braves began their season with a 4–3 loss in 10 innings after blowing the save in the top of the 9th. Nick Markakis of the Braves fell afoul of Major League Baseball's new "Chase Utley Rule" in the 7th inning when he slid too far out to the left of second base and prevented Daniel Murphy of the Nationals from making the double play.

The Braves ended their two-game series against the Nationals with a 3–1 loss after Matt den Dekker, called up from the Syracuse Chiefs just a few hours prior, hit a two-run double to right-center. Despite opening up their next series with a four-run lead, the Braves gave up seven unanswered runs in a 7–4 loss to the Cardinals. Atlanta gave up an MLB record three home runs to pinch hitters. In the second of the three-game series against the Cardinals, the Braves allowed nine unanswered runs in a 12–2 loss. After the loss, the Braves were the only team in the National League to have not won a single game yet. Atlanta closed out a three-game series against the Cardinals with a 12–7 loss. Braves pitcher Daniel Winkler suffered an elbow fracture after pitching 6 2/3rd's innings. Things didn't improve on the first road trip of the season as the Braves lost 6–4 to the Nationals and fell to 0–6 for the first time since 1988. Mallex Smith, who earned a hit in his MLB debut, left the game in the fourth inning after suffering a cut to his face by his helmet.

After eight scoreless innings in the second game of the series, Bryce Harper brought in two runs on a double to left field and the Nationals won 2–1. Home runs by Stephen Drew and Jayson Werth in the fourth inning handed the Braves their eighth loss of the season as the Nationals won 3–0; the Braves ended their road series against the Nationals with a 6–2 loss. After trailing 3–0 against the Marlins, the Braves scored six unanswered runs to win their first game of the season. Jason Grilli earned his first save since July 2015 with a 6–4 win over the Marlins in the second game of the series; the Braves swept the series over the Marlins with a 6–5 victory in a 10-inning game. The Braves earned their fourth win of the season against former Braves pitcher Alex Wood and the Los Angeles Dodgers in a lopsided 8–1 game at Turner Field. Wood said after the game that it "was not the way I pictured coming back here for the first time. Fastball command was the most frustrating thing. I don't know if I've walked in a run before in my professional career.

The walks were pretty frustrating. It was a tough one to swallow, but I have another one in five days." Despite a 3-1 lead, the Dodgers scored four unanswered runs to snap the Braves four-game win streak. A Yasmani Grandal double in the 10th inning gave the Dodgers a 2–1 victory in the Braves's fourth extra-inning game of the season; the Braves opened their next series with a 6–3 loss to the New York Mets. In the second game of the series, the Braves lost 8–2; the Braves ended their three-game series against the Mets with a 3–2 loss. In their first interleague series of the season, former Braves closer Craig Kimbrel earned his 94th career save at Turner Field in a 1–0 victory over the Braves. In the second game of the series, David Price pitched 14 strikeouts to secure an 11–4 victory over the Braves. In the third game of the series and first of two at Fenway Park, the Braves surrendered a grand slam to Dustin Pedroia in a 9–4 loss to the Red Sox. Freddie Freeman ended the Braves's 15-game home run-less streak with a deep ball into right-center field in the eighth inning.

In the final game of the series, three RBI's by Markakis contributed to the Braves ending their eight-game losing skid with a 5–3 victory over the Red Sox. Despite a Freeman home run in the fourth inning, the Braves allowed six unanswered runs, including their fourth grand slam of the season, in a 6–1 loss to the Cubs. A sacrifice fly by Markakis in the 10th inning allowed Daniel Castro to score the go-ahead run and beat the Cubs 4–3. In his 2016 debut, Mike Foltynewicz gave up three home runs in a 4–1 loss to the Mets. In the second game of the series, pitcher Matt Wisler surrendered one hit and earned his first win of the season in a 3–0 game against the Mets; the Braves fell 8–0 in the series finale to the Mets. Primary leadoff hitter Markakis wasn't in the lineup for the series finale as he traveled back home to Baltimore to tend to a family emergency. Two errors by the Braves led to a 7–2 loss in the first of three games against the Diamondbacks. Former Braves starting pitcher Shelby Miller earned his first win of the season in a 4–2 victory over the Braves.

Despite a two-run RBI by Jeff Francoeur to tie the game, the Braves gave up two home runs in the 11th inning in a 5–3 loss to the Diamondbacks. Despite a ninth inning home run from Freeman and two players in scoring position, the Braves lost 3–2 in the first of three games against the Phillies. After being recalled from Triple-A Gwinnett, Williams Pérez surrendered one hit in eight innings pitched in a 5–1 victory over the Phillies. Despit

René Arnoux

René Alexandre Arnoux is a French former racing driver who competed in 12 Formula One seasons. He participated in 165 World Championship Grands Prix winning seven of them, achieving 22 podium finishes and scoring 181 career points, his best finish in the World Drivers' Championship was third in 1983 for Ferrari. In 1977, Arnoux won the European Formula Two Championship. In 2006 he raced in the inaugural season of the Grand Prix Masters series for retired F1 drivers. Arnoux's career began in Formule Renault and he first moved into Formula Two in 1974 with Elf, taking fourth place on his debut at Nogaro. In 1975 he won the title. For 1976, Arnoux moved back to Formula Two with an Elf-sponsored, works Martini-Renault, winning three races and narrowly losing the title to Jean-Pierre Jabouille. However, he won the 1977 European Championship. Arnoux won races at Silverstone, Hockenheim and Nogaro, which along with second places at Enna-Pergusa and Estoril saw him finish 12 points clear of American Eddie Cheever, driving for Ron Dennis' Project Four Racing, 14 points clear of teammate Didier Pironi.

Arnoux continued with the Martini team when it made the transition to Formula One in 1978. However, in an organisation with insufficient means to compete in the highest echelon of the sport, Arnoux was unable to demonstrate his abilities and Martini abandoned Formula One during the season, having run short of money. Arnoux's best finishes for Martini were two 9th places in Austria, he failed to qualify in South Africa, failed to pre-qualify in Monaco and Germany. Arnoux moved to Surtees for the last two races of the season, but once again found himself in a team on the edge of failure. Unlike team owner John Surtees who had won the F1 World Championship in 1964, Team Surtees was a front runner in Grand Prix racing. In his two races for the team Arnoux's best finish was his first race where he placed 9th at Watkins Glen for the United States Grand Prix. Arnoux qualified the Surtees TS20 in 21st place at Watkins Glen, while teammate Beppe Gabbiani failed to qualify, his last race for the team in Canada saw him qualify an encouraging 16th but retire just after half distance when the Ford DFV engine failed.

Surtees would have liked to sign Arnoux on a permanent basis, but his few drives to date had demonstrated his potential to bigger teams and Arnoux signed with Renault for 1979. In the 1979 season, the factory Renault team entered two cars for the first time since its debut in 1977; the team's only victory of the year was taken by Arnoux's teammate Jean-Pierre Jabouille at the French Grand Prix at the Dijon-Prenois circuit, but Arnoux took the headlines due to a fierce, but good-natured wheel-banging battle with the Flat-12 Ferrari of Gilles Villeneuve for second place. Villeneuve would just hold off Arnoux to take second place. Arnoux began to fulfil his potential in the second half of the season with 4 top-six finishes whereas Jabouille's Dijon victory was his only points finish of the year. In 1980, Arnoux took his first two Formula One victories, the first being at a much-protested Interlagos circuit in Brazil but a lack of reliability prevented him from playing a part in the fight for the world title, although he took three pole positions.

His second win came in the next race at the Kyalami circuit in South Africa where the thinner air at high altitude saw the turbocharged Renault RE20 have a power advantage over its Cosworth powered rivals. At that point in the season Arnoux was leading the World Championship for the first time, he would not lose the championship lead until Round 6 in Monaco. The season though was punctuated by unreliability from the turbocharged Renault V6 engine, though progress was moving forward with the V6 proving powerful, producing 510 bhp to be on par with Ferrari. What hurt the Renaults was unreliability, the lack of ground effects. Although he would finish in a fine second in the Dutch Grand Prix at Zandvoort, he would finish the season in 6th place with 29 points, 38 points behind World Champion Alan Jones. Arnoux's situation was complicated in 1981 by the arrival of Alain Prost at Renault, their rivalry on track flared up off the track and relations between the two men deteriorated, dividing the small world of French motorsport.

The conflict reached its peak at the 1982 French Grand Prix at the Circuit Paul Ricard. The drivers took the first one-two in Renault's history in Formula One, Arnoux finishing ahead of Prost. Prost was furious, considering that his teammate had not kept to the team orders agreed before the race, according to which he should have ceded the win to Prost, better placed in the 1982 championship. Arnoux replied that no orders had been given before the race and that he was free to drive his own race, he took one other win at the Italian Grand Prix at the end of the season. He was lucky to walk away from a high speed crash after losing a wheel going into the banked Tarzan corner at the end of the long straight in the 1982 Dutch Grand Prix, though luckily his car's momentum was stopped by the sand trap and tyre barrier; the pairing of Prost and Arnoux having become unsustainable, Arnoux left Renault at the end of 1982 to join the other factory team in Formula One, Ferrari in 1983, joining another French driver Patrick Tambay.

Prior to the Canadian Grand Prix, rumours were flying that Arnoux's place at Ferrari was under threat. However, with three victories, at the Canadian and Dutch Grands Prix, he was in contention for the world title for much of the season, but was left behind by his

Epinay Congress

The Epinay Congress was the third national congress of the French Socialist Party, which took place on 11, 12 and 13 June 1971, in the town of Épinay-sur-Seine, in the northern suburbs of Paris. During this congress, not only did the party admit the Convention of Republican Institutions into its ranks, but the party leadership was won by Mitterrand and his supporters. For the observers and the French Socialists themselves, the Epinay Congress was the real founding act of the current PS, it was the turning point in Mitterrand's grand political plan, which led to the ascendancy of the French Left over the next quarter-century, in 1981, to Mitterrand's election to the Presidency of France for two consecutive 7-year terms. After the catastrophic results of the 1968 legislative election and of the 1969 presidential election, the secretary general of the French Section of the Workers' International Guy Mollet resigned; the party merged with several centre-left clubs. The leader of one of these groups, Alain Savary, was elected first secretary of the new Socialist Party.

Supported by Mollet's circle, he tried to convince the internal opponents of his will of change. However, these opponents were themselves divided about the strategy of the party; the right-wing, led by Pierre Mauroy and Gaston Defferre, was composed of some local elects who made alliances with the centrist parties, whereas the left-wing CERES faction led by Jean-Pierre Chevènement wanted to accelerate the process of an alliance with the French Communist Party. The Communists were the largest party of the French left at the time and advocated the unity of the French left around a Common Programme. Savary found a compromise between the PS factions: it was agreed to begin an "ideological dialogue" with the PCF; this dialogue was seen as a paving of the way towards an eventual electoral coalition with the Communists. The general principle of the "Union of the Left" was adopted, but the alliance with centrist parties was tolerated in some local assemblies. Mitterrand and the CIR, which joined the PS in Epinay, advocated immediate negotiations with the PCF in order to write a common election programme.

Indeed, Mittterrand was candidate of the Left, supported by Socialists and Communists, in the 1965 presidential election. The will to overthrow Savary and Mollet's group from the leadership of the party permitted the birth of a broad coalition between the Mitterrand, Defferre and Chevènement factions, it united against the proposition of Savary to change the ballot system for the election of the leading committee. It elected Mitterrand to the first secretaryship with 51.3% of the vote against 48.7% for Savary and Mollet. This Congress was described as a premeditated plot, prepared by Mitterrand, Mauroy and Chevènement beforehand. Mitterrand became the new PS first secretary and in the following year signed the Common Programme with the Communist Party and the Movement of the Radical-Socialist Left. Mitterrand clinched the party leadership with a radical speech, a strategy used in French socialist congresses: "Reform or revolution? I feel like saying, revolution Violent or peaceful, a revolution is first of all a break Whoever does not want the break with the established order with capitalist society, cannot be a member of the Socialist Party".

His project to ally with the Communist Party in order to replace it as main left-wing party became obvious when he said, during the congress: "I think it is not normal: that 5 million Frenchwomen and Frenchmen choose the Communist Party". François Mitterrand was elected as First Secretary. Franz-Olivier Giesbert, Seuil, 1996

1998 Spanish Grand Prix

The 1998 Spanish Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 10 May 1998 at the Circuit de Catalunya. It was the fifth race of the 1998 Formula One season; the 65-lap race was won by McLaren driver Mika Häkkinen. His teammate David Coulthard finished second and Ferrari driver Michael Schumacher took third. Mika Häkkinen qualified in pole position, 0.7 seconds ahead of his McLaren teammate David Coulthard in second place, with Ferrari's Michael Schumacher a further 0.8 seconds behind in third. The race proved to be a formality for Häkkinen, winning the race ahead of Coulthard in second, Schumacher in third. Arrows driver Pedro Diniz started from the pit lane due to stalling on the warm up lap. At the start the McLarens got away well, but Schumacher made a poor start and fell back to fifth behind his teammate Eddie Irvine and Benetton's Giancarlo Fisichella, they ran in these positions until the first round of pit stops, when Irvine delayed Fisichella sufficiently for his teammate Schumacher to emerge ahead of them both and regain third.

Fisichella and Irvine continued to battle until lap 28, when Fisichella attempted a passing manoeuvre around the outside of Irvine, resulting in a collision spearing them both off into the gravel trap. This led to Fisichella's Benetton teammate, Alexander Wurz, inheriting fourth place which he held until the finish. Mika Häkkinen was faster than his teammate David Coulthard throughout the race weekend, unable to match his pace though they were in the same car. Respected ex driver and pundit Martin Brundle made the comment that Häkkinen was "in a class of his own". During the race, Michael Schumacher and Minardi's Esteban Tuero were given 10 second stop-go penalties for pit lane speeding; the Stewart of Rubens Barrichello earned two points by finishing in fifth place, which were team's first of the season, this was made possible by the new engine and chassis the team used. Reigning World Champion Jacques Villeneuve finished in sixth place, after Williams had their worst qualifying result since the 1989 United States Grand Prix.

On the final lap, Williams driver Heinz-Harald Frentzen passed Prost's Jarno Trulli for eight place when Trulli was incorrectly shown the blue flags as the marshalls had mistaken the Williams for a Ferrari. "I am angry because I had to give up a great battle, it isn't fair to lose a position because they are blind and can't recognise one car from another. Of course it doesn't matter much to finish eighth or ninth. In a case of a blue flag I didn't have an alternative". Jarno Trulli Post race, Fisichella was given a $7,500USD fine for the collision with Irvine. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings; this was the first race of the 1998 season in which a driver failed to qualify due to not completing a time inside 107% of the pole position time. The unfortunate driver was Ricardo Rosset; this was the slimmest-ever margin for which a driver failed to qualify due to the rule. Damon Hill missed out by only 0.003 seconds at the 1999 French Grand Prix but was permitted to race due to "exceptional circumstances"