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Gioachino Rossini

Gioachino Antonio Rossini was an Italian composer who gained fame for his 39 operas, although he wrote many songs, some chamber music and piano pieces, some sacred music. He set new standards for both comic and serious opera before retiring from large-scale composition while still in his thirties, at the height of his popularity. Born in Pesaro to parents who were both musicians, Rossini began to compose by the age of 12 and was educated at music school in Bologna, his first opera was performed in Venice in 1810. In 1815 he was engaged to manage theatres in Naples. In the period 1810–1823 he wrote 34 operas for the Italian stage that were performed in Venice, Ferrara and elsewhere. During this period he produced his most popular works including the comic operas L'italiana in Algeri, Il barbiere di Siviglia and La Cenerentola, which brought to a peak the opera buffa tradition he inherited from masters such as Domenico Cimarosa, he composed opera seria works such as Otello and Semiramide. All of these attracted admiration for their innovation in melody and instrumental colour, dramatic form.

In 1824 he was contracted by the Opéra in Paris, for which he produced an opera to celebrate the coronation of Charles X, Il viaggio a Reims, revisions of two of his Italian operas, Le siège de Corinthe and Moïse, in 1829 his last opera, Guillaume Tell. Rossini's withdrawal from opera for the last 40 years of his life has never been explained. From the early 1830s to 1855, when he left Paris and was based in Bologna, Rossini wrote little. On his return to Paris in 1855 he became renowned for his musical salons on Saturdays attended by musicians and the artistic and fashionable circles of Paris, for which he wrote the entertaining pieces Péchés de vieillesse. Guests included Franz Liszt, Anton Rubinstein, Giuseppe Verdi and Joseph Joachim. Rossini's last major composition was his Petite messe solennelle, he died in Paris in 1868. Rossini was born in 1792 in Pesaro, a town on the Adriatic coast of Italy, part of the Papal States, he was the only child of Giuseppe Rossini, a trumpeter and horn player, his wife Anna, née Guidarini, a seamstress by trade, daughter of a baker.

Giuseppe Rossini was impetuous and feckless. Stendhal, who published a colourful biography of Rossini in 1824, wrote: Rossini's portion from his father, was the true native heirship of an Italian: a little music, a little religion, a volume of Ariosto; the rest of his education was consigned to the legitimate school of southern youth, the society of his mother, the young singing girls of the company, those prima donnas in embryo, the gossips of every village through which they passed. This was aided and refined by the musical barber and news-loving coffee-house keeper of the Papal village. Giuseppe was imprisoned at least twice: first in 1790 for insubordination to local authorities in a dispute about his employment as town trumpeter. In 1798, when Rossini was aged six, his mother began a career as a professional singer in comic opera, for a little over a decade was a considerable success in cities including Trieste and Bologna, before her untrained voice began to fail. In 1802 the family moved to Lugo, near Ravenna, where Rossini received a good basic education in Italian and arithmetic as well as music.

He studied the horn with his father and other music with a priest, Giuseppe Malerbe, whose extensive library contained works by Haydn and Mozart, both little known in Italy at the time, but inspirational to the young Rossini. He was a quick learner, by the age of twelve he had composed a set of six sonatas for four stringed instruments, which were performed under the aegis of a rich patron in 1804. Two years he was admitted to the opened Liceo Musicale, Bologna studying singing and piano, joining the composition class soon afterwards, he wrote some substantial works while a student, including a mass and a cantata, after two years he was invited to continue his studies. He declined the offer: the strict academic regime of the Liceo had given him a solid compositional technique, but as his biographer Richard Osborne puts it, "his instinct to continue his education in the real world asserted itself". While still at the Liceo, Rossini had performed in public as a singer and worked in theatres as a répétiteur and keyboard soloist.

In 1810 at the request of the popular tenor Domenico Mombelli he wrote his first operatic score, a two-act operatic dramma serio, Demetrio e Polibio, to a libretto by Mombelli's wife. It was publicly staged in 1812, after the composer's first successes. Rossini and his parents concluded; the main operatic centre in north eastern Italy was Venice. Rossini's first opera to be staged was La cambiale di matrimonio, a one-act comedy, given at the small Teatro San Moisè in

James Leroy Murrill

James Leroy Murrill is believed to be the last surviving Confederate veteran in Baltimore. James Leroy Murrill was born on January 1847, in Nelson County, Virginia, his father was a teacher, farmer, a railroad boss. When James Leroy Murrill was 17, he enlisted in the Confederate States Army in 1863, he served in the 3rd Virginia Infantry Regiment. He served in several major campaigns until Robert E. Lee's surrender at the Appomattox Court House, only 17 miles from Murrill's home. After the war Murrill moved to Baltimore, where he worked in his uncle's factory, The Murrill and Keizer Company, on 212 Holliday street next door to the Baltimore City Hall, he worked there as a mechanist, while he was going to the Maryland Institute for Mechanical Drawling. When James Murrill graduated from The Maryland Institute of Mechanical Drawling, he was granted the Peabody Prize for his achievements while he was working his way up the ranks at the factory at the same time, he became an incredible mechanical drawler.

Murrill taught at the institute for 4 years. He became the school commissioner from 1887-1891. James Murrill became the President of Murrill and Keizer Company, a profitable business for many years, it was profitable so he gave the company to his employees whom he had much respect for. Many of these employees had worked for the company for over 50 years. Murrill was the president of the Lafayette Perpetual Building and Loan Association for forty years until his death in 1937, he was the president of the Baltimore Automatic Fire Alarm Company for many years. He was a member of the Masonic Order, the Virginia Society, his wife, Fraces Wheeler, died in 1914. Murrill died in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 26, 1937, at the age of 91, he was survived by his son named three grandchildren. "Rites Tomorrow for James Murrill". Baltimore Sun. 1937-04-26. McMillan, Andrew J.. F.. Janet B. Hewett; the Roster of Confederate Soldiers 1861-1865. Wilmington: Broadfoot Publishing Company. ISBN 1-56837-306-6

Tagsistant

Tagsistant is a semantic file system for the Linux kernel, written in C and based on FUSE. Unlike traditional file systems that use hierarchies of directories to locate objects, Tagsistant introduces the concept of tags. In computing, a file system is a type of data store which could be used to store and update files; each file can be uniquely located by its path. The user must know the path in advance to access a file and the path does not include any information about the content of the file. Tagsistant uses a complementary approach based on tags; the user can create a set of tags and apply those tags to files and other objects. The user can search all the objects that match a subset of tags, called a query; this kind of approach is well suited for managing user contents like pictures, audio recordings and text documents but is incompatible with system files where the univocity of the path is a security requirement to prevent the access to a wrong content. A Tagsistant file system features four main directories: archive/ relations/ stats/ tags/Tags are created as sub directories of the tags/ directory and can be used in queries complying to this syntax: tags/subquery//@/where a subquery is an arbitrarily long list of tags, concatenated as directories: tag1/tag2/tag3/.../tagN/The portion of a path delimited by tags/ and @/ is the actual query.

The +/ operator joins the results of different sub-queries in one single list. The @/ operator ends the query. To be returned as a result of the following query: tags/t1/t2/+/t1/t4/@/an object must be tagged as both t1/ and t2/ or as both t1/ and t4/. Any object tagged as t2 / or t4 /; the query syntax deliberately violates the POSIX file system semantics by allowing a path token to be a descendant of itself, like in tags/t1/t2/+/t1/t4/@ where t1/ appears twice. As a consequence a recursive scan of a Tagsistant file system will exit with an error or endlessly loop, as done by UNIX find: This drawback is balanced by the possibility to list the tags inside a query in any order; the query tags/t1/t2/@/ is equivalent to tags/t2/t1/@/ and tags/t1/+/t2/t3/@/ is equivalent to tags/t2/t3/+/t1/@/. The @/ element has the precise purpose of restoring the POSIX semantics: the path tags/t1/@/directory/ refers to a traditional directory and a recursive scan of this path will properly perform. Tagsistant features a simple reasoner which expands the results of a query by including objects tagged with related tags.

A relation between two tags can be established inside the relations/ directory following a three level pattern: relations/tag1/rel/tag2/The rel element can be includes or is_equivalent. To include the rock tag in the music tag, the UNIX command mkdir can be used: mkdir -p relations/music/includes/rockThe reasoner can recursively resolve relations, allowing the creation of complex structures: mkdir -p relations/music/includes/rock mkdir -p relations/rock/includes/hard_rock mkdir -p relations/rock/includes/grunge mkdir -p relations/rock/includes/heavy_metal mkdir -p relations/heavy_metal/includes/speed_metalThe web of relations created inside the relations/ directory constitutes a basic form of ontology. Tagsistant features an autotagging plugin stack which gets called when a file or a symlink is written; each plugin is called if its declared MIME type matches The list of working plugins released with Tagsistant 0.6 is limited to: text/html: tags the file with each word in <title> and <keywords> elements and with document and html too image/jpeg: tags the file with each Exif tag Each Tagsistant file system has a corresponding repository containing an archive/ directory where the objects are saved and a tags.sql file holding tagging information as an SQLite database.

If the MySQL database engine was specified with the --db argument, the tags.sql file will be empty. Another file named. Tagsistant 0.6 is compatible with the MySQL and Sqlite dialects of SQL for tag reasoning and tagging resolution. While porting its logic to other SQL dialects is possible, differences in basic constructs must be considered; the archive/ directory has been introduced to provide a quick way to access objects without using tags. Objects are listed with their inode number prefixed; the stats/ directory features some read-only files containing usage statistics. A file configuration holds both compile time information and current repository configuration, it has been highlighted that relying on an external database to store tags and tagging information could cause the complete loss of metadata if the database gets corrupted. It has been highlighted; this could be mitigated introducing triple tags. Semantic file system Official website Arch Linux package Discussion on Hacker News Extended attributes and tag file systems Tagsistant On Production