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Galactic Empire (Star Wars)

The Galactic Empire is a fictional autocracy featured in the Star Wars franchise. It was first introduced in the 1977 film Star Wars and appears in its two sequels: The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, it is the main antagonist faction of the original trilogy. The government collapses a year following the conclusion of the Galactic Civil War in Return of the Jedi, the First Order is formed by Imperial remnants. An oppressive, autocratic regime with a complicated bureaucracy, the Galactic Empire seeks to ensure singular rule over every planet and civilization within the galaxy. At its peak, the Galactic Empire sprawls over much of the known Star Wars galaxy, which consists of millions of star systems and billions more fringe colonies, fortress worlds, outer territories; the Empire's origins are depicted in the prequel Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, where it replaces the Galactic Republic at the end of the Clone Wars orchestrated by Sheev Palpatine, the Republic's Supreme Chancellor.

Palpatine is secretly a Dark Lord of the Sith named Darth Sidious, intending to purge the Jedi and restore the Sith to power. Palpatine falsely accuses the Jedi of causing the Clone Wars, a secessionist war, to weaken the Republic and gain power. Palpatine manipulates the Galactic Senate into using clone troopers created during the conflict to kill the Jedi. After engineering these threats himself, Palpatine reorganizes the Republic into a state that could "ensure the security and continuing stability, a safe and secure society" – a Galactic Empire with himself as its Emperor; the Senate overwhelmingly applauds this decision and lauds Palpatine's apparent resolve and selflessness. Though Palpatine's Sith identity remains a secret to all but a handful of individuals, his apprentice, the Sith Lord Darth Vader maintains a more public presence, acting as a personification of the Empire's power. By the time of Episode IV – A New Hope, the Empire has transformed into an authoritarian regime, opposed by the Alliance to Restore the Republic.

The completion of the Death Star, a doomsday weapon, allows Palpatine to dissolve the powerless Imperial Senate. The Galactic Empire is described and portrayed in various Star Wars media as an arrogant and brutal dictatorship, one based on "nationalization, state terrorism, xenophobia and genocide of non-humans, power projection, threat of lethal force, above all else, constant fear". Star Wars creator George Lucas sought to make the Galactic Empire aesthetically and thematically similar to Nazi Germany and to appear to be fascist. Similar to Nazi Germany, the Galactic Empire is a dictatorship based on rigid control of society that dissolved a previous democracy and is led by an all-powerful supreme ruler; the Empire, like the Nazis, desires the creation of totalitarian order and utilizes excessive force and violence to achieve their ends. The name of the Empire's main soldiers, the Stormtroopers, is somewhat similar to the name given to Hitler's Sturmabteilung paramilitary bodyguards; the visual appearance of Darth Vader in his all-black uniform combined with his devout obedience to the Emperor has allusion to the black-uniformed Nazi Schutzstaffel.

The uniforms of Imperial military officers bear resemblance to uniforms used in Nazi Germany as well as nineteenth-century Germany's ulans —who wore a tunic, riding breeches, boots like the Empire's officers wear—as well as the Imperial officers' cap resembling the field caps worn by German and Austrian troops. In addition to Nazi Germany, there was at least one portion of the Galactic Empire, based on the Soviet Union, the various military personnel and TIE Fighters are flying in formation as Palpatine arrives on the Death Star in Return of the Jedi. In the commentary track for the film's DVD release, Lucas said that the ceremony for the Emperor's arrival was inspired by May Day military parades in the Soviet Union. Lucas has indicated that the Galactic Empire's struggle against a smaller guerilla force was inspired by America's involvement in the Vietnam War and his surprise at how few people spoke up against the war. Palpatine's rise to power, transforming a democracy into a dictatorship has been related to those of Julius Caesar, Napoleon Bonaparte, Adolf Hitler.

Palpatine's consolidation of power and declaring himself emperor is like the Roman political figure Octavian, in that Octavian manipulated the Roman Senate as Palpatine did with the Galactic Senate. The Galactic Empire was born out of the collapsing Galactic Republic. However, its seeds are planted during the Clone Wars, the epic war between the Republic and the separatist Confederacy of Independent Systems depicted in Episode II: Attack of the Clones and Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. In Episode I: The Phantom Menace, amid a trade dispute and invasion of his home world, Senator Palpatine convinces Queen Padmé Amidala to call for a vote of no confidence in Supreme Chancellor of the Republic Finis Valorum. Palpatine is elected Supreme Chancellor; as fighting intensifies in Episode II, the Galactic Senate, the legislature of the Republic, grants Palpatine emergency powers to deal with the crisis. Palpatine promises to return his powers once peace and ord

Derrymony

Derrymony is a townland in the civil parish of Templeport, County Cavan, Ireland. It lies in barony of Tullyhaw. Derrymony is bounded on the north by Prospect, Corlough townland, on the west by Tirnawannagh townland in Corlough parish, on the south by Erraran townland and on the east by Killyneary and Brackley, Templeport townlands, its chief geographical features are Brackley Lough, forestry plantations and dug wells. Derrymony is traversed by rural lanes; the townland covers 254 statute acres. The 1609 Baronial Map depicts the townland as part of Gortanill; the 1652 Commonwealth Survey spells the name as Diremony. The 1665 Down Survey map depicts it as Derrymony. William Petty's 1685 map depicts it as Deremony; the 1652 Commonwealth Survey lists the proprietor as Lieutenant Arthur Newborogh and the tenant as John Trench, both of whom appear in other Templeport townlands in the same survey. In the Hearth Money Rolls of 1662 there were no people paying the Hearth Tax in the townland. A deed by John Enery dated 13 December 1774 includes the lands of Derrymoney.

The Tithe Applotment Books for 1827 list ten tithepayers in the townland. The Derrymony Valuation Office Field books are available for October 1839. In 1841 the population of the townland was 80, being 40 males and 49 females. There were sixteen houses in the townland. In 1851 the population of the townland was 71, being 36 males and 35 females, the reduction being due to the Great Famine. There were ten houses in the townland. Griffith's Valuation of 1857 lists seventeen landholders in the townland. In 1861 the population of the townland was 55, being 24 females. There were ten houses in the townland and all were inhabited. In the 1901 census of Ireland, there are seven families listed in the townland. In the 1911 census of Ireland, there are only five families listed in the townland. There do not seem to be any structures of historical interest in the townland; the IreAtlas Townland Data Base A folktale about Derrymony in the 1600s

1916 in Italy

See also: 1915 in Italy, other events of 1916, 1917 in Italy. Events from the year 1916 in Italy. Monarch – Victor Emmanuel III Prime Minister – Antonio Salandra Paolo Boselli Population – 36,481,000 Italy entered World War I in May 1915, declaring war on Austria-Hungary; the Royal Italian Army stands under command of Chief of Field Marshall Luigi Cadorna. The Isonzo is the main battlefield on the Italian Front; the goal of these offensives was the fortress of Gorizia, the capture of which would permit the Italian armies to pivot south and march on Trieste. The frequency of offensives, one every three months, was higher than demanded by the armies on the Western Front. Italian discipline was harsher, with punishments for infractions of duty of a severity not known in the German and British armies. February 14 – First bombing of Milan. Two Austrian planes drop bombs on Porta Volta. March 9–15 – After the winter lull, the Italians launch the Fifth Battle of the Isonzo, but Austrian-Hungarian troops repulse the offensive, the battle concludes in poor weather for trench warfare.

May 15 – June 10 – Battle of Asiago. Following the stalemate, the Austrian forces begin planning a counteroffensive in Trentino and directed over the plateau of Altopiano di Asiago, with the aim to break through to the Po River plain and thus cutting off the Italian Armies in the North East of the country; the offensive results in no gain. June 11 – Due to the defeat at the Battle of Asiago, Prime Minister Antonio Salandra resigns. June 18 – Paolo Boselli forms a new Cabinet; the new government has the character of a government of national unity and consists of nineteen ministers, representative of all political groups. Vittorio Emanuele Orlando becomes Minister of the Interior, while Sidney Sonnino remains Foreign Minister. July 12 – Cesare Battisti and Fabio Filzi, both Austrian subjects but exponents of Trentino irredentism are hanged by the Austrians in Trento, they had enlisted in the Italian army and were captured by the Austrians, who condemned them as deserters. August 6–17 – The Battle of Doberdò and the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo, both launched by the Italians, result in a success greater than the previous attacks.

The offensive did take Gorizia, which boosts Italian spirits. August 28 – Italy declares war on Germany. September 14–17 – Seventh Battle of the Isonzo; the Italians try to extend their hold of their newly-won Gorizia bridgehead in attacks to the south-east of the town. Despite the greater concentration of resources upon a single point – intended to reduce the high casualty rate sustained to date – the attack was called off after three days of heavy casualties. October 5 – The Italian Government is informed of the content of the agreement signed in May between France and Russia for the partition of the Asian part of the Ottoman Empire. Italy advances reservations about these agreements and demands that part of Asia Minor including the Turkish provinces of Aidin and Adana, would be allocated to Italy as agreed in the 1915 Treaty of London. October 10–12 – Eighth Battle of the Isonzo; the attack is a continuation of attempts made during the previous Seventh Battle of the Isonzo to extend the bridgehead established at Gorizia during the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo in August 1916.

Heavy Italian casualties require. November 1–4 – Ninth Battle of the Isonzo is called off in failure, the Italians, weakened by continual offensive operations throughout the year – 1916 had seen five Isonzo operations on top of four undertaken the year before – take a lengthy break for the winter. December 13 – "White Friday", 10,000 Austrian and Italian soldiers are killed by avalanches in the Dolomites. According to some reports both sides deliberately fired shells into the weakened snowpacks in an attempt to bury the other side. January 24 – Arnoldo Foà, Italian actor March 4 – Giorgio Bassani, Italian writer April 28 – Ferruccio Lamborghini, Italian automobile manufacturer May 20 – Trebisonda Valla, Italian athlete July 14 – Natalia Ginzburg, Italian author September 23 – Aldo Moro, Prime Minister of Italy September 27 – Trento Longaretti, Italian painter April 20 – Claudio Casanova, Italian professional football player who died from the injuries he suffered at front in World War I August 6 – Enrico Toti, Italian one-legged cyclist killed in the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo August 10 – Giuseppe Sinigaglia, Italian rower, killed in the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo August 17 – Umberto Boccioni, influential Italian painter and sculptor that helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement October 10 – Antonio Sant'Elia, Italian architect and a key member of the Futurist movement in architecture, killed during the Eighth Battle of the Isonzo