In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species defends against conspecifics. Animals that defend territories in this way are referred to as territorial. Territoriality is only shown by a minority of species. More an individual or a group of animals has an area that it habitually uses but does not defend; the home ranges of different groups of animals overlap, or in the overlap areas, the groups tend to avoid each other rather than seeking to expel each other. Within the home range there may be a core area that no other individual group uses, again, this is as a result of avoidance; the ultimate function of animals inhabiting and defending a territory is to increase the individual fitness or inclusive fitness of the animals expressing the behaviour. Fitness in this biological sense relates to the ability of an animal to raise young; the proximate functions of territory defense vary. For some animals, the reason for such protective behaviour is to acquire and protect food sources, nesting sites, mating areas, or to attract a mate.
Among birds, territories have been classified as six types. Type A: An'all-purpose territory' in which all activities occur, e.g. courtship, mating and foraging Type B: A mating and nesting territory, not including most of the area used for foraging. Type C: A nesting territory which includes the nest plus a small area around it. Common in colonial waterbirds. Type D: A pairing and mating territory; the type of territory defended by males in lekking species. Type E: Roosting territory. Type F: Winter territory which includes foraging areas and roost sites. May be equivalent to the Type A territory, or for a migratory species, may be on the wintering grounds. Reports of territory size can be confused by a lack of distinction between home range and the defended territory; the size and shape of a territory can vary according to its purpose, the amount and quality of resources it contains, or the geography. The size is a compromise of resource needs, defense costs, predation pressure and reproductive needs.
Some species of squirrels may claim as much as 10 hectares of territory. For European badgers, a home range may be as small as 30 hectares in a good rural habitat, but as large as 300 hectares in a poor habitat. On average, a territory may be 50 hectares, with main setts at least 500 metres apart. In urban areas, territories can be as small as 5 hectares, if they can obtain enough food from bird tables, food waste or artificial feeding in suburban gardens. Spotted hyenas have variable territory sizes, ranging from less than 4,000 hectares in the Ngorongoro Crater to over 100,000 hectares in the Kalahari. In birds, golden eagles have territories of 9,000 hectares, least flycatchers' territories are about 600 square metres and gulls have territories of only a few square centimetres in the immediate vicinity of the nest. Territories can be linear. Sanderlings forage on sandflats; when on beaches, they feed either in flocks or individual territories of 10 to 120 metres of shoreline. The time to develop territories varies between animals.
The marine iguana is a lekking reptile. Males start to establish small display territories two months ahead of the mating season. Rather than retaining a territory by fighting, for some animals this can be a 3-stage process. Many animals create "sign-posts" to advertise their territory. Sometimes these sign-posts are on the boundary thereby demarcating the territory, or, may be scattered throughout the territory; these communicate to other animals that the territory is occupied and may communicate additional information such as the sex, reproductive status or dominance status of the territory-holder. Sign-posts may communicate information by olfactory, auditory, or visual means, or a combination of these. If an intruder progresses further into the territory beyond the sign-posts and encounters the territory-holder, both animals may begin ritualized aggression toward each other; this is a series of stylised postures, displays, etc. which function to solve the territory dispute without actual fighting as this could injure either or both animals.
Ritualized aggression ends by one of the animals fleeing. If this does not happen, the territory may be defended by actual fighting, although this is a last resort. Scent marking known as territorial marking or spraying when this involves urination, is a behaviour used by animals to identify their territory. Most this is accomplished by depositing strong-smelling substances contained in the urine, faeces, or, from specialised scent glands located on various areas of the body; the scent contains pheromones or carrier proteins such as the major urinary proteins to stabilize the odours and maintain them for longer. The animal sniffing the scent displays a flehmen response to assist in detecting the mark. Scent marking is performed by scent rubbing in many mammals. In many mammal species, scent marking is more frequent during the breeding season. Felids such as leopards and jaguars mark by rubbing themselves against vegetation. Fraser, Andrew Ferguson. Feline Behaviour and Welfare. CABI. p. 53. ISBN 9781845939267.
Prosimians and New World monkeys use scent marking, including urine washing, to communicate. Many ungulates, for example the blue wildebeest, use scent marking from two glands, the preorbital gland and a scent gland in the hoof. Territorial scent marking
Northern greater galago
The northern greater galago known as Garnett's greater galago or small-eared greater galago, is a nocturnal, arboreal primate endemic to Africa. Four subspecies of Otolemur garnettii are recognized: Otolemur garnettii garnettii Otolemur garnettii lasiotis Otolemur garnettii kikuyuensis Otolemur garnettii panganiensis This species has a large body size relative to other galagos; the ears are small relative to the round head with wide snout. The eyes are binocular; the dentition formula is 2:1:3:3. The coloration depends upon subspecies: O. g. garnetti exhibits green-tinged reddish brown dorsal pelage. The ventral side is yellow and the terminal half of the tail is black. O. g. lasiotis has more gray toned fur than O. g. garnetti. The ventral side is white and the tail's terminal end of the tail is only darker than the rest with a white tip. O. g. kikuyuensis exhibits iron gray fur tinged with green on its back and limbs. The ventral side is yellow-white; the tail is light brown with the terminal quarter being black.
O. g. panganiensis is reddish brown to gray lacking the greenish hints in other species, while the ventral surface varies from white to yellow. The terminal quarter of the tail is black; the northern greater galago has a head-and-body length of 23–34 cm, a tail length of 31–44 cm and body weight of 0.5–1 kg. This species exhibits significant degree of sexual size dimorphism with males larger than the females; this is due to bimaturism, where males have a longer period of growth and have an average 19% greater body mass than females. The average male is 794 g and the average adult female is 734 g; the species is found in coastal regions of East Africa ranging from the Juba River in Somalia to the Ruvuma River in Tanzania. It can be found inland throughout the Kenyan highlands and on the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba; the species is restricted to Kenyan highland forest. It does not inhabit woodland savannah; the actual geographic range of each subspecies is as follows: O. g. garnetti is restricted to Zanzibar and the Pemba Islands.
O. g. lasiotis is found along the Kenyan coast as far north as the Juba River and south to Tanga and Tanzania. Its range extends inland to the Taita Hills and Kibwezi. O. g. kikuyuensis is found in the Kenyan Highlands. O. g. panganiensis is found throughout Tanzania from the border of Mozambique north to Tanga. The northern greater galago is a nocturnal predominantly arboreal primate. During the day, they emerge at night, they tend to focus on a portion of their home range for several nights while foraging move on to concentrate on a new section after a short time. They are capable of hopping short distances from tree to tree. Unlike their larger relatives the brown greater galagos, northern greater galagos can land hind feet first when leaping, their diet consists of fruit and insects a 50/50 mix. They consume mollusks when available. Greater northern galagos are solitary and live and forage in their home range marked by urine and scent gland on chest. Males and females disperse from their birth territory, with males doing so earlier and moving farther away.
Males and females do not have ranges that overlap with same-aged individuals. Males have territories. However, females tend to be dominant over males. Males tend to follow females around and females show more aggression to transient individuals passing through their home territory than do males; these species are less social compared to Otolemur crassicaudatus due to the fact they are frugivorous. It is more profitable to exclude non related individuals from areas, they still exhibit some social play. Social grooming is not present instead reciprocal licking performs function of grooming while minimizing social interaction. Male galago species possess distinctive penile morphology that can be used to classify species; the northern greater galago penis is on average 18 mm in length and width of shaft is from body to bottom of tip. The baculum is visible at the tip; the glans terminates with a characteristic set of curves. The surface is spined with doubled headed or tridentate penile spines pointing towards the body.
They are less densely packed than in Otolemur crassicaudatus. Northern greater galagos are promiscuous in their sexual behavior; the female comes into estrus once a year in the spring. The male emits a sex call. If the female is receptive, she will allow copulation with the male licking her head following intercourse; this process may be repeated. The gestation period for this species is 130 days with females only having one offspring at any time. Twins are rare. Mothers carry their infants with their mouths to nests and leave them while they forage, returning to nurse their young. Infants reach sexual maturity by 20 months of age. A low-coverage genomic sequence of the northern greater galago, was completed in 2006; as a'primitive' primate, the sequence is useful in bridging the sequences of higher primates to close non-primates such as rodents. The current 2x coverage is not sufficient to create a full genome assembly, but will provide comparative data across most of the human assembly. View the northern greater galago genome in Ensembl View the otoGar3 genome assembly in the UCSC Genome Browser
Jumping or leaping is a form of locomotion or movement in which an organism or non-living mechanical system propels itself through the air along a ballistic trajectory. Jumping can be distinguished from running and other gaits where the entire body is temporarily airborne, by the long duration of the aerial phase and high angle of initial launch; some animals, such as the kangaroo, employ jumping as their primary form of locomotion, while others, such as frogs, use it only as a means to escape predators. Jumping is a key feature of various activities and sports, including the long jump, high jump and show jumping. All jumping involves the application of force against a substrate, which in turn generates a reactive force that propels the jumper away from the substrate. Any solid or liquid capable of producing an opposing force can serve as a substrate, including ground or water. Examples of the latter include dolphins performing traveling jumps, Indian skitter frogs executing standing jumps from water.
Jumping organisms are subject to significant aerodynamic forces and, as a result, their jumps are governed by the basic physical laws of ballistic trajectories. While a bird may jump into the air to initiate flight, no movement it performs once airborne is considered jumping, as the initial jump conditions no longer dictate its flight path. Following the moment of launch, a jumper will traverse a parabolic path; the launch angle and initial launch velocity determine the travel distance and height of the jump. The maximum possible horizontal travel distance occurs at a launch angle of 45 degrees, but any launch angle between 35 and 55 degrees will result in ninety percent of the maximum possible distance. Muscles do physical work, adding kinetic energy to the jumper's body over the course of a jump's propulsive phase; this results in a kinetic energy at launch, proportional to the square of the jumper's speed. The more work the muscles do, the greater the launch velocity and thus the greater the acceleration and the shorter the time interval of the jump's propulsive phase.
Mechanical power and the distance over which that power is applied are the key determinants of jump distance and height. As a result, many jumping animals have long legs and muscles that are optimized for maximal power according to the force-velocity relationship of muscles; the maximum power output of muscles is limited, however. To circumvent this limitation, many jumping species pre-stretch elastic elements, such as tendons or apodemes, to store work as strain energy; such elastic elements can release energy at a much higher rate than equivalent muscle mass, thus increasing launch energy to levels beyond what muscle alone is capable of. A jumper may be either moving when initiating a jump. In a jump from stationary, all of the work required to accelerate the body through launch is done in a single movement. In a moving jump or running jump, the jumper introduces additional vertical velocity at launch while conserving as much horizontal momentum as possible. Unlike stationary jumps, in which the jumper's kinetic energy at launch is due to the jump movement, moving jumps have a higher energy that results from the inclusion of the horizontal velocity preceding the jump.
Jumpers are able to jump greater distances when starting from a run. Animals use a wide variety of anatomical adaptations for jumping; these adaptations are concerned with the launch, as any post-launch method of extending range or controlling the jump must use aerodynamic forces, thus is considered gliding or parachuting. Aquatic species display any particular specializations for jumping; those that are good jumpers are adapted for speed, execute moving jumps by swimming to the surface at a high velocity. A few aquatic species that can jump while on land, such as mud skippers, do so via a flick of the tail. In terrestrial animals, the primary propulsive structure is the legs, though a few species use their tails. Typical characteristics of jumping species include long legs, large leg muscles, additional limb elements. Long legs increase the time and distance over which a jumping animal can push against the substrate, thus allowing more power and faster, farther jumps. Large leg muscles can generate greater force.
In addition to elongated leg elements, many jumping animals have modified foot and ankle bones that are elongated and possess additional joints adding more segments to the limb and more length. Frogs are an excellent example of all three trends: frog legs can be nearly twice the body length, leg muscles may account for up to twenty percent of body weight, they have not only lengthened the foot and thigh, but extended the ankle bones into another limb joint and extended the hip bones and gained mobility at the sacrum for a second'extra joint'; as a result, frogs are the undisputed champion jumpers of vertebrates, leaping over fifty body lengths, a distance of more than eight feet. Grasshoppers use elastic energy storage to increase jumping distance. Although power output is a principal determinant of jump distance, physiological constraints limit muscle power to 375 Watts per kilogram of muscle. To overcome this limitation, grasshoppers anchor their legs via an internal "catch mechanism" while their muscles stretch an elastic apodeme.
When the catch is released, the apodeme releases its energy
A grooming claw is the specialized claw or nail on the foot of certain primates, used for personal grooming. All prosimians have a grooming claw, but the digit, specialized in this manner varies. Tarsiers have a grooming claw on third toes. With one possible exception, in the suborder Strepsirrhini, which includes lemurs and lorises, the grooming claw is on the second toe; the possible exception is the aye-aye, which has claws instead of nails on toes 2 through 5. There is some debate concerning. Less known, a grooming claw is found on the second pedal digit of night monkeys and other New World monkeys; the first toe is the equivalent of a human big toe. However, in all these prosimians the foot is less hand-like; the first toe is opposable, like a human thumb, the second and third toes correspond to the index and middle fingers. Like a claw or a nail, the grooming claw is made of keratin, it resembles a claw in both longitudinal curvature. However, the tip is not as pointed, it always stands at a steeper angle, a characteristic that distinguishes it from a nail.
The grooming claw is used in personal grooming to rake through the fur or scratch around the head and neck
Grant's bushbaby known as Grant's lesser bushbaby or the Mozambique lesser bushbaby, is a species of primate in the family Galagidae. It is found in Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, its natural habitat is tropical dry forests. It is a common species and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as being of "least concern". Grant's bushbaby is a small galago with a long, well-furred tail; the sexes are similar. The forehead is pale grey and the crown darker grey, the eyes are surrounded by blackish eye-rings, this black colour continues along the snout. There is a pale band running down the snout from forehead to nostrils; the ears are long and broad, with rounded tips, are black on the outside. The general colour of the pelage is the tip of each hair being buffy-brown; the outside of each limb is drab brown fading to whitish at the feet. The cheeks and underparts are creamy-buff, the basal part of each hair being grey; the tail is bushy, drab brown with a blackened tip.
Grant's bushbaby is native to Tanzania, Malawi and Zimbabwe. It occurs near the East African coast in the area between the Rufiji River in Tanzania, southwards to the Limpopo River in southern Mozambique. There are inland populations, separate from the coastal ones, it occurs at least as high as 1,800 m in the Thyolo Mountains in Malawi and in the Chimanimani region of Zimbabwe. It inhabits coastal and montane mixed forest, gallery forests and miombo woodland
John Edward Gray
John Edward Gray, FRS was a British zoologist. He was the elder brother of zoologist George Robert Gray and son of the pharmacologist and botanist Samuel Frederick Gray; the standard author abbreviation J. E. Gray is used to indicate this person as the author. Or zoological name. Gray was Keeper of Zoology at the British Museum in London from 1840 until Christmas 1874, before the Natural History holdings were split off to the Natural History Museum, he published several catalogues of the museum collections that included comprehensive discussions of animal groups as well as descriptions of new species. He improved the zoological collections to make them amongst the best in the world. Gray was born in Walsall, he assisted his father in writing The Natural Arrangement of British Plants. After being blackballed by the Linnean Society of London, Gray shifted his interest from botany to zoology, he began his zoological career by volunteering to collect insects for the British Museum at age 15. He joined the Zoological Department in 1824 to help John George Children catalog the reptile collection.
In some of his early articles, Gray adopted William Sharp Macleay's quinarian system for classifications of molluscs, echinoderms and mammals. In 1840 he took over Children's position as Keeper of Zoology, which he held for 35 years, publishing well over 1,000 papers, he named many cetacean species, genera and families. During this period he collaborated with Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins, the noted natural history artist, in producing Gleanings from the Menagerie at Knowsley; the menagerie at Knowsley Hall, near Liverpool, founded by Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby, at the Stanley ancestral seat, was one of the largest private menageries in Victorian England. Gray married Maria Emma Smith in 1826, she helped him with his scientific work with her drawings. In 1833, Gray was a founder of. Gray was a friend of the coleopterist Hamlet Clark, in 1856-57 they voyaged on Gray's yacht Miranda to Spain and Brazil. Gray was an accomplished watercolourist, his landscape paintings illustrate Clark's account of their journeys.
Gray was interested in postage stamps. On 1 May 1840, the day the Penny Black first went on sale, he purchased several with the intent to save them. During his fifty years employed at the British Museum Gray wrote nearly 500 papers, including many descriptions of species new to science; these had been presented to the Museum by collectors from around the world, included all branches of zoology, although Gray left the descriptions of new birds to his younger brother and colleague George. Gray was active in malacology, the study of molluscs. John Edward Gray was buried at Lewisham. Gray was one of the most prolific taxonomists in the history of zoology, he described more than 300 species and subspecies of reptiles, only surpassed by his successors at the British Museum, George A. Boulenger and Albert Günther and American zoologist Edward D. Cope. Gray described and named numerous marine snails including: The genus Lithopoma Gray, 1850 The genus Euthria Gray, 1850Genera named in his honour include: The snake genus Grayia Günther, 1858Species and subspecies named in his honour include: Ardeola grayii – Indian pond heron Mesoplodon grayi von Haast, 1876 – Gray's beaked whale Crocidura grayi Dobson, 1890 – Luzon shrew Ablepharus grayanus Delma grayii A. Smith, 1849 Microlophus grayii Naultinus grayii Bell, 1843 Salvelinus grayi Günther, 1862 Tropidophorus grayi Günther, 1861 Trachemys venusta grayi 1821: "A natural arrangement of Mollusca, according to their internal structure."
London Medical Repository 15: 229–239. 1821: "On the natural arrangement of Vertebrose Animals." London Medical Repository 15: 296–310. 1824: "A revision of the family Equidae." Zool. J. Lond. 1: 241-248 pl. 9. 1824: "On the natural arrangement of the pulmonobranchous Mollusca." Annals of Philosophy, 8: 107–109. 1824: "On the arrangement of the Papilionidae." Annals of Philosophy 8: 119-120. 1825: "A list and description of some species of shells not taken notice of by Lamarck." Annals of Philosophy 9: 407-415. 1825: "A synopsis of the genera of reptiles and Amphibia, with a description of some new species." Annals of Philosophy 10: 193-217. 1825: "An outline of an attempt at the disposition of the Mammalia into tribes and families with a list of the genera appertaining to each tribe." Annals of Philosophy 10: 337-344. 1825: "An attempt to divide the Echinida, or sea eggs, into natural families." Annals of Philosophy 10: 423-431. 1826: "Vertebrata. Mammalia.". P. 412-415 in King, P. P. Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia.
Performed between the years 1818 and 1822. With an Appendix, containing various subjects relating to hydrography and natural history. London: J. Murray Vol. 2. 1827: "Synopsis of the species of the class Mammalia." P. 1-391 in Baron Cuvier The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with its Organization, by the Baron Cuvier, with additional descriptions by Edward Griffith and others.. London: George B. Whittaker Vol. 5. 1828: "Spicilegia Zoologica, or original figures and short systematic descriptions of new and unfigured animals." Pt 1. London: Treuttel, Würtz & Co. 1829: "An attempt to improve the natural arrangement of the genera of bat, from actual examination. Phil. Mag
The needle-clawed bushbabies are the two species in the genus Euoticus, in the family Galagidae. Galagidae is sometimes included as a subfamily within the Lorisidae. Genus Euoticus Southern needle-clawed bushbaby, Euoticus elegantulus Northern needle-clawed bushbaby, Euoticus pallidus E. p. pallidus E. p. talbotiUnique to the needle-clawed bushbaby are the keeled nails, featuring prominent central ridges ending in needle-like points, present on all digits except the thumbs, the big toes, the second foot phalanges which have claws. The first specimen of E. elegantulus to arrive in Europe from Africa was brought by Gerald Durrell. The uncovering of this bush baby is documented in his 1957 book A Zoo in My Luggage. Primate Info Net Euoticus Factsheets