The simians or Anthropoids are the monkeys, incl. apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, the Catarrhine clade consisting of the Cercopithecidae and apes. The simians are sister to the tarsiers; the radiation occurred about 60 million years ago. 40 million years ago, simians from Afro-Arabia colonized South America, giving rise to the New World monkeys. The remaining simians split 25 million years ago into Cercopithecidae. In earlier classification, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys and humans—collectively known as simians or anthropoids—were grouped under Anthropoidea, while the strepsirrhines and tarsiers were grouped under the suborder "Prosimii". Under modern classification, the tarsiers and simians are grouped under the suborder Haplorhini while the strepsirrhines are placed in suborder Strepsirrhini. Strong genetic evidence for this is that five SINEs are common to all Haplorhines whilst absent in Strepsirrhines - one being coincidental between tarsiers and simians would be quite unlikely.
Despite this preferred taxonomic division, prosimian is still found in textbooks and the academic literature because of familiarity, a condition likened to the use of the metric system in the sciences and the use of customary units elsewhere in the United States. In Anthropoidea, evidence indicates that the Old and the New World primates went through parallel evolution. Primatology, paleoanthropology, other related fields are split on their usage of the synonymous infraorder names and Anthropoidea. According to Robert Hoffstetter, the term Simiiformes has priority over Anthropoidea because of the taxonomic term Simii by van der Hoeven, from which it is constructed, dates to 1833. In contrast, Anthropoidea by Mivart dates to 1864, while Simiiformes by Haeckel dates to 1866, leading to counterclaims of priority. Hoffstetter argued that Simiiformes is constructed like a proper infraorder name, whereas Anthropoidea ends in -oidea, reserved for superfamilies, he noted that Anthropoidea is too confused with "anthropoïdes", which translates to "apes" from several languages.
Extant simians are split into three distinct groups. The New World monkeys in parvorder Platyrrhini split from the rest of the simian line about 40 mya, leaving the parvorder Catarrhini occupying the Old World; this group split about 25 mya between the apes. There are some lines of extinct simian, either placed into Eosimiidae and sometimes in Amphipithecidae, thought to originate in the Early Oligocene. Additionally, Phileosimias is sometimes placed in the Eosimiidae and sometimes categorised separately; the following is the listing of the various simian families, their placement in the order Primates: Order Primates Suborder Strepsirrhini: non-tarsier prosimians Suborder Haplorhini: tarsiers + monkeys, including apes Infraorder Tarsiiformes Infraorder Simiiformes Parvorder Platyrrhini: New World monkeys Family Callitrichidae: marmosets and tamarins Family Cebidae: capuchins and squirrel monkeys Family Aotidae: night or owl monkeys Family Pitheciidae: titis and uakaris Family Atelidae: howler and woolly monkeys Parvorder Catarrhini Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Family Cercopithecidae Superfamily Hominoidea Family Hylobatidae: gibbons Family Hominidae: great apes, including humans †Amphipithecidae †EosimiidaeBelow is a cladogram with some of the extinct simian species with the more modern species emerging within the Eosimiidae.
The Simians originated in Asia. It is indicated how many million years ago the clades diverged into newer clades; the Ekgmowechashalidae are considered to be Strepsirrhini, not Haplorhini. A 2018 study places Eosimiidae as a sister to the crown haplorhini. In a section of their 2010 assessment of the evolution of anthropoids entitled'What Is An Anthropoid', Williams and Kirk set out a list of biological features that are common to all or most anthropoids, including genetic similarities, similarities in eye location and the muscles close to the eyes, internal similarities between ears, dental similarities, similarities on foot bone structure. Simia, Carl Linnaeus's original classification of these primates. BioMed Central Full text Gene conversion and purifying selection of a placenta-specific ERV-V envelope gene during simian evolution ADW Simiiformes Classification Taxonomy browser Late middle Eocene epoch of Libya yields earliest known radiation of African anthropoids Mouse-Sized Primates Shed Light on Human Origins
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, feathers adapted for silent flight. Exceptions include the gregarious burrowing owl. Owls hunt small mammals and other birds, although a few species specialize in hunting fish, they are found in all regions of the Earth except some remote islands. Owls are divided into two families: the true owl family and the barn-owl family, Tytonidae. Owls possess large, forward-facing eyes and ear-holes, a hawk-like beak, a flat face, a conspicuous circle of feathers, a facial disc, around each eye; the feathers making up this disc can be adjusted to focus sounds from varying distances onto the owls' asymmetrically placed ear cavities. Most birds of prey have eyes on the sides of their heads, but the stereoscopic nature of the owl's forward-facing eyes permits the greater sense of depth perception necessary for low-light hunting.
Although owls have binocular vision, their large eyes are fixed in their sockets—as are those of most other birds—so they must turn their entire heads to change views. As owls are farsighted, they are unable to see anything within a few centimeters of their eyes. Caught prey can be felt by owls with the use of filoplumes—hairlike feathers on the beak and feet that act as "feelers", their far vision in low light, is exceptionally good. Owls can rotate their heads and necks as much as 270°. Owls have 14 neck vertebrae compared to seven in humans, they have adaptations to their circulatory systems, permitting rotation without cutting off blood to the brain: the foramina in their vertebrae through which the vertebral arteries pass are about 10 times the diameter of the artery, instead of about the same size as the artery as in humans. Other anastomoses between the carotid and vertebral arteries support this effect; the smallest owl—weighing as little as 31 g and measuring some 13.5 cm —is the elf owl.
Around the same diminutive length, although heavier, are the lesser known long-whiskered owlet and Tamaulipas pygmy owl. The largest owls are two sized eagle owls; the largest females of these species are 71 cm long, have 54 cm long wings, weigh 4.2 kg. Different species of owls produce different sounds; as noted above, their facial discs help owls to funnel the sound of prey to their ears. In many species, these discs are placed asymmetrically, for better directional location. Owl plumage is cryptic, although several species have facial and head markings, including face masks, ear tufts, brightly coloured irises; these markings are more common in species inhabiting open habitats, are thought to be used in signaling with other owls in low-light conditions. Sexual dimorphism is a physical difference between females of a species. Reverse sexual dimorphism, when females are larger than males, has been observed across multiple owl species; the degree of size dimorphism varies across multiple populations and species, is measured through various traits, such as wing span and body mass.
Overall, female owls tend to be larger than males. The exact explanation for this development in owls is unknown. However, several theories explain the development of sexual dimorphism in owls. One theory suggests that selection has led males to be smaller because it allows them to be efficient foragers; the ability to obtain more food is advantageous during breeding season. In some species, female owls stay at their nest with their eggs while it is the responsibility of the male to bring back food to the nest. However, if food is scarce, the male first feeds himself before feeding the female. Small birds, which are agile, are an important source of food for owls. Male burrowing owls have been observed to have longer wing chords than females, despite being smaller than females. Furthermore, owls have been observed to be the same size as their prey; this has been observed in other predatory birds, which suggests that owls with smaller bodies and long wing chords have been selected for because of the increased agility and speed that allows them to catch their prey.
Another popular theory suggests that females have not been selected to be smaller like male owls because of their sexual roles. In many species, female owls may not leave the nest. Therefore, females may have a larger mass to allow them to go for a longer period of time without starving. For example, one hypothesized sexual role is that larger females are more capable of dismembering prey and feeding it to their young, hence female owls are larger than their male counterparts. A different theory suggests that the size difference between male and females is due to sexual selection: since large females can choose their mate and may violently reject a male's sexual advances, smaller male owls that have the ability to escape unreceptive females are more to have been selected. All owls are carnivorous bi
Northern green frog
The northern green frog is a subspecies of the green frog, Lithobates clamitans. It has been introduced to British Columbia, its mating call sounds like the single note of a plucked banjo. It is quite common in the pet trade. Adult green frogs attain a snout-vent length of 5.5 to 9 cm. The ground color is brownish-green. Where the green back and sides fade into the white belly and chest, some black mottling may occur; some individuals may have light-gray mottling on the chest. The most prominent feature is the pair of dorsolateral folds extending from behind the tympanic membranes to just beyond halfway down the back; the male’s single vocal sac is internal. When it calls, the throat swells; the northern green frog dwells in marshes, ponds, lakes and other aquatic environment. It is active both night. Green Frog, Nova Scotia Frogs Green Frog, Natural Resources Canada
Zebras are several species of African equids united by their distinctive black-and-white striped coats. Their stripes come in different patterns, unique to each individual, they are social animals that live in small harems to large herds. Unlike their closest relatives and donkeys, zebras have never been domesticated. There are three species of zebras: the mountain zebra and the Grévy's zebra; the plains zebra and the mountain zebra belong to the subgenus Hippotigris, while Grévy's zebra is the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus. The latter resembles an ass, to which zebras are related, while the former two look more horse-like. All three belong to the genus Equus, along with other living equids; the unique stripes of zebras make them one of the animals most familiar to people. They occur in a variety of habitats, such as grasslands, woodlands, thorny scrublands and coastal hills. Various anthropogenic factors have had a severe impact on zebra populations, in particular hunting for skins and habitat destruction.
Grévy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered. While plains zebras are much more plentiful, one subspecies, the quagga, became extinct in the late 19th century – though there is a plan, called the Quagga Project, that aims to breed zebras that are phenotypically similar to the quagga in a process called breeding back; the name "zebra" in English dates back to c. 1600, from Italian zebra from Portuguese, which in turn is said to be Congolese. The Encarta Dictionary says its ultimate origin is uncertain, but it may come from Latin equiferus meaning "wild horse"; the word was traditionally pronounced with a long initial vowel, but over the course of the 20th century, the pronunciation with the short initial vowel became the usual one in the UK and Commonwealth. The pronunciation with a long initial vowel remains standard in the United States. A group of zebras are referred to dazzle, or zeal. Zebras evolved among the Old World horses within the last 4 million years, it has been suggested that striped equids evolved more than once.
Extensive stripes are posited to have been of little use to equids that live in low densities in deserts or ones that live in colder climates with shaggy coats and annual shading. However, molecular evidence supports zebras as a monophyletic lineage; the zebra has between 46 chromosomes, depending on the species. There are three extant species. Collectively, two of the species have eight subspecies. Zebra populations are diverse, the relationships between, the taxonomic status of, several of the subspecies are not well known. Genus: Equus Subgenus: Hippotigris Plains zebra, Equus quagga †Quagga, Equus quagga quagga Burchell's zebra, Equus quagga burchellii Grant's zebra, Equus quagga boehmi Selous' zebra, Equus quagga selousi Maneless zebra, Equus quagga borensis Chapman's zebra, Equus quagga chapmani Crawshay's zebra, Equus quagga crawshayi Mountain zebra, Equus zebra Cape mountain zebra, Equus zebra zebra Hartmann's mountain zebra, Equus zebra hartmannae Subgenus: Dolichohippus Grévy's zebra, Equus grevyi The plains zebra is the most common, has or had about six subspecies distributed across much of southern and eastern Africa.
It, or particular subspecies of it, have been known as the common zebra, the dauw, Burchell's zebra, Chapman's zebra, Wahlberg's zebra, Selous' zebra, Grant's zebra, Boehm's zebra and the quagga. The mountain zebra of southwest Africa tends to have a sleek coat with a white belly and narrower stripes than the plains zebra, it is classified as vulnerable. Grévy's zebra is the largest type, with a narrow head, making it appear rather mule-like, it is an inhabitant of the semi-arid grasslands of northern Kenya. Grévy's zebra is the rarest species, is classified as endangered. Although zebra species may have overlapping ranges, they do not interbreed. In captivity, plains zebras have been crossed with mountain zebras; the hybrid foals lacked a dewlap and resembled the plains zebra apart from their larger ears and their hindquarters pattern. Attempts to breed a Grévy's zebra stallion to mountain zebra mares resulted in a high rate of miscarriage. In captivity, crosses between zebras and other equines have produced several distinct hybrids, including the zebroid, zeedonk and zorse.
In certain regions of Kenya, plains zebras and Grévy's zebra coexist, fertile hybrids occur. The Hagerman horse is sometimes referred to as the American zebra due to perceived similarities to the plains zebra, sometimes depicted as striped. However, consensus appears to be that it wasn't closely related to either Hippotigiris nor Dolichohippus, nor is there unambiguous evidence that it had stripes; the common plains zebra is about 1.2–1.3 m at the shoulder with a body ranging from 2–2.6 m long with a 0.5 m tail. It can weigh up to 350 kg, males being bigger than females. Grévy's zebra is larger, while the mountain zebra is somewhat smaller, it was believed that zebras were white animals with black stripes, since some zebras have white underbellies. Embryological evidence, shows that the animal's background colour is black and the white stripes and bellies are additions, it is that the stripes ar
Seabirds are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment. While seabirds vary in lifestyle and physiology, they exhibit striking convergent evolution, as the same environmental problems and feeding niches have resulted in similar adaptations; the first seabirds evolved in the Cretaceous period, modern seabird families emerged in the Paleogene. In general, seabirds live longer and have fewer young than other birds do, but they invest a great deal of time in their young. Most species nest in colonies. Many species are famous for undertaking long annual migrations, crossing the equator or circumnavigating the Earth in some cases, they feed both at the ocean's surface and below it, feed on each other. Seabirds can be pelagic, coastal, or in some cases spend a part of the year away from the sea entirely. Seabirds and humans have a long history together: they have provided food to hunters, guided fishermen to fishing stocks and led sailors to land. Many species are threatened by human activities, conservation efforts are under way.
There exists no single definition of which groups and species are seabirds, most definitions are in some way arbitrary. In the words of two seabird scientists, "The one common characteristic that all seabirds share is that they feed in saltwater. However, by convention all of the Sphenisciformes and Procellariiformes, all of the Pelecaniformes except the darters, some of the Charadriiformes are classified as seabirds; the phalaropes are included as well, since although they are waders, two of the three species are oceanic for nine months of the year, crossing the equator to feed pelagically. Loons and grebes, which nest on lakes but winter at sea, are categorized as water birds, not seabirds. Although there are a number of sea ducks in the family Anatidae that are marine in the winter, by convention they are excluded from the seabird grouping. Many waders and herons are highly marine, living on the sea's edge, but are not treated as seabirds. Sea eagles and other fish-eating birds of prey are typically excluded, however tied to marine environments they may be.
Seabirds, by virtue of living in a geologically depositional environment, are well represented in the fossil record. They are first known to occur in the Cretaceous period, the earliest being the Hesperornithiformes, like Hesperornis regalis, a flightless loon-like seabird that could dive in a fashion similar to grebes and loons but had a beak filled with sharp teeth. Flying Cretaceous seabirds do not exceed wingspans of two meters. While Hesperornis is not thought to have left descendants, the earliest modern seabirds occurred in the Cretaceous, with a species called Tytthostonyx glauconiticus, which seems allied to the Procellariiformes and Pelecaniformes. In the Paleogene both pterosaurs and marine reptiles became extinct, allowing seabirds to expand ecologically; these post-extinction seas were dominated by early Procellariidae, giant penguins and two extinct families, the Pelagornithidae and the Plotopteridae. Modern genera began their wide radiation in the Miocene, although the genus Puffinus might date back to the Oligocene.
The highest diversity of seabirds existed during the Late Miocene and the Pliocene. At the end of the latter, the oceanic food web had undergone a period of upheaval due to extinction of considerable numbers of marine species. Seabirds have made numerous adaptations to feeding in the sea. Wing morphology has been shaped by the niche an individual species or family has evolved, so that looking at a wing's shape and loading can tell a scientist about its life feeding behaviour. Longer wings and low wing loading are typical of more pelagic species, while diving species have shorter wings. Species such as the wandering albatross, which forage over huge areas of sea, have a reduced capacity for powered flight and are dependent on a type of gliding called dynamic soaring as well as slope soaring. Seabirds almost always have webbed feet, to aid movement on the surface as well as assisting diving in some species; the Procellariiformes are unusual among birds in having a strong sense of smell, used to find distributed food in a vast ocean, to locate their colonies.
Salt glands are used by seabirds to deal with the salt they ingest by drinking and feeding, to help them osmoregulate. The excretions from these glands are pure sodium chloride. With the exception of the cormorants and some terns, in common with most other birds, all seabirds have waterproof plumage. However, compared to land birds, they have far more feathers protecting their bodies; this dense plumage is better able to protect the bird from getting wet, cold is kept out by a dense layer of down feathers. The cormorants possess a layer of unique feathers that retain a smaller layer of air but otherwise soak up water; this allows them to swim without fighting the buoyancy that retai
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita, neither a bee nor an ant. The Apocrita form a clade; the most known wasps, such as yellowjackets and hornets, are in the family Vespidae and are eusocial, living together in a nest with an egg-laying queen and non-reproducing workers. Eusociality is favoured by the unusual haplodiploid system of sex determination in Hymenoptera, as it makes sisters exceptionally related to each other. However, the majority of wasp species are solitary, with each adult female living and breeding independently. Females have an ovipositor for laying eggs in or near a food source for the larvae, though in the Aculeata the ovipositor is modified instead into a sting used for defense or prey capture. Wasps play many ecological roles; some are pollinators, whether to feed themselves or to provision their nests. Many, notably the cuckoo wasps, are kleptoparasites. Many of the solitary wasps are parasitoidal, meaning they lay eggs on or in other insects and provision their own nests with such hosts.
Unlike true parasites, the wasp larvae kill their hosts. Solitary wasps parasitize every pest insect, making wasps valuable in horticulture for biological pest control of species such as whitefly in tomatoes and other crops. Wasps first appeared in the fossil record in the Jurassic, diversified into many surviving superfamilies by the Cretaceous, they are a diverse group of insects with tens of thousands of described species. The largest social wasp is the Asian giant hornet, at up to 5 centimetres in length; the smallest wasps are solitary chalcid wasps in the family Mymaridae, including the world's smallest known insect, with a body length of only 0.139 mm, the smallest known flying insect, only 0.15 mm long. Wasps have appeared in literature from Classical times, as the eponymous chorus of old men in Aristophanes' 422 BC comedy Σφῆκες, The Wasps, in science fiction from H. G. Wells's 1904 novel The Food of the Gods and How It Came to Earth, featuring giant wasps with three-inch-long stings.
The name "Wasp" has been used for other military equipment. The wasps are a cosmopolitan paraphyletic grouping of hundreds of thousands of species, consisting of the narrow-waisted Apocrita without the ants and bees; the Hymenoptera contain the somewhat wasplike but unwaisted Symphyta, the sawflies. The term wasp is sometimes used more narrowly for the Vespidae, which includes the common wasp or yellow jacket genera Vespula and Dolichovespula and the hornets, Vespa. Hymenoptera in the form of Symphyta first appeared in the fossil record in the Lower Triassic. Apocrita, wasps in the broad sense, appeared in the Jurassic, had diversified into many of the extant superfamilies by the Cretaceous. Fig wasps with modern anatomical features first appeared in the Lower Cretaceous of the Crato Formation in Brazil, some 65 million years before the first fig trees; the Vespidae include the extinct genus Palaeovespa, seven species of which are known from the Eocene rocks of the Florissant fossil beds of Colorado and from fossilised Baltic amber in Europe.
Found in Baltic amber are crown wasps of the genus Electrostephanus. Wasps are a diverse group, estimated at over a hundred thousand described species around the world, a great many more as yet undescribed. For example, there are over 800 species of fig trees in the tropics, all of these has its own specific fig wasp to effect pollination. Many wasp species are parasitoids; some larvae start off as parasitoids, but convert at a stage to consuming the plant tissues that their host is feeding on. In other species, the eggs are laid directly into plant tissues and form galls, which protect the developing larvae from predators but not from other parasitic wasps. In some species, the larvae are predatory themselves; the largest social wasp is the Asian giant hornet, at up to 5 centimetres in length. The various tarantula hawk wasps are of a similar size and can overpower a spider many times its own weight, move it to its burrow, with a sting, excruciatingly painful to humans; the solitary giant scoliid, Megascolia procer, with a wingspan of 11.5 cm, has subspecies in Sumatra and Java.
The female giant ichneumon wasp Megarhyssa macrurus is 12.5 centimetres long including its long but slender ovipositor, used for boring into wood and inserting eggs. The smallest wasps are solitary chalcid wasps in the family Mymaridae, including the world's smallest known insect, Dicopomorpha echmepterygis and Kikiki huna with a body length of only 158 micrometres, the smallest known flying insect. There are estimated to be 100,000 species of ichneumonoid wasps in the families Braconidae and Ichneumonidae; these are exclusively parasitoids utilising other insects as hosts. Another family, the Pompilidae, is a specialist parasitoid of spiders; some wasps
Bird of prey
Birds of prey, or raptors, include species of bird that hunt and feed on vertebrates that are large relative to the hunter. Additionally, they have keen eyesight for detecting food at a distance or during flight, strong feet equipped with talons for grasping or killing prey, powerful, curved beaks for tearing flesh; the term raptor is derived from the Latin word rapio, meaning to take by force. In addition to hunting live prey, most eat carrion, at least and vultures and condors eat carrion as their main food source. Although the term bird of prey could theoretically be taken to include all birds that consume animals, ornithologists use the narrower definition followed in this page. Examples of animal-eating birds not encompassed by the ornithological definition include storks, gulls, penguins and shrikes, as well as the many songbirds that are insectivorous; the common names for various birds of prey are based on structure, but many of the traditional names do not reflect the evolutionary relationships between the groups.
Eagles tend to be large birds with massive feet. Booted eagles have legs and feet feathered to the toes and build large stick nests. Ospreys, a single species found worldwide that specializes in catching fish and builds large stick nests. Kites have long wings and weak legs, they spend much of their time soaring. They will take live vertebrate prey, but feed on insects or carrion; the true hawks are medium-sized birds of prey that belong to the genus Accipiter. They are woodland birds that hunt by sudden dashes from a concealed perch, they have long tails for tight steering. Buzzards are medium-large raptors with robust bodies and broad wings, or, any bird of the genus Buteo. Harriers are slender hawk-like birds with long tails and long thin legs. Most use a combination of keen eyesight and hearing to hunt small vertebrates, gliding on their long broad wings and circling low over grasslands and marshes. Vultures are carrion-eating raptors of two distinct biological families: the Accipitridae, which occurs only in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Members of both groups have heads either or devoid of feathers. Falcons are medium-size birds of prey with long pointy wings, they belong to the Falconidae family, rather than the Accipitridae. Many are swift flyers. Caracaras are a distinct subgroup of the Falconidae unique to the New World, most common in the Neotropics – their broad wings, naked faces and appetites of a generalist suggest some level of convergence with either the Buteos or the vulturine birds, or both. Owls are variable-sized night-specialized hunting birds, they fly silently due to their special feather structure that reduces turbulence. They have acute hearing. Many of these English language group names referred to particular species encountered in Britain; as English-speaking people travelled further, the familiar names were applied to new birds with similar characteristics. Names that have generalised this way include: kite, sparrow-hawk or sparhawk, kestrel, harrier, buzzard; some names have not generalised, refer to single species: merlin, osprey.
The taxonomy of Carl Linnaeus grouped birds into orders and species, with no formal ranks between genus and order. He placed all birds of prey into a single order, subdividing this into four genera: Vultur, Falco and Lanius; this approach was followed by subsequent authors such as Gmelin and Turnton. Louis Pierre Veillot used additional ranks: order, family, species. Birds of prey were divided into nocturnal tribes, thus Veillot's families were similar to the Linnaean genera, with the difference that shrikes were no longer included amongst the birds of prey. In addition to the original Vultur and Falco, Veillot adopted four genera from Savigny: Phene, Haliæetus and Elanus, he introduced five new genera of vultures and eleven new genera of accipitrines. The order Accipitriformes is believed to have originated 44 million years ago when it split from the common ancestor of the secretarybird and the accipitrid species; the phylogeny of Accipitriformes is difficult to unravel. Widespread paraphylies were observed in many phylogenetic studies.
More recent and detailed studies show similar results. However, according to the findings of a 2014 study, the sister relationship between larger clades of Accipitriformes was well supported; the diurnal birds of prey are formally classified into five families of two orders. Accipitridae: hawks, buzzards, harriers and Old World vultures Pandionidae: the osprey Sagittar